USAF Documents

Force Mix Planning And Programming Guide



This guide provides information, criteria and methodology to MAJCOMs and other agencies examining AF Force Mix (Active-Guard-Reserve) options. This force mix information and criteria will assist in determining the suitability of planned or proposed missions for the Air National Guard (ANG) and Air Force Reserve (AFR). The suggested Force Mix methodology will help planners and programmers identify possible new mission candidates for robusting, mission changes, conversions, reductions, supplementing or divestitures. This guide is not limited to flying force structure per se, but includes concepts like associate units, IMA and ANG Assistants. This document should be a reference, and used as a knowledge base to help understand future total force potential options.


As a result of issues identified in a Pentagon Force Mix IPT and a directive by the AF Board of Directors (BoD), the following was tasked: (1) develop criteria which could be used to test the suitability of proposed force mix adjustments between the active Air Force, Guard, and Air Force Reserve (2) develop a methodology that could systematically and objectively assess a unit’s capabilities for accepting force structure changes resulting from proposed force mix adjustments.

Planners, programmers and decision makers throughout all levels of the Air Force require a practical understanding of the Guard and Reserve in order to make prudent force mix proposals and decisions.

Cost savings are only one aspect to consider when looking at force mix alternatives. Other aspects may include OPSTEMPO/PERSTEMPO impact, training intensity, demographic limitations, strengthening links with the civilian community and government, capitalizing on a highly trained and motivated prior service work force, accessing unique civilian market skills not readily affordable or available in active military service, and maintaining a blue-suit alternative to conventional Outsourcing and Privatization (O & P or Competition and Privatization).

Assessment of Current Processes/Situation:

Current headquarters staffing and corporate review processes include Guard and Reserve participation. These processes and proactive Air Force leadership have contributed to our current Total Force success. The Air Force is frequently praised for this success compared to other services. Reserve and Guard members are assigned to all levels of the HQ USAF Corporate Structure from the IPT level through the AF Council, and full time Guard and Reserve personnel are assigned to selected MAJCOM staff offices. Reserve Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMAs) and ANG Assistants also provide senior level advice to MAJCOM and Air Staff leadership. Additionally, active duty Air Force officers are assigned to key positions on Guard and Reserve headquarters staffs. In spite of this level of staff integration and our recognized successes, few force mix initiatives have come up through the conventional staff processes.




Why Choose Guard/Reserve Forces?

The following concepts and principles give some reasons why one would choose to transfer, initiate or divest programs, missions, units or forces to the Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve or Active Duty Air Force.




Integrity First In Planning is Essential: All planning and decision making should readily acknowledge the limitations as well as the strengths of the AD, ANG and AFRC. Otherwise, one component may be inclined to accept roles and missions without adequate resourcing or capabilities.




DEPLOYMENT TIME FRAMES: Can the AF Reserve and/or ANG meet required deployment time frames for the new missions being considered. Will this mission be needed in MOOTWs? Could a callup come under Presidential Selected Reserve Callup (PSRC) ? Would this unit be needed only during mobilization? Is it necessary to meet deployment time frames in situations requiring volunteers? This can influence the full-time to drill ratio required.

COST: Can the Reserve Component perform the mission at reduced cost, if cost is an important decision driver? A full cost-benefit analysis should be conducted. A list of cost assumptions that includes both direct and indirect costs and savings should be considered even though the current PPBS focuses primarily on direct costs. Although indirect costs and savings are difficult to ascertain, they should be a consideration.

Military Effectiveness: Can the ANG or Air Force Reserve perform the mission effectively? Are experience levels, skills, unit cohesion and other important military principles critical to this mission?

ACCESSIBILITY: US Code (Title 10—AF Reserve & Title 32--ANG) constricts availability with formal call-up limitations, duration of service, and total numbers that can be called to federal service. Once mobilized, availability is not a problem. For SSC/OOTWs there are some limitations regarding PSRC. Significant volunteerism of ANG and AF Reserve has been successful, but the rates generally decline as a function of TDY duration.

