Tactical Air Command
Training and Doctrine Command
Procedures Pamphlet 34-3
CINCLANTFLT Tactical Information
Marine Corps Development and
Education Command Operational Handbook (OH)-6-2D
US Readiness Command
Pamphlet 34-1 11 December 1985
This document provides generic procedures that can be used by all services to employ laser designators with target acquisition systems and laser guided weapons (LGW).
- Provides a J-Laser concept.
- Provides joint tactics, techniques, and procedures for employing laser designators with acquisition devices and laser guided munitions.
- Describes J-Laser planning and coordination.
- Describes laser system capabilities and limitations.
This pamphlet will be used by the US Air Force Tactical Air Command (TAC), US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), US Atlantic Fleet (LANTFLT), and Marine Corps Development and Education Command (MCDEC) to teach joint laser procedures. It may also be used by joint and service component forces to conduct joint laser training and operations. It is applicable to US Readiness Command (REDCOM) forces during training, exercises, and contingency operations. Procedures herein may be modified to fit individual theater command, control, and international policy requirements.
WILLIAM R. RICHARDSON W. L. MCDONALD ROBERT D. RUSS GENERAL, USA ADMIRAL, USN GENERAL, USAF COMMANDING COMMANDER IN CHIEF COMMANDER FRED K. MAHAFFEY D. M. TWOMEY GENERAL, USA LIEUTENANT GENERAL, USMC COMMANDER IN CHIEF COMMANDING GENERAL
U.S. Air Forces Europe
CHARLES L. DONNELLY, JR. General, USAF Commander in Chief WILLIAM O. NATIONS Colonel, USAF Director of Administration Pacific Air Forces ROBERT W. BAZLEY General, USAF Commander in Chief JOHN L. DOWNS Colonel , USAF Director of Administration Alaskan Air Command DAVID L. NICHOLS Lieutenant General, USAF Commander, Alaskan Air Command HUGH M. MCAWEENEY, JR. Major, USAF Director of Administration
The purpose of this manual is to provide joint procedures for laser designation and acquisition of area and point targets for surface or aerial delivered laser guided weapons and laser spot tracker equipped aircraft. Laser designation procedures have been demonstrated and refined in a series of joint service tests. The test results have shown, beyond a doubt, that effective joint laser operations can occur only after extensive joint training is conducted. This is particularly true in laser target designation for aircraft with airborne laser trackers and/or laser guided weapons. Well trained laser designator teams will enable the attack of targets with remarkable accuracy, increased survivability, and a greatly reduced possibility of fratricide due to target misidentification. Joint laser training is essential, to becoming proficient and effective in joint laser operations.
Users of this publication are encouraged to recommend changes for its improvement. Key comments to the specific page and paragraph in which the change is recommended. Provide a reason for each recommendation to ensure understanding and complete evaluation. Send changes or comments directly to:
Commander Headquarters Tactical Air Command ATTN: XPJ-ALPO Langley AFB, VA 23665-5001 or Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-C Fort Monroe, VA 23651-5000 or Commander in Chief US Atlantic Fleet ATTN: Code JRT-1 Norfolk, VA 23566 or Commanding General Marine Corps Development and Education Command ATTN: Code C094 Quantico, VA 22134-5001
Except for Air Force, additional copies of this publication may also be obtained from the above agencies. All Air Force distribution is "F".
This publication will be reviewed every two years or more often if required and updated as necessary. It was written by the TAC-TRADOC Air Land Forces Application (ALFA) agency with the joint participation of the approving commands.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LETTER OF PROMULGATION i PREFACE iv USER INFORMATION v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi CHAPTER 1 - CONCEPT 1 Introduction 1 Laser Use on the Battlefield 2 Laser Target Acquisition 3 Enemy Use of Laser Countermeasures 4 Summary 4 CHAPTER 2 - PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 6 Laser Designator Characteristics 6 Environmental Restrictions 12 Seeker Characteristics 15 Seeker Types 16 Target Types 17 Designator Operator Positioning Considerations 17 Offset Laser Designation 18 Delayed Laser Designation for Laser Guided Bombs 19 Redundant Laser Designation 19 Current and Projected Laser System Description 20 CHAPTER 3 - PROCEDURES 23 General Procedures 23 Laser Designation for Artillery 25 Laser Designation for Naval, Gunfire 28 Laser Designation for Close Air Support 30 Rotary Wing Close In Fire Support 45 CHAPTER 4 - LASER CODES 51 Introduction 51 Controlling and Coordinating Coded Laser Systems 52 Management of Designator/Weapon Settings 52 Laser Coding in Conjunction With Laser Guided Bombs 53 Communications 54 Coding Prioritization 54 CHAPTER 5 - SAFETY 55 Danger 55 Laser Eye Safety 55 Organizational Safety Considerations 57 Airborne Laser Designator (ALD) Safety Procedures 58 APPENDIX A - LASER EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS A-59 APPENDIX B - PROCEDURES GUIDE B-82 APPENDIX C - J-FIRE CLOSE AIR SUPPORT BRIEF C-97 APPENDIX D - LASER GUIDED BOMB (LGB)/L0W LEVEL LASER GUIDED BOMB (LLLGB) DELIVERY PROFILES D-10O GLOSSARY 105 ACRONYMS 110 DISTRIBUTION: U.S. Air Force 112 U.S. Army 113 U.S. Navy 117 U.S. Marine Corp 120When used in this publication, "he", "him", "his", and "men" represent both the masculine and feminine genders unless otherwise stated.
a. Fighting the modern battle.
Modern battles will be fought and won by services employed together in joint operations. As the complexity of the battlefield increases, we turn to developing technology to meet the challenge. One of the newest technologies is the development of laser systems.
b. Laser capabilities.
Laser designators radiate a very narrow beam of infrared light energy. They can be aimed so the energy precisely designates a chosen spot on the target. Laser illumination designates targets for laser spot trackers (LST) and laser guided weapons (LGW). Some laser systems can accurately determine target range and location as well as designate. When coupled with horizontal and vertical scales, they can be used to measure target azimuth and elevation. LGWs, because of their terminal accuracy, require fewer munitions to ensure the desired effects on targets. Addi- tionally, LGWs can effectively engage a wider range of targets to include mobile targets.
c. Laser procedures on the modern battlefield.
When laser procedures are applied in a high threat scenario, the battlefield environment can cause a demonstrated decrease in laser weapons accuracy. For example, LGWs have a limited off-axis capability, and therefore precise attack planning is essential to laser mission accomplishment.
102. LASER USE ON THE BATTLEFIELD
The use of laser technology on the battlefield has developed in three primary areas; laser target ranging and designation systems, laser acquisition systems, and LGWs.
a. Laser ranging and designation systems.
Laser target ranging and designation systems can provide accurate range, azimuth and elevation information for use in locating enemy targets. These systems may vary from handheld to aircraft mounted devices and perform similar functions with varying degrees of accuracy.
b. Acquisition devices.
Laser acquisition devices are used to acquire reflected laser energy. They are used in conjunction with laser designation systems to pinpoint targets or other locations. Normally, laser acquisition devices are mounted on fixed wing aircraft or helicopters and are called laser spot trackers (LST).
c. Attacking a target.
LGWs home on reflected laser energy to attack a target. Some LGWs require laser target illumination prior to launch and/or during the entire time of flight; some require illumination only during the terminal portion of flight.
d. Basic requirements.
There are four basic requirements to effectively use laser designators with LSTs or LGWs. They are:
o The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) code of the laser designator and the LST or LGW must be the same.
o An agreed upon direction of attack is necessary, because the LST or LGW must be able to "sense" sufficient laser energy reflecting from the target being designated.
o The laser designator must be designating the target at the correct time.
o The delivery system must release the weapon within the specific weapon's delivery envelope.
103. LASER TARGET ACQUISITION
a. Laser designator marking for air support.
Laser designators can provide precision target marking for air support. Precise target marking with laser designators is directly related to target size, target aspect, laser beam divergence, and designation range.
b. Target acquisition.
Without LSTs, pilots must acquire targets visually. With limited acquisition time, a fighter/attack pilot is unlikely to see a tactical target in time for weapons employment. When targets are well camouflaged, acquisition is even less likely. The pilot cannot distinguish "live" targets from friendly targets and decoys. Even if the target is large, the pilot often cannot distinguish it from natural objects of the same size and color.
c. Ground Laser Designator Operators (LDOs).
Ground LDOs have much more time and more powerful optics to acquire targets than do pilots of fighter/attack aircraft. Optical viewing allows the operator to pick out camouflaged objects at a distance and distinguish the most important targets when several are in view.
d. Precision targeting.
Lasers provide the most precise target mark available. Non-laser target marks are usually ballistic and can move due to air motion. Visible target marks also allow threat forces to anticipate attack and hide or disperse.
e. Laser seekers.
Laser seekers have a limited field of view. The pilot must point the airplane so the seeker lines up on the laser energy. A visible reference mark may be necessary to help the pilot point the seeker. Once the seeker sees the energy and displays the position to the pilot, he can attack the target even if he can't distinguish it from other objects on the ground.
104. ENEMY USE OF LASER COUNTERMEASURES
Many of the techniques included in countering the use of laser energy and sensitive electro-optical equipment are a matter of common knowledge throughout much of the world. The Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies are the best equipped forces to detect and counter the increasingly sophis- ticated laser designator and guidance systems used by the armed forces of Western nations. The Soviets believe precision guided munitions (PGM), specifically advanced anti-tank guided missile systems, are one of the most significant threats to their armored vehicle inventory. Within the last 10 to 15 years, NATO, particularly the United States, has become increasingly dependent upon PGMs to balance the growing numerical superiority of Warsaw Pact conventional forces. A significant number of these advanced weapons employ laser guidance and electro-optic sensors. The Soviets have long recognized that effective laser countermeasures are readily available and relatively inexpensive. Warsaw Pact open literature has made continuing reference to the capability of natural and man-made obscurants to signifi- cantly degrade laser systems and night vision devices.
The value of laser devices and LGWs has been recognized by all of our armed forces. Each service has developed laser systems to meet its own particular needs. However, common procedures and techniques are required for effective employment of laser systems during joint task force operations. This document describes procedures to be used by all services in consonance with the Air Force Tactical Air Control System (TACS), the Army Air-Ground System (AAGS), the Navy Tactical Air Control System (NTACS), and the Marine Corps Air Command and Control System (MACCS).
201. LASER DESIGNATOR CHARACTERISTICS
a. Laser beam.
Laser designators emit a very narrow beam of infrared (IR) energy. Although IR energy cannot be seen with the naked eye, its energy beam and spot are similar to that of a narrow pencil-like beam of light.
b. Beam divergence and target size.
If a designator has a beam spread or divergence of 1 milliradian (mr), its spot would have a diameter of approximately one meter (m) at a distance of one thousand meters in front of the designator (Fig 2-1). If this spot were aimed at a three meter x three meter box three thousand meters away the laser spot would be as wide and tall as the box. The laser spot size is a function of beam divergence and the distance from the laser designator to the target.
Laser designators have rifle scope-type optics to help aim the laser energy. The cross hairs allow the laser operator to select a precise aim point.
d. Mirrorlike reflection.
If laser energy is pointed at a mirror, it will reflect and the beam will remain narrow. If the mirror is perpendicular to the laser beam (Fig 2-2), the beam will reflect directly toward the laser position. If the mirror is at an angle, the beam will reflect at an angle equal to the angle of the incident beam (Fig 2-3). Any seeker that is looking for this laser energy would have to be in this narrow area of reflection. Because infrared energy is different from visible light, it reflects in a narrow beam from bare metal as well as from mirrorlike and glass surfaces.
Mirrorlike Reflections (Angular)
If a surface is flat and non shiny, it reflects light and infrared energy in a large arc (Fig. 2-4).
When the target is smaller than the laser spot, there is energy spillover" beyond the target. This energy spillover is capable of providing scattered reflections off of objects near the target (Fig. 2-5).
When the seeker is looking for scattered laser energy, it must be able to "see" the reflecting surface. When a laser designates a surface that the seeker can't see, the reflections are blocked (Fig. 2-6). This is called "podium effect."
Most surfaces have a mixture of mi rrorlike and scattered reflections. Laser energy reflects in an arc, but is strongest at the angle where it would reflect if the surface were a mirror. If the laser designator is perpendicular to a surface the reflection can be seen from all angles on the designated side, but can be detected best near the laser designator to target line (Fig. 2-7). When the surface is at an angle to the laser designator, the angle of strongest reflection is also predictable (Fig. 2-8). Remember, that glass, water and highly polished surfaces are specular reflective (i.e., mirrorlike) and are poor surfaces to designate because they reflect laser energy in only one direction. This requires the seeker to be in this small region and looking toward the reflected energy to achieve target acquisition.
Target Reflections (Angular)
The vertical angles of mirrorlike or scattered reflection must also be considered when you look at a target's reflecting surface from the side. Detectable reflected energy will be strongest at a predicted reflectance angle (Fig. 2-9). Podium effect can also block a seeker if it can't see the reflecting surface (Fig. 2-10). Since laser seekers are normally above the horizon, laser designators are usually aimed at the top third of the target. Optimum laser spot height depends on specific weapons, type delivery, and target characteristics.
Vertical Reflections (Blocked)
A laser seeker may be heading to the target from a known direction. To be most effective, point the designator at a part of the target so reflection is strongest where the seeker is looking (Fig. 2-11). However, the resulting reflected energy may not guarantee target acquisition.
Certain materials are better reflectors of laser energy than others (e.g., the reflection of laser energy off of olive drab metal (dirty) is 2-30%; concrete, 10-15%; unpolished aluminum, 55%; water, 2%; asphalt, 10-25%; brick, 55-90%; vegetation, 30-70%). Targets with higher reflection increase the probability of a laser seeker picking up the laser spot. The precise amount of laser energy reflected from a target is difficult to determine. For best results, designate targets so the laser beam is reflected up and in the direction of the incoming seeker or munition.
1. Seeker lock-on to designator.
In some cases, laser seekers may lock-on to the designator instead of the target. For instance, intervening grass or leaves may reflect sufficient laser energy to cause seeker lock-on. In this case, a seeker is most likely to detect stray energy only in the immediate vicinity of the designator. To prevent seeker lock-on to the designator position, the designator should be masked from the seeker field of view. The designator can be masked from the seeker field of view by terrain, vegetation, or with a temporary screen like blankets or a tarp. When it is possible to monitor the seeker's progress by watching the airborne laser spot tracker (LST) equipped aircraft or seeing a laser guided bomb (LGB), it may be possible to detect an improper lock-on in time to prevent a mishap by aborting the aircraft or turning off the designator.
m. Laser boresight.
If the laser energy and sighting mechanism of the designator are not matched to the same point (i.e., the target), mission success is impaired. Ground designators do not have a means to check/correct boresight in the field.
Entrapment of laser energy is the capture of the omnidirectional reflections of laser radiated energy. For example, if energy is directed into the mouth of a tunnel or dark window, the laser energy will be absorbed rather than reflected. Likewise, if laser energy is directed into the tread wheels of a tank, the reflected energy may be captured and not radiate outward, preventing seeker acquisition.
202. ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRICTIONS
Laser designator and acquisition devices are designed to enhance current capabilities of artillery, naval gunfire, and aircraft in the delivery of munitions on ground targets. Several factors -- environment, laser system inherent limitations, and target types -- affect laser employment. Tactics and techniques must take these factors into consideration.
a. Line of sight.
Line of sight must exist between the designator and the target, and between the target and the laser acquisition device or LGW.
b. Visibility degradation.