TRAINING TIME AND SCHEDULING: Does proficiency training requirements and peace-time OPSTEMPO allow sufficient lead times and known return dates so Reserve Component members can arrange absences from their full-time employment? Advance notice and consistent scheduling of the reserve member is essential for good reserve/employer relations.

OPSTEMPO/PERSTEMPO: Can the reserve component perform the mission and stay within established goals for volunteer personnel tempo measured in days of duty per year Excessive PERSTEMPO can affect personnel readiness.

OVERSEAS PRESENCE AND ROTATION: Overseas presence requirements and the necessary CONUS rotation base. Consider potential for Guard/Reserve to provide overseas presence.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND RECRUITING POTENTIAL: Are the geographical locations(s) for potential Reserve Component unit(s) adequate for recruiting prior and/or nonprior service personnel (includes a demographic analysis)? Are you able to retain critical skills and is there an available skill pool?

ASSETS AVAILABLE: Are sufficient mission and support assets available to allow initial or increased ANG or Air Force Reserve participation to include mission milcon?

INFRASTRUCTURE: Will the infrastructure support the ANG or Reserve? Is there a need to reduce infrastructure costs? Can an ANG or AF Reserve unit reduce infrastructure requirements and/or costs?

CONVERSION TIMELINE: Is the time to attain full readiness acceptable? Long conversion or spool-up times may result from personnel nonavailability, recruiting, MILCON requirement, support equipment nonavailability, length and complexity of training.

FULL-TIME SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS: What is the mix of full-time versus drill personnel? Will AGRs or Technicians be more appropriate based on mission and recruiting considerations? As the mix of full-time increases, the costs savings decline.

SOCIAL/POLITICAL What kind of local, state and federal support is there for the proposal? Is there a role for ANG and AF Reserve to build bridges (trust) between the military and civilian communities?



Direct costs for AFR and ANG are generally less than Active Duty (AD) primarily due to personnel costs, less flying time, reduced support structure and less cost per flying hour. When cost comparisons are accomplished, most only look at the direct operating costs. The way the PPBS is designed, rarely are indirect, support and infrastructure costs captured or analyzed.

If we look at the DOD overall, direct operating expenses are only one cost factor. Overall, direct operating costs are only 45% of total costs. Support and infrastructure costs account for 55% of the total DOD budget. This is an area where the AF Reserve and ANG usually have substantial advantages.

The cost-benefit analysis is one analysis--a value critical analysis should be done concurrently to account for military effectiveness, and military art and science considerations. For purposes of any comprehensive evaluation, a cost-benefit analysis should NOT be the only method of determining program worth because of its weighted emphasis on efficiency versus military effectiveness. Nevertheless, the cost-benefit analysis should be included in the overall decision-making process.

Generally, the ANG and AF Reserve have an overall higher experience level and less turnover of the crew and maintenance personnel that invariably leads to enhanced continuity, unit cohesion, and combat capability while the AD has the ability for a much higher sustained (non-mobilized) OPSTEMPO that is important in prolonged peace-time operations. These and other military values are extremely critical at the operational level for contingency and combat effectiveness.

When the AD has low retention rates and significant shortages of skilled personnel, this incurs increased costs not seen in the PPBS. Experienced personnel cannot be replaced with inexperienced personnel without incurring loss of capability and increased costs. In some units, a small loss of experienced personnel may equate to a large loss of combat capability and increased costs, not even taking into account non-quantifiable factors such as unit cohesion, morale, perstempo, etc.

UNIQUE/HIGH VALUE SKILLS NEED Is there a situation where there is a significant shortage of unique/high value skills? Can the AF Reserve and/or ANG "capture" that experience for the good of the "Total Force"? Even if there is a cost in this area, will there be savings/cost avoidance in other areas that offsets this cost?





"The Air National Guard has two distinct missions; State and Federal:

The State Mission is to provide trained and equipped units to protect life and property and to preserve peace, order, and public safety as directed by the Governor. Unless called to federal service under the statutes provided by law, the Air National Guard is under the command of the Governors of the states and territories and is available to respond to state emergencies when so ordered.

The Federal Mission is to staff, equip, and train flying and support units that augment the Air Force to:


The Air National Guard today consists of approximately 108,000 volunteers serving in more than 1,000 units in every state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. The ANG has some 89 flying units and over 150 installations. The ANG has approximately 97,300 Drill (23,000 Military Technicians), 10,700 AGRs and 1,700 Title 5 civilians. ANG unit recruits in the local area only. They have the lowest turnover of personnel of all the components.



National Guard Adjutants General












The Air Force Reserve (AFR) supports the Air Force mission to defend the United States through control and exploitation of air and space by supporting Global Engagement. The AFR plays an integral role in the day-to-day Air Force mission and is not a force held in reserve for possible war or contingency operations.


Note: Totals are approximate based on FY 98 data.



AFR has 40 flying wings and squadrons equipped with their own aircraft;

36 associate units (wings, groups, and squadrons) that share aircraft with an active-duty unit (as of end FY98). There also are more than 550 mission support units in the AFRC, equipped and trained to provide a wide range of services, including aeromedical evacuation, aerial port, civil engineer, security police, intelligence, communications, mobility support, logistics, space, UPT, and transportation operations, among others.


Office of the Air Force Reserve

The Office of AF Reserve (AFR), located in the Pentagon, Washington, D.C., is headed by the chief of AFR (AF/RE), a major general, who is the advisor to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force on Air Force Reserve matters. Consistent with Air Force policy, the chief of the AFR establishes Reserve policy and initiates plans and programs. In addition to being a senior member of the Air Staff, he is also commander of the AFRC. Additionally, the Office of the AF Reserve has a brigadier general, who serves as the Deputy to the Chief. The AF/RE staff has approximately 130 personnel (AD and Reserve) assigned to the Pentagon.

Headquarters Air Force Reserve Command

Headquarters AFRC supervises the unit training program, provides logistics support, reviews unit training and ensures combat readiness. Within the headquarters element are divisions for operations, logistics, comptroller, administration and personnel support. Fourth Air Force at March Air Reserve Base, CA; 10th Air Force at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, TX; and 22nd Air Force at Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Ga., report to Headquarters AFRC. They act as operational headquarters for their subordinate units, providing operational, logistical and safety support, and regional support for geographically separated units.


Air Force Reserve Personnel Center

ARPC, a direct reporting unit of Air Force Reserve Command located in Denver, CO, provides personnel services to all members of the AFR and Air National Guard. Services include assignments, promotions, career counseling and development, and separation actions. The center manages individual programs for the Ready Reserve, and maintains master personnel records for all Guard and Reserve members not on extended active duty. In times of national need, the center would support mobilization of individual reservists and certain categories of Air Force retirees.





Active Duty For Training (ADT) Federal: (Title 10) Training under section 672(d) of Title 10, USC, is authorized to accomplish a variety of operational and training requirements that cannot normally be accomplished during inactive duty training periods.

Active Duty for Training (ADT) State: (Title 32) Training or other duty authorized for members of the ANG under sections 316 and 502-505 of Title 32, USC. This duty is performed in state status and may only be performed in the United States and US territories.

(1) Annual Training (AT): A period of active duty for training that satisfies the requirement for members to accomplish at least 15 days each fiscal year. It may be performed during one consecutive period or on a year-round basis. Year round AT is the performance of AT throughout the fiscal year in increments of one or more days in direct (support) accomplishments of the unit’s mission or training requirements.

(2) Special Training (ST): Specific categories of active duty for training periods performed in a paid status to accomplish a variety of operational and training requirements that cannot normally be accomplished during Unit Training Assemblies, Flying Training Periods or Annual Training status; example, exercises, deployments, competitions, etc.