Clouds attenuate laser energy and degrade LST/LGW ability to see the spot. Since the laser spot is only acquired after the bomb comes out of the cloud, laser energy acquisition time is short; thus ballistic accuracy is essential. Typical minimum ceilings and times of flight can be found in appropriate system operating manuals. In conditions of reduced visibility, present laser systems provide signal transmission ranges only slightly in excess of visual range.
Laser energy transmission is unaffected by darkness, but dark- ness makes locating, identifying, and tracking targets more difficult for the laser designator operator (LD0). The night sights for laser designators enhance operator target identification and engagement during night battle- field operations.
(3) Battlefield obscuration.
Smoke, dust, and chemical particles in the air may attenuate or reflect the laser beam, thereby preventing sufficient energy reflection from the target for lock-on by LSTs or LGWs. Laser energy reflected from such particles may also present a false target to either the tracker or munition. When faced with enemy obscurants, LDOs can reduce the impact by following some simple rules of thumb. Generally, if you can see a target through either day or night optics, you can successfully designate it. Positioning is a key to reducing obscurant degradation on laser performance. Positioning lasers on flanks or on high ground where smoke is likely to be less heavy along the line of sight, and repositioning from an obscured to a nonobscured position are possible considerations. The use of multiple lasers and transferring the mission from a laser being obscured to a nonobscured laser is another simple tactic to counter enemy obscurants.
(4) Concave targets.
Tunnels and other targets that have no capability to reflect laser energy cannot be directly laser designated. Instead, the designator must be aimed at a reflecting surface that will give satisfactory weapons effectiveness. For example, aiming the laser slightly above a tunnel opening would allow a weapons impact at that critical point. For weapons that tend to miss short, like LGBs, this could guide the bomb to enter the tunnel opening.
Optimum positioning of ground laser designators is essential. Obstructions (trees, limbs, leaves, grass, etc.) between the designator and target may prevent a clear unobstructed view for ground laser designator employment. Thus, jungle operations may preclude use of ground designators and limit effectiveness of airborne laser designators (ALDs). (6) Temperature extremes.
Extreme temperatures affect battery powered laser operation. For example, a cold-soaked battery has a reduced capability to power the laser.
(7) Solar saturation.
Laser seekers look for a spot of IR energy that stands out from the background. When the seeker dome is cracked, pitted, or glazed, the seeker may detect so much IR energy from the sun that it cannot discriminate the laser spot. This is most likely to be a problem when engaging with low-angle LGWs or LST-equipped aircraft, especially against targets above the horizon just after sunrise and just prior to sunset.
203. SEEKER CHARACTERISTICS.
a. Seeker code.
Laser seekers look for laser designator energy on a specific pulse repetition frequency (PRF) code. Designators and seekers must work together as a team on a specific code, thus seekers will not detect or interfere with designators set on other codes.
b. Field of view.
All seekers have a limited field of view. They must be pointed close to the target to see the laser designator spot.
c. Acquisition time.
To avoid detection by enemy forces and conserve battery energy, LDOs limit the amount of time they designate a target. Therefore, laser seekers and munitions have a very short time to detect the laser spot and guide to the target.
d. Seeker sensitivity.
Different laser guidance/acquisition systems require various amounts of reflected laser energy to operate. For example, under ideal conditions a ground/vehicular laser locator designator (G/VLLD) must be within 5km of an average stationary target to provide optimum Copperhead guidance, whereas under ideal conditions a Pave Penny LST can acquire a laser target designator spot as much as 30km away on a clear day. Less sensitive seekers are more susceptible to reflection and the relative positions of the target, designator, and seeker.
204. SEEKER TYPES.
a. Airborne laser spot trackers (LSTs).
An airborne LST points out laser designated targets to the pilot. The pilot can then attack the target with any weapons on board. Pilots require this target cue because without this assistance, it is very difficult to see camouflaged targets at long ranges and high aircraft speeds. Normally, LSTs use a laser pulse code established by the LDO. LSTs have a narrow field of view and require the pilot to accurately point the airplane so the seeker lines up on the laser energy.
b. Laser guided missiles (LGM) and Copperhead cannon launched guided projectiles (CLGP).
LGMs and CLGPs must be precisely aimed to see the laser energy on the target. Based on the LGM/CLGP predicted time of flight, the laser designation must be timed to optimize LGM/CLGP terminal guidance. If the laser designator is turned on late, the LGM/CLGP may miss. Turning the laser designator on early will not cause a miss.
c. Laser guided bombs (LGB).
LGBs must also be aimed so that the target is within the seeker's field of view. If the aircraft does not have an LST, a visible target mark may be required as an aiming cue. Since the laser pulse codes are pre-set on LGBs and cannot be changed while airborne, the L00 must use the code set in the bomb. If the laser designator is turned on too early when lofting LGBs or in a shallow delivery, the bomb will steer to the laser mark too soon and miss by falling short of the target. Whenever possible, the pilot should communicate directly with the LDO so the laser can be turned on at the best time. Delaying designation until the last 10 seconds of weapons flight is ideal. A low level laser guided bomb (LLLGB) does not have the LGB early lock-on characteristic.
205. TARGET TYPES.
Targets on the battlefield are classified as area targets and point targets.
a. Area targets.
An area target is a target covering an area rather than a single point. Area targets include infantry formations, assembly areas, motor pools, command posts, aircraft parking ramps, and other targets that are large in size or surface area. They are normally neutralized with a large volume of fires delivered throughout the target area. Area targets may be designated for close air support (CAS) missions using laser designators to designate either specific targets within an area or the general area itself.
b. Point targets.
A point target is a target requiring the accurate placement of muni- tions in order to neutralize or destroy it. Tanks, BMPs, ZSU 23-4s, bunkers, communications sites, and water craft are examples of point targets. Laser designators greatly enhance the ability of the observer/controller to engage and destroy or neutralize point targets.
206. DESIGNATOR OPERATOR POSITIONING CONSIDERATIONS.
The introduction of laser weapons demands increased emphasis on basic observer/controller techniques. Laser designators are normally employed by Army fire support teams (FIST) and combat observation/lasing teams (COLT), Marine Corps air and naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO) teams, Naval Gunfire Shore Fire Control Parties (SFCP), Marine Corps/Air Force forward air controllers (FAC), Marine Corps forward observers (FO) on the ground, certain Army and Marine aircraft equipped with designators, and special operations forces. To enhance observer/LDO team survivability, proper use of terrain, cover and concealment, and stand off distance must be employed when observing enemy avenues of approach and choke points. The vulnerability of LDOs, especially ALDs, must also be considered when designating point targets like tanks, BMPs, and ZSU-23-4. When using "stand off" procedures for survivability, the LD0 must be aware that the beam divergence of laser designators at standoff ranges chosen for survivability may preclude effective point target designation.
207. OFFSET LASER DESIGNATION.
When enemy countermeasures or laser alarms are likely to affect laser operations, offset designation may improve effectiveness. When offset designating, the laser designator is aimed at an object near the target to provide an approximate target mark or initial aim point. The LD0 can select an object with good reflection, such as a tree, to enhance acquisition.
a. Offset procedures.
If the offset aim point is far enough from the target to reduce weapon effectiveness, offset information as accurate as possible should he passed to the aircrew and include bearing, distance, target altitude and spot altitude, for example, "Target is a bunker in a tree line, bearing 270 magnetic for 20 meters from spot, target altitude 50 ft (MSL), spot altitude 100 ft (MSL)." Although this is more information than required by most aircraft, the A-6E target recognition attack multisensors (TRAM) requires the above information for accurate weapon delivery.
b. Shift procedures.
When offset designating for an airborne LST, the pilot may request the laser to designate the actual target for weapons employment. On the command of "shift," the designator is smoothly moved from the offset aim point to the target. With the exact target in sight, the pilot can deliver weapons precisely and neutralize the target before it reacts.
208. DELAYED LASER DESIGNATION FOR LASER GUIDED BOMBS (LGB).
LGBs can miss the target if the laser is turned on too early. During certain delivery profiles where the LGB sees laser energy as soon as it is released, it can turn from its delivery profile too soon and miss by falling short of the target. To prevent this, the laser designator must be turned on at the time that will preclude the bomb from turning down toward the target prematurely. Normally, the pilot knows the proper moment for laser on. Therefore, communications channels must be clear so he can call for "LASER ON." In the absence of positive two-way communications, target designation time and duration must be predicted on a known time on target (weapons impact time) and specific LGB laser requirements. The specific LGB and the delivery tactics of the fighter/attack aircraft will dictate the minimum designation time required to guide the weapon to the intended target. For example, Paveway I and II LGBs, when delivered from a low altitude loft maneuver, will restrict the designation of the target to the final ten seconds of the weapons flight. Delivery of either a Paveway I or II from a high dive delivery (30 - 60 ) allows the designator the option to designate from the time of weapons release to impact. (See Appendix D for a description of LGB/LLLGB delivery profiles.)
209. REDUNDANT LASER DESIGNATION.
Redundant designation is a technique employing two or more laser designators in different locations, but on the same code, to designate a single target for a single LGW. Redundant designation should not be routinely employed; but it may offer some advantages when attacking high priority targets. The primary advantage of using two or more designators on the same target is when one designator malfunctions, the seeker may still acquire the reflected energy from the other designator and continue guiding to the target. In the case of moving targets, two designators on the same target may preclude a guidance failure due to temporary podium effect. It must be understood that the LGW will lock on and track the designator with the strongest reflected energy.
210. CURRENT AND PROJECTED LASER SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION.
Figure 2-12 lists current and projected laser systems, their general functions, and characteristics. Detailed descriptions of each system are at Appendix A.
LASER SPOT TRACKER/ TARGET LASER ACQUISITION DESIGNATION GUIDED EMPLOYMENT IN FLIGHT SYSTEM SERVICE SYSTEM SYSTEM MUNITION PLATFORM DIGITS SELECTABLE Target Acquisition Army X X AH-64A 4 Yes System and Designation Sight (TADS) PAVE PENNY Air Force X A-7, A-1O 4 Yes Target Recognition Navy/Marine X X A-6E 4 Yes Attack Multi-Sensors Corps (TRAM) Modular Universal Marine Corps X Ground 3 N/A Laser Equipment (Handheld or (MULE) tripod) Ground Vehicle Army X Ground 3 N/A Laser Locator (Tripod or Designator vehicle mount) (G/VLLD) Laser Target Army X Ground 3 N/A Designator (LTD) (handheld) PAVE SPIKE Air Force X F-4D, F-4E 4 Yes PAVE TACK Air Force X F-4E, RF-4C 4 Yes F-111F LANTIRN Air Force X A-10, F-15E, 4 Y F-16 Mast Mounted Army X X OH-58D 4 Yes Sight (MMS) AQUILA Army X Remotely 3 Yes Piloted Vehicle (RPV) Night Observation Marine Corps X OV-10D 4 Yes System (NOS) HELLFIRE Army X AH-64A, 4 Yes Marine Corps UH-60, AH-1 COPPERHEAD Army X 155mm 3 N/A Marine Corps Howitzer PAVEWAY I, II (LGB) Air Force/Navy X Any attack 4 No PAVEWAY III (LLLGB) or fighter aircraft Laser Maverick Marine Corps X A-4, AV-8, 4 Yes A-7, F/A-18 5-inch Semi-Active Navy X DD/DDG Class 4 No Laser Guided Ships Projectile Angle Rate Marine Corps X A-4M, AV-8B 4 Yes Bombing System (ARBS) AGM-123A Skipper II Navy X A-6E, A-7 4 No Marine Corps Laser Spot Tracker Navy X F/A-18 4 Yes Marine Corps
a. Laser designation position.
In selecting a laser designation position, the laser designator operator (LD0) must consider line-of-sight, anticipated munitions trajectory, tactical situation, cover and concealment, and communication requirements. Further, he must be mindful of selecting a position near the expected locations of high priority targets. Additionally, mutual support and coordination within the maneuver elements must be considered if more than one laser designator will be used. The observer/controller team should determine its position as accurately as possible. The team can determine its geographical position by employing the modular universal laser equipment (MULE) or a ground/vehicle laser locator designator (G/VLLD); i.e., establish range, azimuth, and vertical angle in relation to a known location.
b. Laser-target/LGW-target angle.
When a target is designated by laser energy, the greatest reflected energy is normally along the laser-target line. For this reason, the angle between the laser guided weapons (LGW) flight path to target and the laser to target line is extremely important. The weapon's flight path must be as close as possible to paralleling the laser-target line. If the angle between the laser-target line and the LGWs flight path to target is too great, the laser seeker may not "see" the laser "spot." The specific angle between laser-target/LGW to target lines must be included in mission planning.
c. Techniques for designating the target.
The laser designator produces a narrow invisible beam of light when activated by the LD0. A careless L00 may cause laser energy to move off target. The following rules will help keep the ground laser designator on the target:
o Assume a comfortable and stable position; i.e., using a prone position and supporting the laser designator with sandbags, etc.
o Keep your eye in the same relative position on the eyepiece.
o Keep the cross hair positioned near the upper center of the target.
o If the target moves, establish a tracking rate by applying smooth horizontal and vertical corrections.
o Breath slowly and in a shallow manner.
o Squeeze, do not jerk, the trigger.
d. Terrain and target concealment.
(1) If the LD0 suspects the target may be partially masked from the view of the incoming laser weapon, he should aim the laser at a point on the target which he believes will be within line of sight of the seeker. In situations where the target is very well concealed, it may be necessary to aim the laser spot at some overhead or nearby object. For instance, when a vehicle is located under a tree, little loss in accuracy will result if the spot is positioned on the foliage of the tree in the direction of the inbound acquisition system or LGWs. However, this is not a preferred method and should be used only when the situation demands an immediate attack of the target.
(2) If a designated mobile target moves out of the view of the LD0, it may still be possible to salvage the attack. A point near the target may be designated until the target again comes into view or until designation responsibility can be passed to another operator who has the target in sight. It may also be possible to move the spot to another target in the immediate vicinity. If the laser spot tracker (LST) or LGW has already locked-on, the spot should be moved slowly and without interrup- tion in laser output to the new target location. CAUTION: Laser spot movement will cause degraded mission effectiveness.
e. LDO survivability.
To enhance survivability, the LDO should keep designation time to the minimum necessary for the weapon/seeker being used. This reduces the time available for the enemy to detect, locate, and take action to suppress the laser designator.
f. Laser designation timing.
Successful use of LGWs or LSTs is highly dependent on the ability of the LDO to designate the target at the proper time. Laser designation must be closely coordinated with the delivery of LGWs. Timing requirements should take into account the following:
o Weapons requiring lock-on before launch (L0BL)
o Weapons allowing lock-on after launch (LOAL)
o Lofted weapons
o Direct fire weapons
g. Communication between services.
Each services' laser operators must ensure they have the authentica- tion material available to ensure and authenticate inter-service communica- tions.
302. LASER DESIGNATION FOR ARTILLERY.
a. Ground Designator Procedures.
(1) The Army fire support team/Marine Corps forward observer (FIST/FO) in support of maneuver elements uses laser designators to designate stationary and moving point or area targets for engagement by LGWs and aircraft with LSTs.
(2) The maneuver commander specifies the priority of target engage- ments with LGWs in his fire support plan. The commander's priorities depend on the situation and range to targets. Depending on the situation, the commander may distribute fires by using engagement areas delineated by terrain features or sectors bounded by azimuth and range limits. For example, the commander may specify that all point targets beyond a certain linear terrain feature have priority for attack by LGWs.