Air Reserve Technician (ART)

Air National Guard Military Technicians (MTs) and Air Reserve Technicians (ARTs) are dual status personnel who provide day-to-day continuity in the readiness and training of the Air Reserve Components. They are civil service employees who must maintain military status as a condition of employment. They provide the framework and workforce which permits the components to productively use the skills of the traditional Guardsmen and Reservists when they accomplish training, respond to an increasing number of contingencies, or perform one of many day-to-day missions shared by the active Air Force and the reserve components.

Full Time Guard Personnel: Full time employees of the Air National Guard are: National Guard Technicians - Full time employees of the Department of the Army or Air Force employed under Title 32, USC 709. Technicians are administered by State Adjutants General and consist of (1) "Military Technicians" who must also hold a military position as a condition of employment and (2) "Competitive Technicians" for whom military membership is not a condition of employment.

Active Component. Active duty members who are assigned or attached to reserve units by their respective services to provide advice, liaison, management, administration, training and/or maintenance support in the category of full-time support. These personnel are not part of the Selected Reserve but would deploy with the unit to which assigned after mobilization.

Active Guard/Reserve (AGR). National Guard/Reserve members on full time duty to support the National Guard/Reserve Components. Guard or Reserve members of the Selected Reserve who are ordered to active duty or full-time National Guard duty for purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing or assigned against an authorized mobilization position in the unit they support. AGRs provide additional flexibility, especially in high OPSTEMPO mission areas. AGRs can be used for extended hours, and TDY without the complications generally associated with ARTs (AFR) or MTs (ANG).

Annual Tour (AT). For Category A Reservists. A fourteen day training period in which reservists are placed on active duty for training purposes. Funding for annual tours is obtained through he utilization of Reserve Personnel Appropriation (RPA Mandays). Reservists receive full military benefits during this period. (AFI 36-8001).


Associate Unit. The Associate Program is unique to the Air Force Reserve (AFR) and is an important and cost effective force multiplier for the Air Force. The associate program pairs a Reserve unit with an active Air Force unit to share active duty aircraft and equipment. It currently provides trained aircrews and maintenance personnel for some 270 active-duty aircraft and two space operations units in Colorado. Reserve associate crews fly regularly scheduled strategic airlift and aeromedical airlift missions, reducing AMC’s personnel requirements and overhead costs. Associate unit maintenance personnel provide AMC a surge capability that permits increased flying necessary during contingencies or in wartime. The result is a more cost-effective way to meet increasing mission requirements and capture highly trained personnel that are leaving active duty service. Associate crews fly and maintain C-5, C-17, C-141, C-9, KC-10, AWACS, KC-135, T-1, T-37, and T-38 trainers, a Flight Inspection Unit, and Defense Support Program (DSP) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites.

Here are some key concepts of Associate Units:

See also Reverse Associate Unit

Force Mix: Refers to the condition whereby specific weapons systems and/or missions may be totally owned by either the active or reserve component, or that portions of the weapons system or mission may be in both components. Portions of the total Air Force C-130 fleet, for example, are assigned to the Air Force, the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard. The ratio between the three components are force mix decisions.

Force Structure: Refers to how the specific weapons system or missions, that resulted from force mix decisions, are organized and based throughout the ANG and AFR. Decisions on how many units, bases, and/or number of aircraft assigned to each, within the Air National Guard or Air Force Reserve, are examples of force structure decisions.

Full Mobilization. Requires the passage by Congress of a Public Law or joint resolution declaring war or national emergency. It provides authority to mobilize all Reserve Component (RC) units and individual reservists in the existing force structure, and the material resources needed to support the expanded structure. All forces up to the strength of the approved force structure may be mobilized. This mobilization authority is for the duration of the war or the emergency and for six months thereafter. (10 USC 672a, 12301, 12301a, and 12306; AFH 10-416)

Inactive Duty Training Period (IDT) Air Force Reserve. A non-active duty, four hour period for training, duty or instruction. Category A reservists are required to complete forty-eight IDTs during their retention/retirement (R/R) year. Category A reservists normally complete two days (four IDTs) of scheduled training per calendar month. During IDTs, reservists are subject to the Uniformed Code of Military Justice and all applicable policies, directives and instructions. (AFI 36-8001)

Inactive Duty For Training (IDT) State Status: Training or duty performed by members of the ANG in STATE status under Section 502 of Title 32, USC; Section 1002 of Title 37, USC; and Section 683 of Title 10 USC. It includes unit training assemblies, additional flying training periods, and several other types of proficiency training. It may not be performed outside CONUS. The required 48 unit training assemblies are performed in this status. Normally requires a minimum of four hours training or duty for one day of credit. Training in this status may be for pay or non-pay. No more than two periods of IDT may be performed during one calendar day.

Individual Mobilized Augmentees (IMAs): An Air Force Reserve member (AFR unique) assigned to a specific National Defense location at a major command, field operating agency or active duty unit. IMAs train and work primarily with active duty units, but some train with Reserve units. See IMA description after Glossary for more details.

Individual Ready Reserve (IRR). Members of the Ready Reserve that are not assigned to the Selected Reserve, are not on active duty, but who are liable for mobilization. Members of the IRR continue to have a service obligation, but do not train and are not paid. They are subject to recall if needed.

Operational Control (OPCON). Transferable command authority that may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Operational control may be delegated and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. It includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Operational control should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally, this authority is exercised through Service and/or functional component commanders. Operational command does not include the authoritative direction for logistics, or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization or unit training (Joint Pub 1-02)

Partial Mobilization. Needed to meet the requirements of war or other national emergency involving an external threat to national security. Upon declaration of a national emergency by the President or when otherwise authorized by law, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may order an augmentation of the Active Armed Forces (short of full mobilization) and mobilization of the Ready Reserve (units and individuals) for up to twenty-four months. There is a limitation of one million total Ready Reserve members from all Reserve Components (RCs). (10 USC 12302; AFH 10-416)


Presidential Selected Reserve Call-up (PSRC). Also known as the Presidential 200,000 Call-up Authority or the 200K Call-up. The President may augment the Active Armed Forces by a call-up of Selected Reserve units and individuals for up to 270 days to meet requirements of an operational mission. The President must notify the Congress and state reasons for action. There is a limitation of not more than 200,000 total Selected Reserve members from all Reserve Components (10 USC 12304; AFH 10-416)

Program Element Managers: Each weapon system is identified in the budget by a separate program element code that provides a detailed description of the mission to be accomplished. A Program Element Manager is assigned responsibility for managing each program element code.

Ready Reserve. The Ready Reserve is made up of members in the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve. The Selected Reserve includes: Traditional Reservists/Guardsman, ARTs, AGRs, IMAs, who train regularly and are paid for their participation in unit or individual programs. The Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) are members that still have a service obligation, but do not train and are not paid. See IRR.

Retired Reserve. The Retired Reserve consists of those individuals place on the Reserve Retired list by proper authority in accordance with the law or regulations. The Retired Reserve is made up of officers and enlisted personnel who receive pay after retiring from active duty or from the Reserve, or are reservists awaiting retirement pay at age 60. If qualified, members of the Retired Reserve may be ordered to active duty involuntarily in time of war or national emergency declared by Congress or when otherwise authorized by law.

Reverse Associate (a.k.a. "Active Associate). An associate unit where the ANG or AFR retains custody or control of the aircraft and/or equipment. A percentage of the total personnel would consist of Active Duty personnel working with either the Air Force Reserve or Air National Guard.

Selective Mobilization. For domestic emergencies. The President (or the Congress upon special action) may order expansion of the Active Armed Forces by mobilization of Reserve Component (RC) units and/or individual reservists to deal with a situation where Armed Forces may be required to protect life, federal property and functions, or to prevent interference with state and federal laws. A selective mobilization would normally not be associated with a requirement for contingency plans involving external threats to national security. The number of personnel involved is determined by the units selected for mobilization. (10 USC 331, 332, 333, 3500, and 8500; AFH 10-416)

Standby Reserve. Those units and members of the Reserve Components (other than one in the Ready Reserve or Retired Reserve) who are liable for active duty only after Secretary of component determines that there are not enough of the required units or qualified individuals in the Ready Reserve.