(a) After the maneuver commander's guidance is given, the FIST/FO will select planned aiming points to facilitate rapid attack of targets in the engagement area. The aiming points are transmitted to the fire support officer (FSO)/fire support coordinator (FSC) who resolves duplication and forwards the target list to the supporting artillery unit.
(b) In the offense, the range of some laser designators allows LD0s to remain in an overwatch position at the beginning of the attack and then to support from successive positions as the advance continues; alter- nating their movement to ensure continuous coverage of the forward elements. After the objective is taken and consolidation is under way, the laser desig- nator is rapidly repositioned to designate retreating point targets and respond to possible counterattacks.
(c) In the defense, the FIST/FO coordinates the location of the laser designators with the company commander. Line of sight, cover and concealment, mutual support and maximum coverage of operations are essential considerations in positioning.
b. Airborne laser designator (ALD) procedures.
The greater mobility of ALDs enables the LD0 to more easily acquire targets and maintain a constant line of sight with them. Aerial observers use the same calls for fire as ground observers. They obtain a gun-target line from the fire direction center (FDC) and position themselves near the gun-target line to increase the probability of target engagement by cannon launched guided projectiles (CLGP). All other procedures remain the same as those used for ground designators.
c. Cannon launched guided projectile (CLGP)/copperhead procedures.
(1) CLGP fire planning is similar to any other fire support planning. The fire support communications net is normally FM or wire (USMC may use high frequency (HF)).
(2) The CLGP procedures followed by the FO and the FDC are dependent on whether the mission involves a planned target or a target of opportunity. In addition, while stationary targets can be readily engaged using similar target location procedures employed for ballistic munitions, moving targets require additional actions to ensure the target can be acquired by the CLGP. See Appendix B and Field Manual 6-30, Appendix C for examples of CLGP procedures.
(3) Planned Targets.
(a) For planned targets, the observer provides the message to observer (MTO) to the FDC. The MT0 is used to confirm planned targets.
(b) Once the target is identified by the observer, he estimates the target's speed and direction to determine which planned target location should be used for engagement.
(4) Targets of opportunity.
(a) Attacking a stationary target with CLGP simply requires the observer to determine the target location and then transmit his call for fire. CLGP fire against a moving target is more complex because of the requirement to predict where the target will be when the round arrives. This predicted location, called the intercept point , is determined by estimating the target speed and direction and comparing that information with mission processing times. If, through experience, the observer knows how long it will take the firing unit to process the mission, he should use that time. If he doesn't know the unit's processing time, he should use 200 seconds as the time from the initiation of the call for fire to round impact.
(5) Engagement Commands. **NOTE: When using TACFIRE with Digital Message Device (DMD), the light emitting diodes (LED) will display "DESIGNATE." All voice transmissions will use "LASER ON" as follows:
(a) As soon as the first round is fired in a mission, the observer receives "SHOT" from the FDC.
(b) When the round is 20 seconds from impact, the FDC will announce to the observer "LASER ON". If time of flight is 20 seconds or less, "SHOT" and "LASER ON" are transmitted at the same time.
(c) Once the observer has received "SHOT", he should begin his own countdown using the time of flight received in the MTO. If for some reason, he has not received a "LASER ON" message, he should begin designation not later than 13 seconds before impact.
(d) If the observer does not acknowledge the "LASER ON" call, the FDC will continue to transmit "LASER ON" until rounds impact.
303. LASER DESIGNATION FOR NAVAL GUNFIRE (NGF).
Laser designators can be used for NGF in basically the same manner as with artillery CLGPs. Standard indirect fire procedures require some changes because of special considerations for naval semi-active laser guided projectiles (SAL GP). (Ref Allied Tactical Publication-4 and Naval Warfare publication 22-2 for detailed instructions.)
a. Target acquisition and call for fire.
The observer uses standard procedures to detect targets and communi- cate the information to the gunfire support ship. The naval gunfire net is normally a high frequency (HF) net. Upon detection of a target the observer provides the standard elements of a NGF call for fire; i.e., target grid, altitude and direction. The type and number of rounds necessary is specified by the spotter. If the target is moving, the spotter will estimate target speed and use an anticipated position in his call for fire. In this situation, an "AT MY COMMAND" mission is appropriate. An example of a NGF call for fire is provided in Appendix B.
b. Target location.
Target location must be determined as accurately as possible and provided to the ship by the observer. Grid coordinates, shift from a known point, and polar plot are methods of providing target location. In the latter case, the coordinates of the offset point must be known by the firing ship's combat information center. Estimated target motion or predicted intercept position must be taken into consideration by the spotter.
c. Indirect fire mission.
The procedure for an indirect fire mission is a clear cut step by step sequence. Appendix B includes sample communications between the NGF ship and spotter during a SAL GP mission. Indirect fire may be conducted against any target, but must be used against surface targets beyond shipboard sensor/designator range, or against targets ashore which are either masked from direct shipboard observation or beyond line of sight range.
d. Fire for effect.
The initial salvo may be "fire for effect" if the situation warrants. If target motion, security, or other conditions so dictate, the spotter/ observer might desire precise control of firing time and direct "AT MY COMMAND."
(1) Munitions mix.
If first-round accuracy does not preclude the possibility of a fire mission using a mix of ballistic and guided rounds, it may be desirable to initially fire and adjust a ballistic round to correct for errors in ship position or target location. This approach offers a higher assurance that the ballistic aiming point is on or close to the target. "FIRE FOR EFFECT" using a SAL GP should follow the initial adjustment. CAUTION: Firing of ballistic rounds prior to using a GP round may degrade subsequent laser round accuracy because of smoke, dust, debris, etc.
(2) Target information.
The observer provides a target description to the NGF ship. Target detection, tracking, and identification information, is used to evaluate the level of threat posed to the ship, friendly forces, planned operations, and/or mission accomplishment.
e. Laser coordination.
The ship will specify the laser pulse code and transmit gun- target line and time of flight. The LDO prepares to designate the target at the call "SHOT" and begins to designate the target at the call "LASER ON" or about 20 seconds prior to the anticipated round impact. Due to the high velocity of naval rounds, the "LASER ON" call will usually be made immediately following the "SHOT" call. The laser will normally be on then until rounds impact or 20 seconds after "SPLASH" is announced.
304. LASER DESIGNATION FOR CLOSE AIR SUPPORT (CAS).
This section presents procedures for the use of laser designators for CAS missions. Modifications to existing CAS control procedures include:
o Additions to the CAS briefing and pilot reporting procedures.
o The establishment of a means of communication between the FAC and FO to coordinate laser designation of targets when the FAC is not collocated with the laser designator.
o Provisions for attack coordination between the FAC and the Marine Corps air support radar team (ASRT).
o The establishment of standard terminology for laser-related activities.
For a detailed explanation on CAS employment procedures and tactics, refer to service specific CAS publications.
(1) Target acquisition considerations.
(a) The use of laser designators for CAS can provide a fast and accurate means of marking targets for LST equipped aircraft. The use of target coordinates, radar beacons, smoke, and illuminating flares compli- ments laser designator target marking and improves the chances for successful first pass target acquisition. Without cueing, aircraft may be pointed too far away from the target to acquire the laser spot.
(b) Aircraft equipped with an LST are able to detect reflected laser energy. These aircraft include: A-1O, F/A-18, A-6E target recognition attack multi-sensor (TRAM), A-4M, AV-88, and USAF A-7 aircraft. The A-6 without TRAM, although not LST equipped, can detect and manually track reflected laser energy. LST equipped aircraft can use detected laser energy to acquire and attack both area and point targets. The extreme accuracy of laser target designation helps fighter/attack aircrews positively identify the correct target and drastically reduces the possibility of aircrews misidentifying friendly positions as the target.
(c) The FIST/FO passes the laser code through the FAC to the aircraft, unless the aircraft will employ LGWs. In the latter case, the pilot will inform the FAC of the weapons laser code since most laser guided bomb (LGB) codes must be set before takeoff. Codes may be transmitted by radio in the clear.
(2) Standoff LGW delivery considerations.
(a) Target acquisition may be followed by the delivery of LGWs. Some LGWs such as Laser Maverick, Skipper II, and LLLGB/Paveway III can be released at stand off ranges that may reduce exposure of delivery aircraft to enemy air defense systems. This may decrease delivery aircraft vulnerability to such systems and increase survivability.
(b) Once released at stand off distance, the weapon homes on reflected laser energy and has a much better delivery accuracy than a non- guided weapon. Before the attack, aircrews with LGWs must pass the laser code to the FAC. The FAC will subsequently pass the code to the FIST/FO. The JSMC FAC will pass the code to the FO only if the FO is tasked to designate the target.
(c) For stand off LGW deliveries, the ground commander must fully understand and accept the consequences of a possible weapon's failure to properly guide to the target. Consequently, the final decision to release stand off LGWs from behind friendly lines in a CAS environment must rest with the ground commander.
b. Concept of employment:
(1) Tactical air control party (TACP).
The TACP is the Marine Corps/Air Force tactical air control agency located with the supported battalion. Its function is to provide air liaison with the battalion, advise on the use of air assets, and coordi- nate and control CAS missions in support of the ground commander's scheme of maneuver. Assigned to each Marine Corps TACP are three naval aviators or naval flight officers; one to serve as air officer in the battalion fire support coordination center (FSCC), the other two are FACs and usually deploy with the forward rifle companies. The Air Force TACP at battalion level consists of two fighter qualified officers and two enlisted tactical air command and control specialists. One officer is attached to the battalion as an air liaison officer (ALO). The second officer will be provided as either an air or ground FAC to control CAS sorties for the battalion. The battalion ALO is also qualified to control CAS but will be used only as an alternative when a FAC is s not avail able.
(2) FIST/FO procedures for CAS.
When possible, the Air Force FAC should be located with the FIST, and the FIST should place a radio close to the LDO (Marine FACs may or may not be collocated with their FOs). Placing a radio close to the LDO will minimize the need to relay laser calls between the pilot and the FIST. At times, the Air Force FAC will not be with the FIST and may not be able to see the target. The FAC will control the aircraft and coordinate laser designation with the FIST. When the FAC and FIST are not together, Air Force pilots may make laser calls directly to the FIST on a frequency assigned by the FAC in the CAS briefing. In situations where the Marine Corps FAC is not in an optimum position to designate the target, the FAC may control the aircraft with the FO actually designating the target. The Marine Corps FAC and F() can communicate and coordinate by using the TACP local net, however, prior coordination is required.
(3) Supporting arms liaison team (SALT).
The SALT is the Naval air and gunfire coordination agency located with a supported U.S. Army or allied battalion and is provided by the Marine Corps air and naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO). Its function is to provide liaison with the battalion, advise on the use of air or naval gunfire assets, and coordinate missions in support of the ground commander's scheme of maneuver. Assigned to each SALT is a liaison officer in the FSCC and two firepower control teams (FCT) that are deployed with the forward rifle companies. The FCT officer is capable of controlling CAS, NGF, and artillery.
c. FAC procedures.
(1) FAC responsibilities.
The FAC should anticipate the use of LST equipped aircraft and aircraft with LGWs. The FAC should plan to use laser target designation to help LST equipped aircraft identify the target quickly and accurately. Early planning by the FAC is required to ensure the FIST/FO is ready for laser operations when the fighter/attack aircraft first contact the FAC. This means the FAC must have a thorough working knowledge of the capabilities of LST equipped aircraft, and of aircraft delivered LGWs. (The four service approved j-FIRE CAS briefing format is depicted in Appendix C.) When conduct- ing CAS with lasers, always strive for simple communications. Good preplan- ning, accurate target location and reliable communications are essentials.
(2) Laser designation coordination.
(a) The laser designator may be turned on for target acquisition, target identification, or employment of LGWs. The pilot will make the follow- ing laser calls:
o 10 seconds (time until "LASER ON" call expected)
o Laser on
The "10 SECONDS" call means the pilot wants the laser on in approximately 10 seconds. The FAC relays the call to the LDO. The "LASER ON" call requires the FAC (or FIST) to ensure the LDO designates the target immediately.
(b) Normal laser designation time is 20 seconds maximum. The pilot may request a longer laser on time by saying "LASER ON" and time (e.g., "LASER ON, 30 SECONDS"). The FAC (or U.S. Army FIST/Marine Corps FO) should acknowledge the "LASER ON" call. The FAC may elect to turn the laser on 10 seconds after the "10 SECONDS" call without hearing the "LASER ON" call, if communications problems are anticipated.
(c) The pilot calls "SPOT" when acquiring the laser spot. This confirms to the FAC, and the pilot's wingman, that the pilot sees the designated target.
(d) Offset designation procedures may be used in a laser countermeasure environment. Following the "LASER ON" call , a SHIFT" call will be used to shift laser energy from the offset position next to the target onto the target itself. The "SHIFT' call , when used, can replace the "SPOT" call.
(e) The last call in the sequence is "TERMINATE". The pilot makes this call to turn the laser off.
(3) Turning the laser off.
Minimizing laser on time is important in a laser countermeasure environment and when employing battery operated laser designators. The laser designator operator will turn the designator off:
o When the "TERMINATE" call is heard.
o When the weapon hits the targets.
o After 20 seconds (or longer, if requested).
(4) Laser countermeasure environment.
When operating in a high laser countermeasure environment, it may be necessary for the FAC to coordinate laser designation based on timing rather than radio calls. In such a case, the CAS briefing includes the time to laser on. He would say, for example, "LASER ON IN FOUR MINUTES- -READY, READY, HACK." The pilot hacks his clock and acknowledges. As required, the FAC gives the FIST/FO a similar briefing (e.g., a "HACK" for laser on in time to ensure mission success). It is desirable for the LDO to designate (slight offset designation is permitted) for approximately one minute to accommodate timing errors by attacking aircrews.
(5) If no spot is acquired.
If the aircraft does not get a laser spot for acquisition (LST equipped aircraft only) on the first pass, the FAC should immediately send the fighters to a holding point and reconfirm the LDO and the aircraft have the right laser code set. The FAC should also ensure pilots know the location of the target area. This procedure is also true when LGWs do not guide. Since aircraft laser codes are 4-digit numbers (1XYZ) and ground laser designator codes are 3-digit numbers (XYZ), the FAC must ensure the pilot and ground LD0 understand code setting procedures; i.e., the last three numbers of the four digit code must match the three digit code and the first number is set to 1.
(6) "Radio silence" procedures.
There may be missions when laser target designation must be accomplished in a "radio silence" environment. For these missions, there will be an established time over target window when the laser designator will be turned on. Aircrews need the following information prior to the mission:
o Target description.
o Friendly location(s).
d. Laser designator operator (LDO) procedures.
The LD0 must be extremely responsive to the pilot's "LASER ON" call. Unless using offset designation procedures, the LDO must designate only one target and not move or search with the designator while it is on and aircraft are in the area. Following the FAC's instructions explicitly will help prevent confusion and miscoordination.
e. Laser spot tracker (LST) equipped aircraft-aided delivery of non- laser guided weapons.
With an LST equipped aircraft the fighter/attack pilot can use the laser spot as an aid to visually acquire the target. Delivering non LGWs on well camouflaged targets may require continuous designation for the accurate delivery of strafing fires and/or ballistic ordnance.
f. Laser guided bomb delivery (LGB/Paveway I and II).
The laser code of the LGB/Paveway I and II seeker is set on the ground prior to launch and cannot be changed by the pilot in the air. The FAC will pass the LGB code to the FIST/FO to coordinate with the LDO.
If advantage is to be taken of the capability for lock-on and munitions delivery on the first pass, the LGB equipped aircraft must be pointed at the target during its run-in. This necessitates a careful selection of the run-in heading by the FAC when he plans the mission. In most cases, an initial point (IP), (either a prominent terrain feature or a point defined by electronic navigation aids), and a run-in heading must be passed to the pilot as part of the CAS briefing.
(2) LGB release.
LGBs must be delivered/released accurately to permit them to guide to the designated target. For best results, the pilot must see the designated target. In some cases, the attacking aircraft may have accurate enough bombing references (from on board navigation cues) to permit release of the bomb without the pilot seeing the target.
(3) Laser call coordination.
Timely coordination of "LASER ON" and "TERMINATE" calls is essential to effective LGB delivery, especially in a CAS environment. Designating the target too early may cause LGBs to guide too soon and thus, hit well short of the target.
(4) Stand off delivery of LGBs.
Delivery of LGBs near friendly forces is a risky venture and requires extremely close coordination between the aircraft, the FAC, and the FIST/FO. Because of the inherent risk to friendly ground troops, only the ground commander can authorize LGB stand off deliveries. See Appendix D for examples of LGB delivery profiles. WARNING: One way to deliver LGBs from low altitude is a loft attack. In this maneuver, the aircraft pulls up sharply at a predetermined point some miles from the target and the LGB is lofted upward and toward the target. However, if the LGB guidance system detects reflected laser energy from the target designator too soon after release, it tends to pull the LGW down below its required trajectory and the bomb will impact well short of the target. For this type of attack, it is critical to begin designating the target only during the last part of the bomb's flight. The pilot must call "LASER ON" based upon his computation of the bomb's time of flight to ensure safe and accurate terminal guidance. The pilot must know exactly where the target is, and make a very accurate delivery/release of the weapon. Again, only the ground commander can authorize a loft delivery from behind friendly lines. The pilot is solely responsible for delivering a ballistically accurate bomb.
g. Low level laser guided bomb (LLLGB/Paveway III) delivery. The LLLGB/Paveway III is an advanced LGB with a stand off delivery capability from low altitude. This bomb is not nearly as delivery parameter sensitive as is the LGB, nor is it affected by early laser designation. After a proper low altitude delivery, the LLLGB will maintain level flight while looking for reflected laser energy. If it does not detect reflected laser energy, it will maintain level flight to continue beyond the designated target, overflying friendly positions, to impact long, rather than short of the target. Ground commander and pilot responsibilities remain unchanged.
h. Laser guided missile (LGM) delivery.
FAC procedures for the delivery of LGMs like Laser Maverick and Hellfire are similar to those for the delivery of LGBs. The FAC's role in planning the mission, briefing the pilot, getting him onto the correct run- in heading, and commencing illumination of the target remains the same. There is, however, one major difference. The lock-on and launch ranges of LGMs in good visibility are several nautical miles; well beyond the range a FAC is able to see and clear an aircraft and beyond the range a pilot can visually acquire the target. Only the ground commander can authorize employment of LGMs near friendly forces.
i. Reattack/mixed munitions procedures.
Reattacks are defined as attacks on successive passes by an aircraft against either the same target or nearby targets, under the control of a single FAC, with minimum time interval between attacks. If the aircraft is carrying both unguided bombs and LGWs, the LGW should be delivered on the first pass before ordnance generated visibility degradation can occur. Successful delivery of an LGW on the first pass has the added advantage of providing all pilots in the flight with the precise location of the target.
j. Marine Corps air support radar team (ASRT) procedures:
(1) ASRT capabilities.
ASRT can provide precision radar tracking and positioning of aircraft under all weather and visibility conditions. ASRT controlled bomb- ing is usually employed during night and bad weather conditions. The ASRT is equipped with the radar bomb directing set AN/TPB-1D which uses the surveyed position of the radar on the ground, the location of the target, wind profile, ejection velocity and ballistics of the munitions being dropped, and the radar derived aircraft position and speed to guide the aircraft to the proper release point.
(2) ASRT communications.
The ASRT receives the target information necessary to conduct a bombing mission from the direct air support operations center (DASC). The ASRT does not normally make direct contact with the supported unit. The target information received from the DASC usually originates at the supported unit. To employ LST and/or LGWs, however, direct contact is essential to ensure the target is designated at the proper time. The UHF radios of the TACP are line of sight limited and may or may not provide a direct link, depending on terrain, distance, and radio reception conditions. When direct ground FAC-ASRT communications are not possible, the attacking aircraft or airborne FAC may serve as a relay.
(3) ASRT employment.
The ARST may be used to position the fighter/attack aircraft for either the release of an LGB (known as "ASRT to drop"), or for the acquisition of the laser spot and subsequent terminal control by the FAC (known as "ASRT to lock-on"). The procedures for these two situations are as follows:
(a) For both the ASRT and the pilot, the "ASRT to drop" case proceeds almost identically for unguided bombs and LGBs. Before commencing the attack, the pilot must pass the weapon s code to the FAC through the DASC, and verify the FAC is ready to designate the target. Since LST lock-on is not required to release the bomb within its delivery envelope, the aircraft need not be LST equipped, nor does the designator need to be turned on until the bomb is released. The command to designate ("LASER ON"), is the control officer's responsibility if ASRT transmissions can be heard by the FAC and voice vector control is being used. Otherwise, the bomb release tone and pilot's call "LASER ON" are used. The "LASER ON" call replaces the normal call used for conventional munitions release.
(b) The function of the ASRT in the "ASRT to lock-on" case assists the FAC with a mission under his control. LST equipped aircraft must he used. The FAC plans the mission and the aircraft report in to him for briefing and control. The FAC then passes the target location (which need only be approximate) and desired attack heading to the ASRT, using the attack aircraft to relay if necessary, and turns the aircraft over to the ASRT. The ASRT puts the aircraft on the attack heading and, at the appropriate distance from the target, passes the "LASER ON" command to the FAC, again relaying through the aircraft if necessary. The ASRT continues to control the aircraft until the pilot calls "SPOT", at which time the aircraft is passed back to the FAC for terminal control. In the event that no lock-on is obtained by the time the aircraft has reached a predetermined distance from target, the ASRT aborts the attack and passes control of the aircraft back to the FAC. The FAC may elect to repeat the attack or make changes to improve the probability of lock-on. Dependent upon the tactical situation, any one of several aircraft profiles may be used in ASRT to lock-on procedures.
k. Employment of radar beacons.
Employment of radar beacons is discussed fully in appropriate service manuals. In conjunction with beacon capable aircraft (F-111/A/E/F/D, A-7D, F-4E/G, A-6E, F-16A/B/C), the radar beacon can be used in a laser mission to achieve attack geometry.
1. Attacks by multiple aircraft.
Use of laser designators and LST equipped aircraft facilitates rapid attacks by two or more aircraft. The aircraft operate as a flight under the control of a single FAC, who is responsible for planning and briefing the mission. Air control is somewhat simplified by the practical requirement that all the aircraft come in on the same nominal heading, either in trail or side by side (tactical formation). Separation of aircraft in the flight is based on the tactical situation, the flight profile, release altitude, and fragmentation pattern for the munitions employed. Attacks by multiple aircraft on multiple targets requires increased coordi- nation and planning.
(1) Attacks on a single target.
Multiple aircraft attacking a single target offer redundancy and increased likelihood of target destruction at the earliest possible time. The aircraft may be in a trail or other tactical formation. A single designator is required and the attack is carried out by either (or both) aircraft achieving lock-on and successful munitions release. FAC procedures remain the same, except that the FAC may clear the second aircraft to perform a follow up attack on the target (using LGW or nonguided munitions).
CAUTION: Multiple aircraft, each dropping LGBs, should sequence each delivery with adequate spacing to avoid degrading LGB accuracy due to smoke, dust, and debris of follow on attacks.
(2) Attacks on multiple targets.
(a) Simultaneous tactical formation attacks on multiple targets may require as many laser designators as aircraft. The laser equipment must be set on different codes to preclude all of the aircraft in the formation from locking on the same target. If the TACP/FIST has only one laser designator, or all targets are not visible from their position, coordination with adjacent unit laser designator operators will be required. Communications have to be established and authority obtained to use the adjacent unit laser designators. This is done before briefing the pilots. The FAC controlling the attack gives the command to begin designating targets to each of the LDOs.
(b) Sequential target attacks (aircraft in trail) can be accomplished by designating with a single laser designator or multiple laser designators. Using a single laser designator requires all LGWs to be on the same code. Because of the timing and geometry, each succeeding aircraft may lock-on to the target being designated for the aircraft preceding it. After each munitions impact (or release, in the case of nonguided munitions from LST equipped aircraft), the spot must be moved to each succeeding target. The LST may or may not be able to retain lock-on during this process. If a succeeding LST loses lock-on, the pilot may or may not be able to regain it in the time available. The use of multiple laser designators on the same code can result in LST equipped aircraft /LGWs locking on the same target (strongest reflection). It is better to use separate laser designators on different codes for each target; however, more coordination is required. Using multiple designators has the added advantage of reducing the length of time any single laser is on and exposed to enemy counteraction. As with the tactical formation attack, the mission is planned, briefed, and controlled by a single FAC. The FAC also controls the LDOs. A discussion and example of ground and airborne designation for CAS is at Appendix B.
m. Night Operations.
Because of target acquisition problems, CAS at night is more difficult for both the FAC and the attacking pilot. The ability to use visual cues is determined by the amount of natural light, the availability and correct placement of artificial illumination, and whether or not the battle area is marked by muzzle flashes, tracers, explosions, and burning vehicles. Sighting in the laser designator and maintaining the spot on the target (particularly if it is moving) are most difficult. pilots are also faced with the vertigo inducing effects of flares, bomb flashes, and the lack of a visible horizon. Coordination and proper separation between individual aircraft in the flight are more difficult at night and generally result in a slower pace of operations. Finally, sighting an aircraft without lights at night is virtually impossible, therefore the FAC cannot provide release clearance using daytime safety criteria.
(2) Laser-aided night attacks.
The use of a laser designator and LST equipped aircraft greatly reduces the pilot's target acquisition problem if he is allowed to "bomb the reticle"; i.e., deliver the munitions on the spot appearing on the head-up display (HUD). This procedure should not normally be employed where safety of friendly troops is a factor; i.e., CAS. When this procedure is permitted, a night attack with an LST equipped aircraft is much like completing an instrument approach. All of the necessary information is available to the pilot on a HUD or elsewhere in the cockpit. The above procedure does not apply to the forward looking infrared (FLIR) equipped aircraft. Pilots of FLIR equipped aircraft can visually acquire the target by using the FLIR after receiving the laser spot. When the pilot acquires the target, he begins a normal system attack. Attacks on multiple targets and attacks by multiple aircraft at night are even more susceptible to obscuration than daytime attacks due to decreased visual ability and reduced winds.
305. ROTARY WING CLOSE IN FIRE SUPPORT
The use of rotary wing aircraft to deliver LGWs allows the ground commander to destroy high threat point targets at extended ranges. Rotary wing aircraft may be equipped with ALDs, LSTs and LGWs. The aircraft may be equipped with any combination of these systems. All laser designators can assist laser systems equipped rotary wing aircraft in target acquisition and provide terminal weapons guidance. Rotary wing aircraft are employed by the Army as maneuver elements under direct control of the ground commander or aviation unit commander. Marine Corps rotary wing attack aircraft can also provide close in fire support with LGWs and are employed as requested by the ground commander.
b. Laser designation for rotary wing aircraft.
Laser designators can be used to designate target handoff and LGW terminal guidance for rotary wing aircraft. Laser designation for target acquisition provides for fast and accurate target handoff. Certain rotary wing aircraft are equipped with LSTs and aid the pilot's visual target acquisition by providing cockpit indications on the location of the laser spot. Target acquisition can be followed with the delivery of either LGWs or non-guided weapons.
Communications between the LDO and the pilot is an essential element for positive target handoff to LST equipped rotary wing aircraft. This requires prior coordination. The LDO must provide his laser code, laser-target line in degrees magnetic, and laser spot offset (if applicable).
c. Laser designation for rotary wing aircraft with Hellfire LGMs. The lock-on and launch ranges of LGMs can be several miles. LGMs provide extended standoff target engagement for high threat targets. The pilot has several options for firing mode, the firing method, and missile seeker lock-on.
(1) Firing modes.
(a) Single fire.
In the single fire mode one missile is launched. This mode can be used with autonomous direct, remote direct, and remote indirect fire methods, as discussed in para (2) below.
(b) Rapid fire.
Rapid fire is a technique of launching two or more missiles on the same code. Multiple targets can be engaged by launching missiles approximately eight seconds or more apart, as specified by the LDO. Once the first missile impacts the target, the LDO must smoothly move the laser spot to the next target.
(c) Ripple fire.
In the ripple fire mode, missiles are fired one after the other and as fast as possible. Multiple laser designators can be used (indirect fire requires two remote laser designators). Each laser designator operates on a different laser code and the weapon seekers are coded to match each designator.
(d) Rapid/ripple fire.
By use of multiple codes and laser designators, the combi- nation of rapid/ripple fire can be achieved.
(2) Firing methods.
(a) Direct fire method.
Direct fire is achieved using either autonomous desig- nators or remote laser designators. When using remote designators, the rotary wing aircraft is free to resume terrain masking or engage other targets after each LGM launch. This capability is called "fire and forget" and increases aircraft survivability and flexibility.
(b) Indirect fire method.
Indirect fire is achieved by using remote laser desig- nators. Vulnerability of rotary wing aircraft to enemy direct fire weapons and radar detection is minimized by employing LGM in the indirect fire method. The LGM is launched while the aircraft is positioned behind masking terrain features like trees and hills. The LGM is launched with a prepro- grammed, autopilot sequence causing the LGM to fly an elevated trajectory (either high or low) over the masking terrain feature. The seeker will then locate and lock-on the remote laser designated target.
(3) Missile seeker lock-on options.
(a) Lock-on after launch (LOAL).
This option can be used in the direct fire mode and is always used for the indirect fire method. The LGM is launched on a trajectory toward the target with seeker lock-on occurring in flight. This option allows missile launching toward the target area during adverse weather, hazy days, long ranges, or temporary target obscuration. Lock-on will then occur when the obstruction to the seeker's view dissipates or is bypassed during the approach to the target area.
(b) Lock-on before launch (LOBL).
This option requires direct line of sight to the target and requires the seeker to be locked-on to the target before launch.
d. Engagement procedures.
Prior coordination must be accomplished to ensure communications between the LDO and the pilot of the laser-equipped rotary wing aircraft. Coordination of radio frequencies and call signs may be accomplished by a face to face briefing, using CEOIs, using the aviation unit's operations order, or through the FAC.
(2) Hellfire mission brief.
(a) Target location.
The LDO must give the location of the target to the helicopter pilot, using the most accurate means available, so he can align his helicopter to ensure missile lock-on. If the LDO knows the position of the helicopter, he may also give a magnetic bearing from the helicopter's position to the target.
The laser designator and the LGW on the helicopter must be on the same code. Hellfire LGM codes can be set/changed from the cockpit, allowing the aircrew to set in the ground laser designator's code. LGM designator coding is important because it counters the use of simple enemy laser countermeasures and prevents the seeker from homing on other reflected laser energy.
(c) Laser-target line.
The laser-target line must be given to the pilot in degrees magnetic. The pilot needs this information to align his helicopter, ensuring positive seeker lock-on of the LGM for LOBL delivery or positive in flight seeker lock-on of the LGM for LOAL.
(d) The firing mode.
A single LDO can request single fire and rapid fire modes. Single fire is used to engage a specific target. Rapid fire may be used to engage multiple targets. Two LDOs employed as a team can request ripple fire or rapid/ripple fire. Prior coordination and thorough pre-mission planning is necessary for ripple fire and rapid/ripple fire.