Total Mobilization. Involves the expansion of the Active Armed Forces by organizing and/or activating additional units beyond the existing force structure and the mobilization of all additional resources needed, including civilian facilities to round-out and sustain such forces. Strength levels beyond full mobilization are determined by the President and approved by Congress. (10 USC 671, 672, 12301, 12306 and additional Title 10 and title 50 Emergency Authorities; AFH 10-416)

Traditional Guard/Reserve Personnel: These members (Drill Officers, Drill Enlisted), as a minimum, are required to attend 15 days of annual training (ADT) and 48 unit training assemblies (IDT) for each fiscal year. Additional training may be authorized and/or required to accomplish certain training or operational tasks or missions, e.g., pilots, navigators, crew members, etc.

Drill Officer

This is a traditional reservist serving as an officer. They are part of the Selected Reserve required to participate in Inactive Duty Training (IDTs) periods and annual training (AT).

Drill Enlisted

This a traditional reservist serving as an enlisted member. They are part of the Selected Reserve required to participate in Inactive Duty Training (IDTs) periods and annual training (AT).

Volunteerism. Used to meet immediate augmentation requirements of the Active Air Force during emergency (domestic or international) or contingency operations. This authority, when authorized by the Secretary of the Air Force (SAF), is utilized by the Major Commands/Field Operating Agencies (MAJCOMs/FOAs) to place Air National Guard (ANGUS) and USAF Reserve (USAFR) Selected Reserve volunteers on active duty. This authority is usually used as a bridge to expand Active Force capabilities while awaiting legal authority for PSRC or mobilization. The number of personnel involved is determined by the active duty MAJCOMs/FOAs. (10 USC 672d and 12301; AFM 10-416).



AFPD 10-3 Air Reserve Component Forces

AFI 10-301 Responsibilities of Air Reserve Component (ARC) Forces

AFI 10-402 Mobilization Planning

AFH 10-416 Personnel Readiness and Mobilization

AFPD 36-80 Reserve Training and Education

AFI 36-2115 Assignments Within the Reserve Components

AFI 36-8001 Reserve Participation and Training Procedures

AFI 38-101 Air Force Organization


IMA Description

An IMA is a Ready Reserve member assigned to an active duty Air Force organization who is trained and ready to respond to the nation’s needs. The IMA program is composed of a wide variety of people who have previously served on active duty. They come with many skills, including their civilian job skills, and train to active duty standards. The program currently has more than 12,000 reservists nationwide, serving in specific peacetime and wartime positions.

IMAs constitute a fully trained, professional military resource available immediately to satisfy: contingency, wartime or emergency needs; critical military mission requirements special skills/qualifications; pre/post mobilization day requirements

The turnover rate among IMAs is low so they can become your organization’s corporate memory. Training in the IMA program is particularly flexible because the IMA balances their Reserve career with civilian career and family obligations. They participate because they want to and feel they are contributing to the overall AF mission. The active duty supervisor and the IMA work together to decide on a training schedule. Training normally occurs during the workweek. Ideally, training schedules should always be determined in advance between the IMA and the active duty or civilian supervisor. This enables the IMA to plan their time to meet the demands of their civilian schedule, while, at the same time, ensuring the Air Force can provide meaningful, timely and constructive training.


See the following web sites to learn more about the Air Force Reserve (AFR)

and/or Air National Guard (ANG):





In June 1982, then Secretary Caspar Weinberger addressed equipment, reiterating that ‘units that fight first shall be equipped first regardless of component,’ and that Active and Reserve units planned for deployment at the same time should have equal claim on modern equipment inventories. Clearly, units that fight together should be equipped compatibly, regardless of component. And so, Active and Reserve component units which have similar contingency missions, and which are planned to be deployed in the same phase of a contingency should have similar claims to compatible equipment" (Sep 4, 1997 Letter from Secretary Cohen).