(e) Number of missiles.
The LDO may elect to engage multiple targets with multiple LGMs. This procedure may be advantageous to a quick attack of targets at extended ranges. Rapid fire may be used to minimize total laser on time for multiple targets. For example, laser on time to guide four single-launched missiles might be 1 minute 20 seconds, while laser on time for four rapid fire-launched missiles in the same situation is 32 seconds. During multiple missile launches, the LDO must ensure that laser energy is not interrupted by obscuration caused from previously launched missiles.
(f) Time interval.
During rapid fire, one missile is launched approximately every eight seconds. An LDO may request a longer time interval between launches. Considerations for longer time intervals between LGM launches include operator experience, terrain, target array, and battlefield obscuration. A discussion and example of ground and airborne designation for helicopters is at Appendix B.
Laser designators and seekers use a pulse coding system to ensure that a specific seeker and designator combination work in harmony. By setting the same code in both the designator and the seeker, the seeker will track only the target designated by the designator. The pulse coding used by all systems discussed in this manual is based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF).
b. Designator and seeker pulse codes.
The designator and seeker pulse codes use a truncated decimal system. This system uses the numerical digits 1 through 8 and the codes are directly correlated to a specific PRF. Dependent upon the laser equipment, either a three digit or a four digit code can be set. Three digit code equipment settings range from 111 to 788. Four digit code equipment settings range from 1111 to 1788. The three and four digit code equipment is compatible and any mix of equipment can be used in all types of laser operations. However, when using a mix of three and four digit code equipment, all personnel must understand that the first digit of a four digit code is always set to numerical digit 1. The remaining three digits of the four digit code will be set to match the three digits of the three digit code equipment. As an example, a three digit code of 657 would be set to 1657 on a four digit code system, or vice versa.
c. Multiple codes.
Coding allows simultaneous or nearly simultaneous attacks on multiple targets by a single aircraft, or flights of aircraft, dropping laser guided weapons (LGWs) set on different codes. This tactic may be employed when several high priority targets need to be expeditiously attacked and can be designated simultaneously by the supported unit(s).
402. CONTROLLING AND COORDINATING CODED LASER SYSTEMS
Laser codes must be controlled and coordinated. To accomplish this, each service is assigned blocks of codes. Each service subassigns codes to supporting arms; i.e., U.S. Army artillery, USMC artillery, Naval gunfire, and interservice aviation units. This controlled code assignment prevents interference between supporting arms activities. Each service's supporting arm then divides its codes among its subordinate units. Subordinate units then assign codes to individual missions and change codes periodically as the situation requires.
403. MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATOR/WEAPON SETTINGS
The joint force headquarters has overall responsibility for laser code management and provides code management information to appropriate service agencies. Each service formulates a plan for allocation of settings and issues appropriate coordinating instructions in operations documents like the fire support plan. b. Army code management example.
An Army Corps fire support element (FSE) has overall responsibility for management of ground switch settings in an Army corps' area of operations. Blocks of settings for artillery are assigned to division artillery. The FSE monitors the activities of units operating on or near division boundaries. The FSE changes switch setting assignments according to the joint plan that prevents duplicate use of settings by adjacent observers/laser designators.
(1) Brigade FSE responsibility.
The Army's lowest level for management of switch settings is the brigade/regiment FSE controlling fire support for that unit. This FSE provides positive coordination of the switch settings, for both the laser designator and the artillery fire direction center (FDC), as a part of fire mission processing.
(2) Battalion FSO responsibility.
The maneuver battalion fire support officer (FSO) coordinates the switch settings for the ground laser designator and LGW systems (except laser guided bombs (LGB). Usual procedures should require switch settings in the initial request for support and setting confirmation during final coordination for employment of the LGWs.
(3) Unit coordination.
Adjacent ground units will normally use fire support liaison personnel to ensure laser codes do not conflict.
404. LASER CODING IN CONJUNCTION WITH LASER GUIDED BOMBS
Laser coding can be used effectively and securely with LGBs. LGB codes are set on the bombs before takeoff and cannot be changed in the air. The pilot is told the code, but advance coding information might not be sent to the supported ground unit. When the aircraft is on station, the pilot passes the code to the FAC. The FAC coordinates with the laser designator operator (LDO) to ensure the laser designator is set on the same code as LGBs. Individual aircraft may carry LGBs with different preset codes. Different preset codes allow for multiple aircraft attacks, multiple weapon releases, and a variation in codes for consecutive attacks.
Codes must be prebriefed to both the FAC and aircrews for situations where communications cannot be established or authorized.
406. CODING PRIORITIZATION
Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) codes can affect target engagement success. The lower the code number, the faster the laser pulse rate. The lower code number/faster pulse rate will give the seeker the most opportunity to acquire the target in the time it is available. A disadvantage of selecting lower number codes is faster battery drain.
When PRF code prioritization is possible, the target priority and difficulty of field operating conditions must be considered. Technical and environmental limitations to be considered when prioritizing codes are designator location and output, beam divergence, weather, and seeker sensi- tivity and field of view. Lower code numbers/faster pulse rates are appro- priate for the most important targets and the most difficult operating conditions.
The only source of danger from laser designators is that of the laser beam itself. The invisible beam is highly directional , intense, infrared radiation and can cause serious harm to the eyes. The laser beam does not normally affect other parts of the body. When used properly and with due consideration of the laser hazards outlined in this chapter, laser designators are safe to use in a training environment.
b. Eye damage.
Looking at the front of the laser designator when the beam is on, or at beam reflections from shiny objects like mirrors, glass, chrome, etc., may result in serious eye damage or blindness. The laser beam is so strong that it is unsafe to look at the front of an operating laser designator at any range. Operators must use extreme care to avoid hitting personnel with the laser beam during training operations. Eye safe filters must be used for all lasers for which they are available.
Caution must be used when the laser-target line is over + 30 degrees of the attack heading to ensure the Laser Spot Tracker (LST) or Laser Guided Bomb (LGB) does not detect and guide on the laser designator instead of the target's reflected laser energy.
502. LASER EYE SAFETY
a. Friendly ground combat personnel.
The potential danger of eye damage to friendly personnel must always be considered when using laser designators in a crowded battlefield environ- ment where areas occupied by friendly and enemy troops are not well defined. Proper operating procedures and guidelines must be established and adhered to for the protection of friendly troops. See applicable equipment, service, technical, and safety publications to determine exact parameters and appropriate safety precautions for laser designators being used.
b. Optical injury.
The only possible injury from currently fielded laser designators is to the eye. Skin and other parts of the body are not endangered by the laser beam. The laser beam's highly directional, invisible, infrared radiation can be refracted by the cornea and eye lens and transmitted through the vitreous humor onto the retina, causing damage ranging from unnoticeable tiny spots to complete blindness. The principle dangers to the eye result from looking directly back at the laser, and from laser reflections off of specular (mirrorlike) reflectors. Because the laser beam spreads so little, the danger zone for direct beam viewing extends over an extremely long distance. Refer to specific laser equipment manuals to determine minimum safe distances for equipment being used. Individual training ranges have safety regulations that also specify safe distances for laser equipment.
Specular reflections from flat objects, like mirrors, window glass, reflectors on vehicle tail lights, and certain optical systems, do not spread the beam after reflection. These reflections can cause optical damage. The minimum safe range for such reflections is the same as for direct beam viewing. Since the reflected beam may be from any direction, the danger zone is essentially a circle around the reflector. Specular reflections from curved surfaces, like hubcaps and bumpers, spread out and reduce the danger and minimum safe range. The minimum safe range increases appreciably for anyone viewing a target area through binoculars and similar optical devices.
503. ORGANIZATIONAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
o During laser designator operator (LDO) training, personnel in the vicinity of the laser designator must be required to wear laser safety glasses with the appropriate optical density/characteristics.
o Personnel using laser designators should receive special eye examinations as a precautionary measure.
o Each laser munitions range should require strict compliance with special range regulations for laser safety.
o Never try to dismantle laser modules.
o Immediately cease designating if any person comes into the optical sight field of vision.
o Do not designate highly reflective targets like glass or chrome.
o When handling the laser designator, always assume it is powered until actually determining whether it's power source is deactivated/not hooked up.
o Never point the laser designator at anyone and ensure that the muzzle is always pointed downrange. Treat it like the weapon it is.
o In training situations, always use eye safe filters if available for the laser designator being used.
o Binoculars should not be used to view the laser impact area where a laser designator is operating. Binoculars greatly multiply the detrimental effects of laser weapons on eyesight.
504. AIRBORNE LASER DESIGNATOR (ALD) SAFETY PROCEDURES
All ground personnel within the control/training area should wear approved safety goggles while ALDs are being operated. The designated laser safety officer should ensure that all personnel are wearing goggles before giving permission to begin airborne designation.
LASER EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS
A simple rule of thumb is this: if you can see a target, you can designate it. If you can keep all of your spot on a target, a laser guided weapon employed accurately should hit it.
Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) (Aquila) (Army) A-61 Angle Rate Bombing System (ARBS)(Marine Corps) A-62 Ground/Vehicle Laser Locator Designator (G/VLLD) (Army) A-63 Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night (LANTIRN) (Air Force) A-64 Laser Spot Tracker (LST)(Navy/Marine Corps) A-65 Laser Target Designator (LTD) (Army) A-66 Modular Universal Laser Equipment (MULE) (Marine Corps) A-67 Pave Penny (Air Force) A-68 Pave Spike (Air Force) A-69 Pave Tack (Air Force) A-70 A-6E Target Recognition Attack Multi-Sensors (TRAM) Aircraft A-71 (Navy/Marine Corps) AH-64 Target Acquisition System and Designation Sight (TADS) A-72 (Army) OH-58D/Mast Mounted Sight (MMS) (Army) A-73 OV-10D/Night Observation System (NOS) (Marine Corps) A-74 Precision Guided Munitions Laser Maverick AGM-65E (LMAV)(Marine Corps) A-75 AGM-123 Skipper II (Navy/Marine Corps) A-76 COPPERHEAD, 155mm Cannon Launched Guided Projectile (CLGP) A-77 (Army/Marine Corps) HELLFIRE Missile (Army/Marine Corps) A-78 Laser Guided Bombs (LGB) (Paveway I or II) A-79 (Navy/Air Force/Marine Corps) Low Level Laser Guided Bomb (LLLGB) (Paveway III) A-80 (Navy/Air Force/Marine Corps) 5" Semi-Active Laser Guided Projectile (SAL GP)(Navy) A-81 REMOTELY PILOTED VEHICLE (RPV) AQUILA (ARMY) Description: o Unmanned, remotely piloted aircraft. o Has laser rangefinder/designator boresighted with stabilized TV sensor or forward looking infrared (FLIR), depending on mission payload. o Controlled by ground control station via an anti-jam data link. Function: Provides target acquisition, artillery adjustment, laser designation, intelligence data, and battle- field damage assessment. Platform: Remotely piloted air vehicle (13 foot wing span). Employment: o RPV will be assigned to the Corps Target Acquisition Battalion, and may be attached down to division and brigade level. o Will fly in area up to 20-35 km, depending on location of ground support vehicles. PRF Codes: Classified, three digits. In-flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Classified System Unique Capabilities: o Max speed: 180 km/h. o Total flight time: 3 hrs. o Small, hard to detect. o Day/night capability. o Has anti-jam data link. Limitations: o Requires several support vehicles. o Range limited by electronic line of sight with ground support vehicles. NOTE: The Aquila RPV is currently in its full scale development phase and will be deployed with U.S. Army units only. ANGLE RATE BOMBING SYSTEM (ARBS) (MARINE CORPS) Description: A 3 axis gimbal led dual mode television and laser spot tracker (LST). Function: Provides day or night, accurate first pass, target attack. Platform: A-4M, AV-8B Employment: o Allows day/night attack of target with LGW or nonguided bombs independent of target movement or wind, dive angle, release angle variations. o Provides reattack navigation, and automatic impact spacing. PRF Codes: All codes. Cockpit selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Function of designator to target range and power output. Stationary- System can track stationary and moving targets. Moving- Dependent on LGW capabilities. System Unique Capabilities: o Manual or automatic weapon release. o First pass accuracy. Limitations: o System affected by smoke/obscurances as discussed in Chapter 2 for LSTs. GROUND/VEHICLE LASER LOCATOR DESIGNATOR (G/VLLD) (ARMY) Description: o Long range laser rangefinder and designator. o Can provide azimuth and vertical angle. Function: Designates targets or areas that can be detected by aircraft equipped with LST and LGWs set to same code as G/VLLD. Platform: o Mounted. in M-981 Fire Support Team (FIST) vehicle. o Dismounted: on tripod. Employment: Located in company/troop FISTs and in the combat observation lasing teams (COLTS). PRF Codes: 1111-1788 Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 3 km (Copperhead) Moving- 5 km (Copperhead) System Unique Capabilities: o Uses night sight. o Two-man portable for short distances. o Can be mounted on the M-113A1 interim FIST vehicle. Limitations: Limited mobility. LOW ALTITUDE NAVIGATION AND TARGETING INFRARED FOR NIGHT (LANTIRN) (AIR FORCE) Description: Pod mounted laser designator/ranger, boresighted to FL IR. Function: o Aircraft ranging to target. o Laser target designation. Platform: F-16, F-15E (Operational in FY-90) Employment: o Aircraft inertial navigation system update. o Target designation for LGB deliveries. PRF Codes: All codes. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Function of designator to target range and power output. Stationary- System can track stationary and moving targets. Moving- Dependent on LGB/LLLGB capabilities. System Unique Capabilities: Autonomous laser designation capability. Limitations: Not "all weather" system. LASER SPOT TRACKER (LST) (NAVY/MARINE CORPS) Description: Laser spot tracker (LST) also known as laser detector tracker. Function: Locates the laser spot designating a target then passes necessary ballistic information to allow FLIR or radar acquisition of target and visual HUD or head down display. Platform: F/A-18 Employment: o Used to locate a target that is designated by MULE, OV-10D and/or A-6E TRAM to deliver laser guided munitions. o However, once target is located the LST ballistic data can be passed to the INS for delivery of conventional ordnance. PRF Codes: Al1 codes. Cockpit selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Scan patterns are from 40 degrees left to 40 degrees right and 14 degrees up and 10 degrees down. Stationary- Can track stationary and moving targets with range dependent on environmental condition. Moving- System Unique Capabilities: After designated target is sighted, aircraft locks on to target and laser can be turned off, conventional ordnance can then be delivered on target. Limitations: No active rangefinder or designator. LASER TARGET DESIGNATOR (LTD) (ARMY) Description: Battery operated, lightweight, handheld. Function: Designates targets that can be detected by aircraft equipped with LST and LGWs set to same code as LTD. Platform: Handheld. Employment: Used by fire support personnel in airborne, ranger, and special operations forces. PRF Codes: 1111-1788 Target Nominal Range: (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters) Stationary- 1 km (Copperhead) Point Target Stationary- 3 km (Copperhead) Area Target Moving- 3 km (Copperhead) System Unique Capabilities: Easily transportable. Limitations: o Cannot range targets. o Cannot provide direction and vertical angle. o Laser on time limited due to battery life. MODULAR UNIVERSAL LASER EQUIPMENT (MULE) (MARINE CORPS) Description: Manportable LTD and rangefinder. Function: Accurately locates targets and provides terminal guidance for LGWs. Platform: Man-packed, tripod mounted. Employment: o To provide forward observers naval gunfire (NGF) spotters, and forward air controllers (FACs) the capability to accurately determine location and range to targets. o To provide laser designation for all surface and air delivered LGWs. PRF Codes: 1111-1788 Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 5 Km Moving- 3 Km System Unique Capabilities: o Consists of three basic modules: oo Laser Designator Rangefinder Module provides the basic laser designator and ranging equipment. oo Stabilized Tracking Tripod Module provides stabilization for the tracking of moving targets and targets at extended ranges. oo North-Finding Module provides a true north reference. Limitations: As discussed in Chapter 2 for laser designators. PAVE PENNY (AIR FORCE) Description: o Pod contained laser seeker and tracker. Function: o To receive laser energy and provide cockpit head-up steering to source of reflected energy. o Can provide A-7 automated release. Platform: A-10, A-7 Employment: Used to help pilot locate reflected laser energy. PRF Codes: All codes. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 20 miles Moving- 20 miles plus (moving target provides better visual acquisition) System Unique Capabilities: o Very sensitive seeker, capable of engaging targets the pilot cannot see given adequate designation. o Expands aircraft capability by providing early target acquisition. Limitations: Laser spot must be within seeker field of view. PAVE SPIKE (AIR FORCE) Description: Pod contained, electro-optical laser designator and ranging system. Function: o Optical tracker boresighted to LTD. o Provides precision LTD, ranging and tracking of ground targets for attacks with conventional ordnance or LGWs. Platform: F-4D, F-4E Employment: Self 1asing for autonomous LGB/LLLGB delivery or "buddy lasing" for other aircraft delivering LGB/LLLGB. PRF Codes: Classified. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- Slant range/visibility dependent. Moving- Slant range/visibility dependent. System Unique Capabilities: o Uses imaging infrared sensors and laser designator/ rangefinder for target acquisition and weapons delivery. o Day and night limited adverse weather system. Limitations: o Must see and optically track target. o Manual tracking operation throughout gimbal limits. o Dependent on operator skill. o Not "all" weather system. PAVE TACK (AIR FORCE) Description: o Pod contained, electro-optical laser system. o Provides precision laser designation/ranging and tracking of ground targets for attacks by conventional and laser guided weapons during day, night, and limited adverse weather conditions. Function: Infrared detector is boresighted to laser assembly for tracking and designating targets for LGB/LLLGB. Platform: RF-4C, F-4E, F-111F Employment: Self lasing for autonomous LGB/LLLGB delivery or "buddy lasing" for other aircraft. PRF Codes: Classified. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- Same as Pave Spike Moving- Same as Pave Spike System Unique Capabilities: Same as Pave Spike Limitations: o Not "all" weather system. o Gimbal limits affect designator aircraft flight path profile during bomb time of flight. A-6E TARGET RECOGNITION ATTACK MULTI-SENSORS (TRAM) AIRCRAFT (NAVY/MARINE CORPS) Description: FLIR, combination laser designator rangefinder, and laser designator receiver. Function: All weather/night operational aircraft weapons delivery platform. Platform: A-6E Employment: o Close air support. o Navigate to, locate, track, and attack stationary and moving targets. o Laser designator and spot tracker. o Autonomous delivery and tracking. PRF Codes: All codes. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 4.5 to 5 miles Moving- 4.5 to 5 miles System Unique Capabilities: Laser designate, track, and display moving targets. Limitations: o Subsonic. o No cannon armament. AH-64 TARGET ACQUISITION SYSTEM AND DESIGNATION SIGHT (TADS) (ARMY) Description: LST acquisition, laser rangefinder and designation system. Function: Same as description. Platform: AH-64 Employment: o Provides day, night, adverse weather target ranging, LST and laser designating capability. o Used to engage point targets. o Can laser designate for its own or "buddy laser" for remotely fired LGWs. PRF Codes: All codes. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 10 km Moving- 10 km System Unique Capabilities: o The TADS LST facilitates handoffs from other laser designators. o Tracks targets manually or automatically. o Can launch using direct or indirect methods. o Can employ single, rapid or ripple firing techniques. o Seeker lock-on options are lock-on after launch or lock-on before launch. Limitations: As discussed in Chapter 2 for LST and laser designators. OH-58D/MAST MOUNTED SIGHT (MMS) (ARMY) Description: MMS is an electro-optical system incorporating television visual and thermal imaging systems and laser rangefinder/designator/LST. Function: Sight system to laser designate for other weapons systems. Platform: OH-58D Employment: Provides day, night, adverse weather target acquisition and laser designation capability. PRF Codes: All codes. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 10 km Moving- 10 km System Unique Capabilities: o The MMS's LST facilitates handoffs from other laser designators. o Tracks targets manually or automatically. Limitations: As discussed in Chapter 2 for LST and laser designators. OV-10D/NIGHT OBSERVATION SYSTEM (NOS) (MARINE CORPS) Description: o Improved version of OV-10 Bronco. o Aircraft has laser target detecting, ranging, tracking system. Function: o Aerial observer platform for FO or FAC; limited CAS. o Airborne laser designator. Platform: Fixed wing turbo-prop aircraft. Employment: o Aerial observer controls fires from supporting aircraft, artillery/mortar batteries, Naval gunfire ships. o Acquires and designates targets through FLIR and on board laser ranger/designator. PRF Codes: 1111-1788. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- Slant range/visibility dependent. Moving- Slant range/visibility dependent. System Unique Capabilities: o Laser ranging capable. o Night observation and designation capable. Limitations: Subsonic speed. LASER MAVERICK AGM - 65E(LMAV) (MARINE CORPS) Description: A short range, laser guided, rocket propelled air to surface missile. Function: Used in conjunction with ground or airborne laser designators. Platform: (with modification): A-4M and A-6E, F/A-18, AV-88, A-7 (USN). Employment: o Intended for use against fortified ground installations, armored vehicles and surface combatants. o Employs 125 pound warhead or 300 pound Maverick Alternate Warhead with selectable delay fuse. PRF Codes: o Classified. o Cockpit selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): o Minimum: safety considerations only. o Maximum: missile seeker, searches a sector7 miles across and over 10 miles ahead. Stationary- Yes Moving- Yes System Unique Capabilities: o If missile loses laser spot, missile goes ballistic and flies up and over target; warhead does not explode...becomes a dud. o Cockpit selectable laser coding and fusing (delay or quick). Limitations: As discussed in Chapter 2 for all LGWs. AGM-123 SKIPPER II (NAVY/MARINE CORPS) Description: MK-83, 1000 pound LGB with MK 78 SHRIKE, dual thrust motor for propulsion, gravity bias incorporated for low level launch capability. Function: Inexpensive, standoff, ship attack weapon, close air support, deep strike interdiction. Platform: A-6E, F/A-18, A-7 Employment: A-6, A-7, F/A-18 can launch with FAC control, (A-6 can self-designate). PRF Codes: *Classified Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- *Classified Moving- *Classified System Unique Capabilities: Increased stand-off range with laser guidance, low altitude launch capability. Limitations: As discussed in Chapter 2 for all LGWs. *See U.S. Navy VX-5 Tactics Guide TZ 1131-01-84 dtd 27 June 1984 COPPERHEAD, 155mm CANNON LAUNCHED GUIDED PROJECTILE (CLGP) (ARMY/MARINE CORPS) Description: Laser seeker in nose of projectile which homes in on laser energy reflected from the target during the final portion of trajectory. Function: Used in conjunction with a ground or airborne laser designator. Platform: Fired from M109, 155mm self-propelled howitzers, and M198, 155mm towed howitzers. Employment: Used primarily to attack high priority moving or stationary hard point targets. PRF Codes: 1111-1788 Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- Minimum range - 3 km, maximum range - 16 km Moving- Minimum range - 3 km, maximum range - 16 km System Unique Capabilities: o Point target accuracy. o Large footprint within which round can acquire target. Limitations: Requires continuous laser designation during the final 13 seconds of projectile flight. HELLFIRE MISSILE (ARMY/MARINE CORPS) Description: Third generation air launched anti-armor laser guided missile. Function: Used in conjunction with a ground or airborne laser designator. Platform: AH-64 helicopter. Employment: o Employed against armor or other hard point type targets. o Autonomous designation or "buddy lasing" for other launch platforms. PRF Codes: All codes. In flight selectable. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Stationary- 5 Km Moving- 5 Km System Unique Capabilities: o Can launch using direct or indirect methods. o Can employ single, rapid or ripple firing techniques. o Seeker lock-on options are lock-on after launch or lock-on before launch. Limitations: As discussed in Chapter 2 for all LGWs. LASER GUIDED BOMBS (LGB) (PAVEWAY I OR II) (NAVY/AIR FORCE/MARINE CORPS) Description: o 500 pound (GBU-12) or 2000 pound (GBU-10) warhead marked with laser guidance. o Two generations, Paveway I and II are compatible with all US ground and airborne designators. Function: o Bomb is released after aircraft is within delivery envelope. o Bomb begins terminal guidance upon laser energy acquisition. Platform: All aircraft capable of employing conventional weapons of same weight class. Employment: o Level or dive for Paveway I bombs; also loft for Paveway II bombs. o Optimum against hard, point targets. PRF Codes: o Some set at factory. o Some set before take-off. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Function of designator to target range, designatoroutput and ballistic delivery range. Stationary- Up to 6 km Moving- Yes System Unique Capabilities: Accuracy gives high probability of target kill against point targets. Limitations: o Early laser lock-on during a loft or shallow delivery angle tends to cause a miss short. o Requires ballistically accurate delivery and continuous laser energy during last 10 seconds of time of flight. o Target must subtend one mil (at designator to target range). o Very limited low altitude capability. o When delivered from a low altitude loft maneuver (see Appendix D) restricts laser on target to last 10 seconds of time of flight. LOW LEVEL LASER GUIDED BOMB (LLLGB) (PAVEWAY III) (NAVY/AIR FORCE/MARINE CORPS) Description: o Termed GBU-24 (2000 pound bomb). o No 500 pound version. o LLLGB termed Paveway III. o Third generation LGB. Function: Same as LGB. Platform: Same as LGB. Employment: o Expanded delivery envelopes allowing very low altitude, relatively low ceiling, longer range weapon releases. o Retains dive delivery option. PRF Codes: Same as LGB. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Same as LGB. System Unique Capabilities: o Improved accuracy capability over LGB GBU-10/12. o Highly resistant to countermeasures. o Blind launch capability from extended ranges. o If LLLGB does not detect laser energy, it will maintain level flight flying beyond the target. Limitations: o Requires continuous laser energy during last eight seconds of time of flight. o Target must subtend one mil (at designator to target range). 5" SEMI-ACTIVE LASER GUIDED PROJECTILE (SAL GP) (NAVY) Description: A rocket sustained laser guided projectile Function: Shore bombardment and single round ship kills. Platform: DD-963/DDG-51/DDG-993 class ships. Employment: Defeat hard and light materiel/personnel targets ashore and afloat. PRF Codes: Classified. Target Nominal Range (for std tgt 2.3 x 2.3 meters): Classified. System Unique Capabilities: Same as CLGP. Limitations: Same as CLGP. APPENDIX B PROCEDURES GUIDE Ground and Airborne Laser Designation for Copperhead Cannon Launched Guided Projectiles (CLGP) Procedures B-83 Ground and Airborne Laser Designation for Naval Gunfire (NGF) Procedures B-87 Ground and Airborne Laser Designation for CAS with FAC not Collocated with Laser Designator Operator (LDO) or Airborne Laser Designator (ALD) B-91 Ground and Airborne Laser Designation for Helicopters B-94
a. FM or wire (USMC may use high frequency (HF)).
b. Observer to Fire Direction Center (FDC).
2. General. As with any other fire support planning, Copperhead fire planning must support the concept of operations and be integrated into the maneuver commander's plan. The efficient employment of Copperhead requires that G/VLLD positioning, G/VLLD designation range, the nature of the target, and target movement receive special consideration While stationary targets can be engaged using procedures similar to those for delivery of high explosive munitions, moving targets require additional actions to ensure that the target can be acquired by the Copperhead projectile. Additionally, the Copperhead procedures followed by the observer and the FDC, and the communications exchanged, are dependent upon whether the mission involves a planned target or a target of opportunity.
3. Planned targets.
a. Message to Observer (MTO) for planned targets. The MTO is used to confirm planned targets.
ELEMENT EXAMPLE Identification A58, THIS IS R24 Target number TARGET AF4O12 Unit to Fire N24 Number of Rounds 1 ROUND Angle T ANGLE T-60O Guns Right/Left RIGHT Footprint Letter Code SET F, GREENb. Once the target is identified by the observer, he estimates its speed and direction to determine which planned target location should be used for the engagement.
c. Call for fire.
ELEMENT EXAMPLE Observer Identification THIS IS A71 Warning Order Fire Target AY5781, OVER Target Description 4 TANKS Method of Engagement 4 ROUNDS Method of Control AT MY COMMAND, OVER
d. For immediate responsiveness in engaging priority targets, the observer can streamline his call for fire by omitting the target description, method of engagement, and method of control
EXAMPLE: THIS IS A71. FIRE TARGET AY4781, OVER.
4. Targets of opportunity.
a. While Copperhead fire attacking a stationary target simply requires the observer to determine the target location and then transmit his call for fire, Copperhead fire against a moving target is made complex by the requirement to predict where the target will be when the round arrives This location, called the intercept point, is determined by estimating the target speed and direction and comparing that information with mission processing times. (If, through experience, the operator knows how long it will take the firing unit to process the mission, he should use that time. If not, he should use 200 seconds as the time from the initiation of the call for fire to round impact.)
b. Call for fire.
ELEMENT EXAMPLE Observer Identification Y5A57, THIS IS Y5A71 Warning Order FIRE FOR EFFECT, POLAR, OVER Location of Target DIRECTION 1800, DISTANCE, 3450, VERTICAL ANGLE +5, OVER Target Description TANK Method of Engagement COPPERHEAD, 1 ROUND Method of Control AT MY COMMAND, OVER c. MTO. ELEMENT EXAMPLE Unit Firing A2Q27 Number of Rounds 2 Rounds Laser PRF Code CODE 241 Time of Flight TIME OF FLIGHT 255. Engagement commands. **NOTE: When using TACFIRE with Digital Message Device (DMD), the light emitting diodes (LED) will display "DESIGNATE." All voice transmissions will use "LASER ON" as follows:
a. As soon as the first round is fired in a mission, the observer receives "SHOT" from the FDC.
b. When the round is 20 seconds from impact, the FDC will announce to the observer "LASER ON." If time of flight is 20 seconds or less, "SHOT" and "LASER ON" are transmitted at the same time.
c. Once the observer has received SHOT, he should begin his own countdown using the time of flight received in the MTO. If for some reason, he has not received a "LASER ON" call, he should begin designation not later than 13 seconds before impact.
d. If the observer does not acknowledge the "LASER ON" call, the FDC will continue to transmit "LASER ON" until rounds impact.
a. HF radio (ANGLICO/USMC NGF Spot Team).
b. Relay through Aerial Observer/FAC if ANGLICO/NGF Spot Team not present.
2. Call for Fire to Ship
a. Requester specifies "guided projectile."
b. Ship specifies laser code, gun target line and time of flight, (internal if necessary).
c. Ship calls "SHOT" and "LASER ON." Laser designator operator acknowledges.
d. At "SHOT," laser designator operator prepares to designate target.
e. At "LASER ON," laser designation commences
3. Laser designator operator will designate the target until
a. "TERMINATE" call or
b. Rounds impact or
c. 20 seconds after expected TOF expires
4. When necessary, all laser calls are automatically repeated.
NOTE: There may be more designators than ANGLICO/USMC NGF Spot Teams. Communications relay through FO, ANGLICO, NGF Spot Team or FAC may be needed.