"Today, I ask each of you to create an environment that eliminates all residual barriers--structural and cultural--for effective integration within our Total Force. By integration I mean the conditions of readiness and trust need for the leadership at all levels to have well-justified confidence that Reserve Component units are trained and equipped to serve as an effective part of the joint and combined force within whatever timelines are set for the unit -- in peace and war. ("Integration of the Reserve and Active Components," September 4, 1997, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen)



Both the ANG and Air Force Reserve are more constrained in programming and budgeting than the AD. Once the President’s Budget is submitted to the White House, it is very difficult to make any changes. After the budget moves to Congress, funds for military programs flow by way of appropriations. They can be thought of as categories of money, each with a specific intended use. The military is required to use appropriated dollars for these purposes and are not allowed to move money across appropriations without Congressional consent. The AD Air Force has more flexibility to move dollars between appropriations and reprogram whereas, the ANG and AF Reserve can do little in this arena. Because the AD appropriations are significantly larger, they have more flexibility to move money internal to appropriations (with some restrictions) without Congressional approval.

Misperceptions exist regarding the structure, cost, use and the capability of Reserve Component forces. The "weekend warrior" stereotype persists and can be a barrier to complete integration of the Reserve Component in the Total Force. Other stereotypes regarding pros and cons of the Active force relative to the citizen soldier force also exist.




The following are a list of programming constraints that could impinge on potential ANG/AF Reserve solutions. Some are minor in nature; others could be potential "showstoppers" if not resolved.

Grade Relief

Separate appropriations

End strength

Air Reserve Technicians vs. Technicians vs. AGRs


AD manpower accounting rules

Iron (Type, Block)

Logistical Tails




Lead time


Denial of need or severity of need



Organizational Account Code (OACs)



Air Reserve Personnel Center


National Guard Bureau


Air Force Reserve



Congressional Approps




AF Reserve & ANG Procurement--This is appropriation was established in 1981 by Congress to enhance readiness and combat capability. It is year-by-year so it is non-programmatic (not planned or programmed in the POM), subject to Congressional action. It is not intended to offset AD requirements and cannot be used by the AD. This money is similar to AD 3010, 3020 or 3080.



Aircraft Procurement



Weapons Procurement



Other Procurement



Research Development and Test & Evaluation



AD Operation and Maintenance



AD Military Personnel



Reserve personnel (Drill personnel, Mandays)



AFR Milcon



Air Force Reserve O & M (ART Pay APPN)






ANG Operations & Maintenance



ANG Personnel



Personnel (2yr) ANG


For more details regarding Air Force Programming information contact

HQ USAF/XPP Home Page:

For more details regarding Reserve Programming information contact

HQ USAF/ REX Home Page:

"Integration of the Reserve and Active Components," September 4, 1997, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen.





ANG Long Range Plan Volumes 1 & 2



Air Force ReserveYear in Review 1997

Air Force Reserve Strategic Agenda

1997 Stockholders Report


List of References

Air Force Instruction (AFI) 16-501, 1 November 1997 (

Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 16-5, 29 July 1994 (

AQ Program Element Monitor/Action Office Handbook, SAF/AQ, Aug 1993

DoD Directive 7045.14 (

FY00-05 Annual Planning and Programming Guidance (APPG) (SECRET), AF/XP, 1997 (XP Classified Webpage --

(Check Site for Current DPG) -- The following items are available at this UNCLASSIFIED webpage:

Annual Report to the President and Congress, 1997

Joint Vision 2010 (JV2010), JCS, 1996 (also at

National Military Strategy (NMS). 1997

National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997 -- The following items are available at this UNCLASSIFIED webpage: AFG and AFB Weekly Schedules

AFG and AFB Membership Rosters

Panel, IPT, and PEM Rosters

FY00-05 PPI

Programmers’ Training Modules – Various Training Briefings -- The following items are available at this UNCLASSIFIED webpage:

Global Engagement: A Vision for the 21st Century Air Force, AF/XPX, 1996

Air Force Long-Range Plan Summary (Unclassified), 1997

Modernization Planning Program--latest information

Common Planning Framework--latest information