SAMPLE OF RADIO TRAFFIC BETWEEN
THE NGF SPOTTER AND SUPPORTING SHIP
FROM TO VOICE MESSAGE REMARKS Spotter Ship "ZX this is GB" "Fire Mission" "Target Number HK1776" "Over" Ship Spotter "GB this is ZX" Ship reads back "Fire Mission" elements of the "Target Number HK1776" Spotter's call. "Out" Spotter Ship "GRID 146250" Needs GRID or Polar "Altitude 45 yards" coordinates because "Direction: 263 Degrees True" target number may "Tank: danger close 725 east" not be preplanned "Guided Projectile" and location may be "Fuze PD" unknown to ship. "Fire for Effect" "Over" Ship Spotter "GRID 146250" Ship repeats basic "Altitude 45 yards" elements of the "Direction: 263 Degrees True" Spotter's call. "Tank: Danger close 725 east" "Guided Projectile" "Fuze PD" "Fire for Effect" "Out" Ship Spotter "Gun Target Line 315 Degrees True" "Ready" "TOF 52" "TOF 52" means Time "Code 328" of Flight: 52 seconds "Over" Spotter Ship "Gun Target Line 315 Degrees True" "Ready" "Code 328" "Over" Ship Spotter "Shot..." This is cue for laser "Laser on" designator to be "Over" turned on and designate the target. Spotter Ship "Shot" Laser designator "Laser on" operator designates "Out" target. Ship Spotter "Splash" Round should explode "Out" 5 seconds after "Splash" is transmitted. Laser designator is turned off 20 seconds after "Splash" is transmitted. If the impact of the laser guided round is not observed within 20 seconds after "Splash", the round is presumed to have malfunctioned. Check code settings and operation of designator. Call for another round. Spotter Ship "End of Mission" "Tank Destroyed" "Out" Ship Spotter "End of Mission" "Tank Destroyed" "Out"NOTE: If the laser designator operator is not collocated with the NGF Spotter, the Spotter must pass the laser designator code and command "Laser On" to the laser designator operator. This is usually done via radio.
a. Comm between LDO or ALD and FAC, if not collocated. FM.
b. Comm between FAC and aircraft. FM/UHF/VHF.
c. Comm between LDO or ALD and aircraft. FM (UHF/VHF when available).
2. Additions to tactical air request.
a. Laser code. (FAC gets laser code from FSO/FSC and passes to aircraft with LST. FAC obtains/passes laser code to FS0/FSC for attacking aircraft with LGWs.)
b. Request for LGW's.
c. Laser to tgt line in degrees magnetic.
d. Radio frequency and call sign for final controller to whom pilot will give final attack laser calls.
3. Additions to FAC to pilot CAS briefing. (Appendix C)
a. Request laser code, four digits (1xxx) set in LGW's on aircraft. In the case of HELLFIRE equipped attack helos, the FAC will pass the laser code set in the ground designator and HELLFIRE seeker codes will be changed to match the ground designator or ALD.
b. Pass laser to target line degrees magnetic.
c. Laser spot offset information if applicable.
d. Pass radio frequency and call sign for final controller to whom pilot will give final attack laser calls.
4. Additions to pilot to FAC reporting procedures.
a. Pass that LGW's are to be delivered and the laser codes set in them.
b. "10 SECONDS warning call that aircraft will need laser on in 10 seconds.
c. "LASER ON" call.
d. "SPOT" call (for LST equipped aircraft).
e. "TERMINATE" call when designation is no longer required. This is based on the pilots computation of the TOF of the LGW being delivered.
5. Additions to FAC to LDO or ALD calls.
a. Confirm LST/LGB/LGM equipped aircraft inbound.
b. Confirm laser code to be used. Ground LDOs and ALDs will change to codes set in LGW's carried by supporting aircraft.
c. FAC automatically relays all laser calls from pilot to LDO or ALD.
FOR AIRCRAFT WITH LST/LGW
GROUND AND AIRBORNE LASER DESIGNATION FOR HELICOPTERS
a. Ground - FM.
b. Air - FM/VHF/UHF.
2. Target Handoff to LST equipped helicopter.
a. Additions to FO/ALD to helicopter brief.
(1) Four digit laser code (1xxx).
(2) Laser to target line in degrees magnetic.
(3) Laser spot offset; if applicable.
b. Additions to pilot to FO/ALD reporting procedures.
(1) "10 SECONDS" warning call that the aircraft will need laser on in 10 seconds.
(2) "LASER ON" call.
(3) "TERMINATE" call when designation is no longer required.
3. Target engagement for Laser Guided Missile (LGM) equipped helicopters.
a. Additions to FO/ALD to helicopter brief.
(1) Four digit laser code (1xxx).
(2) Laser to target line in degrees magnetic.
(3) Number of missiles; if applicable.
(4) Firing mode; if applicable.
(5) Time interval between launches; if applicable.
(6) Radio frequency and call signs for laser calls; if applicable.
b. Additions to pilot to FO/ALD reporting procedures.
(1) "10 SECOND" warning call that the aircraft will need laser on in 10 seconds.
(2) "LASER ON" call.
(3) "TERMINATE" call when designation is no longer required.
CLOSE AIR SUPPORT BRIEF
(Given to the Aircraft)
(Aircraft Call Sign) This is (Your Call Sign) CAS briefing follows: (1. INITIAL POINT (IP))"________________________________" (2. HEADING (IP to Target [TGT])"______________________________"(MAGnetic) (OFFSET:) "L / R" (3. DISTANCE (IP to TGT))"_______________________________"(Nautical Miles) (4. TARGET ELEVATION)"______________________________"(Feet-Mean Sea Level) (5. TARGET DESCRIPTION)"_________________________________________________" (6. TARGET LOCATION)"______________________________"(LATitude/LONGitude or UTM or OFFSETS or VISUAL) (7. TYPE MARK)"_________________"(Code)"_________________________________" (WP, Beacon, Laser) (Beacon, Laser) (8. LOCATION OF FRIENDLIES)"_____________________________________________" (9.) "EGRESS______________________________________________________________" (Additional line numbers apply to aircraft specific data required for beacon bombing --- see next page for specifics) (REMARKS)" _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________" (TIME ON TARGET)"TOT______________" or (TIME TO TGT (TTT))"STANDBY__________PLUS_________ HACK" (Min) (SEC) OMIT DATA NOT REQUIRED. LINE NUMBERS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED. UNITS OF MEASURE ARE STANDARD: SPECIFY IF OTHER UNITS OF MEASURE ARE USED.
Different aircraft require different information. Information on beacon bombing is to be transmitted only after confirmation of aircraft type. Beacon bombing data precedes remark/TOT or TTT. Line numbers are as follows:
USN/USMC A-6 Line Numbers (10. Beacon to TGT) "Bearing_________________(MAGnetic) or Beacon Grid________________" (11. Beacon to TGT) "Range___________________(Meters) or TGT Grid___________________" (12.) "Beacon Elevation_____________________" (Feet-Mean Sea Level) ************************************************************************* F-111 Line Numbers (10. Beacon to TGT) "Bearing_____________________________________" (True) (11. Beacon to TGT) "Range_______________________________________" (Feet) (12.) "Beacon Grid__________________________________" (LATitude/LONGitude) (13.) "Target Grid__________________________________" (LATitude/LONGitude) (14.) "Beacon Delay_______________________________________________" (Feet) F-111 A/E requires Lines 10 and 11. F-111 D requires Lines 10 and 11 OR Lines 12 and 13. F-111 F requires Line 14 and either Lines 10 and 11 OR Lines 12 and 13. ************************************************************************** F-16 Line Numbers (10. Beacon to TGT) "Bearing______________________________________" (True) (11. Beacon to TGT) "Range________________________________________" (Feet) (12.) "Beacon Elevation_____________________________"(Feet-Mean Sea Level) (13.) "Target Elevation_____________________________"(Feet-Mean Sea Level) (14. Beacon) "Time Delay__________________________________" (Microseconds) ************************************************************************** USAF F-4 Line Numbers (10. Beacon to TGT) "Bearing_____________________________________" (True) (11. Beacon to TGT) "Range_____________________________" (Nautical Miles) (12.) "Beacon Grid_________________________________" (LATitude/LONGitude) (13.) "Target Grid__________________________________" (LATitude/LONGitude) (14. Offsets) "North-South__________________________________" (True Feet) (15. Offsets) "East-West____________________________________" (True Feet) (16.) "Beacon Elevation___________________________" (Feet-Mean Sea Level) (17.) "Target Elevation___________________________" (Feet-Mean Sea Level) F-4 AN/ARN-lOl requires Lines 10 and 11 OR 12 and 13 OR 14 and 15 and both Lines 16 and 17. All other F-4s require Lines 14, 15, 16, and 17.
Laser Guided Bomb (LGB)/Low Level Laser Guided Bomb (LLLGB) Delivery Profiles
LGBs/LLLGBs are not a "cure all" for the full spectrum of targets and scenarios facing fighter/attack aircraft, but they do offer advantages in standoff and accuracy over other types of free fall weapons in the inventory. In a high threat environment, LGB/LLLGB will be employed in a range of missions from CAS to interdiction. The following section describes the basic delivery profiles used in LGB/LLLGB employment.
b. Medium altitude employment.
LGB/LLLGB are excellent performers in dive deliveries initiated from medium altitude. A steep, fast dive attack increases LGB/LLLGB maneuvering potential and flight ability. Medium altitude attacks generally reduce target acquisition problems and more readily allow for target designation by either ground or airborne designation platforms. Medium altitude LGB/LLLGB dive delivery tactics are normally used in areas of low to medium threat. Figure D-l depicts the LGB/LLLGB dive delivery tactic.
Low level LGB/LLLGB employment requires special considerations. There is no "best" delivery profile to fly at the exclusion of all others. The aircrew must consider both survivability and specific target characteristics to determine the best release option available. Low level employment is one of the most demanding tasks facing fighter/attack crews today. The aircrew must also consider the significant difference between the LGB and LLGB flight capability. Critical elements for low level LGB/LLLGB employment are:
o Sufficient airspeed.
o Accurate release parameters.
o Target acquisition.
o Coordination with the ground or airborne designator.
Low level delivery profiles fall into several categories. The categories are:
o Loft delivery.
o Level delivery.
o Pop-up to low angle dive delivery.
o Pop-up to long range toss delivery.
(1) Loft delivery.
Loft deliveries may be initiated prior to target acquisition or designation. This capability increases stand off distance and generally requires a ground designator. Advantages of the loft option include minimum total response time, minimum non-maneuvering exposure time, and maximum standoff capability. Loft angles can vary to fit the tactical environment. Loft deliveries require automated weapons delivery systems to achieve accurate release parameters. When using ground designators, close coordination between aircrews and ground designator personnel is a critical factor. Figure D-2 depicts LGB/LLLGB low level loft delivery tactic.
(SOPHISTICATED THREAT-TARGET IDENTIFICATION-NO PROBLEM)
Level deliveries from low altitude are generally driven by tactical considerations or weather limitations. The major disadvantage of a low level, level delivery is the requirement to fly over the target and its associated enemy air defense weapons.
(3) Pop-up to low angle dive delivery.
Pop-up to low angle dive deliveries offer advantages over level releases. Target acquisition and destruction is easier than with level delivery because the apex is higher, there is more time available for search, and the bomb has better maneuverability. Exposure is usually longer than for a level approach, so the pilot should maneuver the aircraft throughout the delivery. Figure D-3 depicts the LGB/LLLGB pop-up delivery tactic.
(SOPHISTICATED THREAT-TARGET IDENTIFICATION DIFFICULT)
Toss deliveries provide increased delivery flexibility over other delivery options; however, they are not normally used in the CAS arena. While ceiling and visibility may dictate release parameters, standoff capability is very good and varies with the type of weapon used and the release altitude. The release altitude may be restricted by ceiling and visibility. Total exposure time is moderate and non-maneuvering exposure time is minimized. The toss delivery profile is very similar to that illustrated for the loft in Figure D-2.
d. LLLGB advantages.
The LLLGB was developed in response to Sophisticated enemy air defenses, poor visibility, and to counter limitations in low ceilings. The weapon is designed for low altitude delivery and with a capability for improved standoff ranges to reduce exposure. Unlike the LGB, the LLLGB can correct for relatively large deviations from planned release parameters in the primary delivery mode (low-altitude level delivery). It also has a larger delivery envelope for the dive, glide and loft modes than does the earlier LGB. The wide field of view and midcourse guidance modes programmed in the LLLGB allow for a "Point Shoot" delivery capability. This capability allows the pilot to attack the target by pointing the aircraft at the target and releasing the weapon after obtaining appropriate sight indications. The primary advantage of this capability is that accurate dive/tracking is not required to solve wind drift problems. An added advantage of the LLLGB in a CAS situation is that if the LLLGB does not detect reflected laser energy, it will maintain level flight to continue beyond the designated target, overflying friendly positions, to impact long, rather than short of the target.
Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company (ANGLICO) - An organization composed of Marine and Naval personnel specifically qualified for shore control of naval gunfire and close air support. (JCS Pub 1)
Air Support Radar Team (ASRT) - A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system that provides ground-controlled precision flight path guidance and weapons release. (JCS Pub 1) (USMC only)
Air Liaison Officer (ALO) - An officer (aviator/pilot) attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air operations matters. (JCS Pub 1)
Army Air-Ground System (AAGS) - The Army system that provides for interface between Army and tactical air support agencies of other services in planning, evaluating, processing and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. It is composed of appropriate staff members including G-2 air and G-3 air personnel and necessary communications equipment. (JCS Pub 1)
At My Command - In artillery and naval gun fire support, the command used when it is desired to control the exact time of delivery of fire. (JCS Pub 1)
Attack Heading - The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during delivery phase of an air strike. (JCS Pub 1)
Attack Helicopter - A helicopter designed to search out, attack and destroy enemy targets. (JCS Pub 1)
Call for Fire - A request for fire containing data necessary for obtaining the required fire on a target. (JCS Pub 1)
Combat Information Center (CIC) - The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Certain control, assistance, and coordination functions may be delegated by command to the combat information center. (JCS Pub 1)
Direct Air Support Center (DASC) - A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed for control and direction of close air support and other tactical air support operations, and normally collocated with fire support coordination elements. (JCS Pub 1) (USMC only)
Firepower Control Team (FCT) - An element of ANGLICO provided to U.S. Army and allied company-size units to assist in the controlling and spotting of naval air and naval gunfire.
Fire Direction Center (FDC) - That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. The fire direction center receives target intelligence and requests for fire and translates them into appropriate fire direction. (JCS Pub 1)
Fire for Effect - Fire which is delivered after the mean point of impact or burst is within the desired distance of the target or adjusting/ranging point. Term in a call for fire to indicate the adjustment/ranging is satisfactory and fire for effect is desired. (JCS Pub 1)
Fire Support Coordination Center (FSCC) - A single location in which are centralized communications facilities and personnel incident to the coordination of all forms of fire support. (JCS Pub 1)
Fire Support Element (FSE) - That portion of the force tactical operations center at every echelon above company/troop which is responsible for targeting coordination, and integration of fires delivered on surface targets by fire support means under the control of or in support of the force. (Army Field Manual 101-5-1)
Fire Support Officer (FSO) - Senior field artillery officer assigned to Army maneuver battalions and brigades. Advises commander on fire support matters. (Army Field Manual 6-20)
Fire Support Team (FIST) - An Army team provided by field artillery to each maneuver company/troop to plan and coordinate all indirect fire means available to the unit to include mortars, field artillery, close air support, and naval gunfire. (Army Field Manual 101-5-1)
Forward Observer (FO)- An observer, operating with front line troops and trained to adjust ground and naval gunfire and pass back battlefield information. In absence of a forward air controller, the observer may control close air support strikes. (JCS Pub 1)
Forward Air Controller (FAC) - An officer (aviator/pilot) member of the tactical air control party who, from a forward ground or airborne position, controls aircraft in close air support of ground troops. (JCS Pub 1)
Grid Coordinates- Coordinates of a grid coordinate system to which numbers and letters are assigned for use in designating a point on a gridded map, photograph or chart. (JCS Pub 1)
Gun-Target Line - An imaginary straight line from the gun(s) to the target. (JCS Pub 1)
Head-Up Display (HUD) - A display of flight, navigation, attack, or other information superimposed upon the pilot's forward field of view. (JCS Pub 1)
Infrared Radiation (IR) - Radiation emitted or reflected in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. (JCS Pub 1)
Initial Point (IP) - A well-defined point, easily distinguishable visually and/or electronically, used as a starting point for the run to the target. (JCS Pub 1)
Known Datum Point - A clearly visible point to which the azimuth and range are known. (Army Regulation 310-25)
Laser Designator - A device that emits a beam of laser energy that is used to mark a specific place or object. (JCS Pub 1)
Laser-Target/Gun-Target Angle - The angle between the laser to target line and the LGW/gun-target line at the point where they cross the target.
Laser Guided Weapon (LGW) - A weapon that utilizes a seeker to detect laser energy reflected from a laser marked/designated target and through signal processing, provides guidance commands, to a control system that guides the weapon to the point from which the laser energy is being reflected. (JCS Pub 1)
Laser Rangefinder - A device that uses laser energy for determining the distance from the device to a place or object. (JCS Pub 1)
Laser Seeker - A device based on a direction sensitive receiver that detects the energy reflected from a laser designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to the receiver. (JCS Pub 1)
Laser Spot - The area that is illuminated by a laser on a surface.
Laser-Target Line - An imaginary straight line from the laser designator to the target with respect to magnetic north.
Laser Tracker - A device that locks on to the reflected energy from a laser marked/designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself. (JCS Pub 1) Referred to as Laser Spot Tracker (LST) in this publication.
Linear Terrain Feature - A topographical feature, natural or manmade, that has recognizable straight line characteristics.
Loft Bombing - A method of bombing in which the delivery plane approaches the target at a very low altitude, makes a definite pullup at a given point, releases the bomb at predetermined point during the pullup, and tosses the bomb onto the target. (JCS Pub 1)
Milliradian - One thousandth of an angle at the center of a circle, subtending an arc of the circle equal in length to the radius: equal to .0572958 degrees.
Offset Lasing- Technique of aiming a laser designator at a point other than the target. The laser may be moved to designate the target after laser acquisition for terminal attack guidance.
Marine Air Command and Control System (MACCS) - A US Marine Corps tactical air command and control system that provides the tactical air commander with the means to command, coordinate, and control all air operations within an assigned sector and to coordinate air operations with other services. It is composed of command and control agencies with communications- electronics equipment that incorporates a capability from manual through semi automatic control. (JCS Pub 1)
Point Target - A target of such small dimension that it requires the accurate placement of ordnance in order to neutralize or destroy it. (JCS Pub 1)
Polar Coordinates - The location of a point in a plane by the length of a radius vector, from a fixed origin in the plane, and the angle the radius vector makes with a fixed line in the plane. (JCS Pub 1)
Polar Plot - The method of locating a target or point on the map by means of polar coordinates. (JCS Pub 1)
Precision Guided Munition (PGM) - A weapon that uses a seeker to detect
electromagnetic energy reflected from a target or reference point and
through processing provides guidance commands to a control system that
guides the weapon to the target.
Pulse Code - A system of using selected pulse repetition frequencies to allow a specific laser seeker to lock on a target illuminated by a specific laser designator.
Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) - In radar, the number of pulses that occur each second. Not to be confused with transmission frequency which is determined by the rate at which cycles are repeated within the transmitted pulse. (JCS Pub 1)
Radar Beacon - A receiver-transmitter combination that sends out a coded signal when triggered by the proper type of pulse, enabling determination of range and bearing information by the interrogating station or aircraft. (JCS Pub 1)
Run-In - Magnetic course direction from initial point to target. (USMC Operational Handbook 5-1).
Shot - A report that indicates a gun, or guns, have been fired. See also rounds complete. (JCS Pub 1)
Spillover - The part of the laser spot that is not on the target because beam divergence/standoff range, improper boresighting of laser designator, or poor operator illuminating procedures.
Splash - In artillery and naval gunfire Support, word transmitted to an observer or spotter 5 seconds before the estimated time of the impact of a salvo or round. (JCS Pub 1)
Spotter - An observer stationed for the purpose of observing and reporting results of naval gunfire to the firing agency and who also may be employed in designating targets.
Supporting Arms Liaison Team (SALT) - An element of ANGLICO provided to U.S. Army and allied battalion and brigade-sized units to provide liaison and assist in planning and controlling naval air and naval gunfire.
Target Acquisition (TA) - The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. (JCS Pub 1)
Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) - A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft. (JCS Pub 1)
Toss Bombing - A method of bombing where an aircraft flies on a line towards the target, pulls up in a vertical plane, releasing the bomb at an angle that will compensate for the effect of gravity drop on the bomb. Similar to loft bombing, is unrestricted as to altitude. (JCS Pub 1)
AAGS - Army Air-Ground System ALD - Airborne Laser Designator ALO - Air Liaison Officer ANGLICO - Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company AO - Aerial Observer ARBS - Angle Rate Bombing System ASRT - Air Support Radar Team CAS - Close Air Support CLGP - Cannon Launched Guided Projectile COLT - Combat Observation Lasing Team DASC - Direct Air Support Operations Center FAC - Forward Air Controllers FCT - Firepower Control Teams FDC - Fire Direction Center FIST - Fire Support Team FLIR - Forward Looking Infrared Radar FO - Forward Observers FSC - Fire Support Coordinator FSCC - Fire Support Coordination Center FSE - Fire Support Element FSO - Fire Support Officer G/VLLD - Ground/Vehicle Laser Locator Designator HUD - Head-Up Display IP - Initial Point IR - Infrared LANTIRN - Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night LD0 - Laser Designator Operator LGB - Laser Guided Bomb LGM - Laser Guided Missile LGW - Laser Guided Weapon LLLGB - Low Level Laser Guided Bomb LOAL - Lock-on After Launch L0BL - Lock-on Before Launch LST - Laser Spot Tracker LTD - Laser Target Designator MACCS - Marine Air Command and Control System MMS - Mast Mounted Sight MR - Milliradian MT0 - Message to Observer MULE - Modular Universal Laser Equipment NGF - Naval Gun Fire NOS - Night Observation System NTACS - Navy Tactical Air Control System PRF - Pulse Repetition Frequency SAL GP - Semi-Active Laser Guided Projectile (Navy) SALT - Supporting Arms Liaison Team TACP - Tactical Air Control Party TACS - Tactical Air Control System TADS - Target Acquisition and Designation Systems TRAM - Target Recognition Attack Multisensor U.S. AIR FORCE DISTRIBUTION Initial distribution is as indicated below. Recipients should establish a requirement for this pamphlet. Subsequent distribution is "F". HQ USAF - XOX (1) AAC/XP/DO (2/2) XOO (5) PRP (1) AF IT/CC (1) SAG (1) RDQ (1) HQ AFCC/XP/DO (1/1) SIP (1) REO (1) HQ AFISC/IG/SE (1/1) XOE (1) RDS (1) HQ AFRES/DO (5) NGB/XOO (1) HQ AFSC/XP/DO (1/1) HQ TAC - XP (10) DO (6) HQ ATC/XP/DO (1/1) DR (5) IN (3) HQ AU/CC/ED (1/2) II (2) LG (2) HQ ESC/XP/DO (1/1) SI (2) WEO (1) HQ MAC/CC/DO (1/1) HQ PACAF/XP/DO&I (5/5) HQ USAFA/Comdt (1) HQ USAFE/XP/DO/DD (5/5/2) HQ SAC/CC/DO (1/1) Tactical Air Force Numbered Air Forces Tactical Air Force Air Divisions Tactical Fighter Wings (Air-to-Ground) Tactical Training Wings (Air-to-Ground) Tactical Reconnaissance Wings Tactical Air Control Wings and Subordinate Units Senior Air Force Representatives Tactical Air Command Liaison Officers Tactical Air Command Gained Fighter and Reconnaissance Wings and Groups U.S. ARMY DISTRIBUTION HQDA Cdr, Third US Army (4) Wash, DC 20310 Ft McPherson, GA 30330 (DAAR) (2) Cdr Fourth US Army (4) (DAEN) (2) Ft Sheridan, IL 60037 (DAIG) (2) (DALO) (2) Cdr, Fifth US Army (4) (DAMA) (2) Ft Sam Houston, TX 78234 (DAMI) (2) (DAMO) (2) Cdr, Sixth US Army (4) (DAPE) (2) Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129 (JG0) (2) (NGB) (2) Cdr, Eighth US Army/CINCUNC/COMUSFK (10) APO San Francisco 96301 Cdr, Army Materiel Command (4) 5001 Eisenhower Avenue Cdr, I Corps Alexandria, VA 22333 ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) Cdr, USA FORSCOM Ft Lewis, WA 98433 ATTN: DCSI (2) DCSOPS (40) Cdr, III Corps TRADOC (20) ATTN: G2 (1) Ft McPherson, GA 30330 G3 (3) Ft Hood, TX 76544 Cdr, USA TRADOC ATTN: ATCD (10) Cdr, V Corps (4) ATTG (2) APO New York 09079 ATDO (100) Ft Monroe, VA 23651-5000 Cdr, VII Corps, USAREUR (4) APO New York 09107 CINC USAREUR/Seventh Army ATTN: TRADOC LO (30) Cdr, USA Japan/IX Corps (4) AEAGC (10) APO San Francisco 96343 APO New York 09403 Cdr, XVI II Abn Corps Cdr, WESTCOM ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: APOP (5) G3 (2) TRADOC LO (10) FSCOORD (5) Ft Shafter, HI 96858 Ft Bragg, NC 28307 Cdr, First US Army (4) Cdr, 1st Armored Div Ft George E. Meade, MD 20755 ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) Cdr, Second US Army (4) FSCOORD (10) Ft Gillem, GA 30050 APO New York 09039 Cdr, 1st Cav Div Cdr, 5th Inf Div (Mech) ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSC0ORD (10) FSCOORD (10) Ft Hood, TX 76544 Ft Polk, LA 71459 Cdr, 1st Inf Div (Mech) Cdr, 7th Inf Div (Light) ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSCOORD (10) FSCOORD (10) Ft Riley, KS 66442 Ft Ord, CA 93491 Cdr, 1st Inf Div (Fwd) Cdr, 8th Inf Div (Mech) ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSCO0RD (10) FSC0ORD (10) APO New York 09137 AP0 New York 09111 Cdr, 2d Armored Div Cdr, 9th Inf Div (Motorized) ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSCOORD (10) FSC00RD (10) Ft Hood, TX 76544 Ft Lewis, WA 98433 Cdr, 2d Armored Div (Fwd) Cdr, 10th Inf Div ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSCOORD (10) FSC00RD (10) APO New York 09069 Ft Drum, NY 13602 Cdr, 2d Inf Div Cdr, 24th Inf Div (Mech) ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSCO0RD (10) FSC0ORD (10) APO San Francisco 96224 Ft Stewart, GA 31331 Cdr, 3d Armored Div Cdr, 25th Inf Div ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSC0ORD (10) FSC00RD (10) APO New York 09039 Schofield Barracks, HI 96857 Cdr, 3d Inf Div (Mech) Cdr, 82d Abn Div ATTN: G2 (1) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) G3 (3) FSCOORD (10) FSCOORD (10) APO New York 09036 Ft Bragg, NC 28307 Cdr, 4th Inf Div (Mech) ATTN: G2 (1) G3 (3) FSC00RD (10) Ft Carson, CO 80913 Cdr, 101st Abn Div (AASLT) Cdr, 1st ROTC Rgn (4) ATTN: G2 (1) Ft Bragg, NC 28307 G3 (3) FSC00RD (10) Cdr, 2d ROTC Rgn (4) Ft Campbell, KY 42223 Ft Knox, KY 40121 Cdr, 172d Inf Bde Cdr 3d ROTC Rgn (4) ATTN: S2 (1) Ft Riley, KS 66442 S3 (2) FSCO0RD (10) Cdr, 4th ROTC Rgn (4) Ft Richardson, AK 99505 Ft Lewis, WA 98433 Cdr, 193rd Inf Bde (Panama) Comdt, USA Air Defense Arty Sch (4) ATTN: S2 (1) Ft Bliss, TX 79916 S3 (2) FSCO0RD (5) Comdt, USA Armor Sch (4) AP0 Miami 34004 Ft Knox, KY 40121 Cdr, 194th Armored Bde Cdr, USAAVNC and Ft Rucker (4) ATTN: S2 (1) Ft Rucker, AL 36362 S3 (2) FSC00RD (5) Comdt, USA Chemical School (4) Ft Knox, KY 40121 Ft McClellan, AL 36205 Cdr, 197th Inf Bde Comdt, USA Cmd & General Staff ATTN: S2 (1) College (4) S3 (2) Ft Leavenworth, KS 66027 FSC00RD (5) Ft Benning, GA 31905 Comdt, Defense Info Sch (4) Ft Benjamin Harrison, IN 46216 Cdr, 6th Cav (AC) Bde ATTN: S2 (1) Comdt USA Engineer School (4) S3 (2) Ft Belvoir, VA 22060 FSC00RD (5) Ft Hood, TX 76544 Comdt, USA Field Arty Sch (50) Ft Sill, OK 73503 Cdr, 2d Armored Cav Regt ATTN: S2 (1) Comdt, USA Inf Sch (4) S3 (2) Ft Benning, GA 31905 Air Cav Trp (5) APO New York 09093 Cdr USA Intelligence Ctr & Sch (4) Ft Huachuca, AZ 85613 Cdr, 3d Armored Cav Regt ATTN: S2 (1) Comdt, USA Logistic Management Ctr (4) S3 (2) Ft Lee, VA 23801 Air Cav Trp (5) Ft Bliss, TX 79916 Comdt, USA Military Police School (4) Ft McClellan, AL 36205 Cdr, 11th Armored Cav Regt ATTN: S2 (1) Cdr, USA Information Systems Command (4) S3 (2) Ft Huachuca, AZ 85613 Air Cav Trp (5) APO New York 09146 Comdt, USA Missile and Munitions Cdr, 1st Special Ops Cmd (4) Ctr & Sch (4) Ft Bragg, NC 28307 Redstone Arsenal, AL 35897 Comdt, USA Institute for Cdr, USA Ordnance Ctr & Sch (4) Military Assistance (4) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Bragg, NC 28307 Comdt, USA Quartermaster Sch (4) Director, USA TRADOC Systems Ft Lee, VA 23801 Analysis Activity (4) White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002 Comdt, USA Sergeants Major Academy (4) Ft Bliss, TX 79918 Cdr, USAMICOM (4) Redstone Arsenal , AL 35898 Comdt, USA Signal School (4) Ft Gordon, GA 30905 Cdr, USA Communications Cmd (4) Ft Huachuca, AZ 85613 Cdr, USA Soldier Spt Ctr (4) Ft Benjamin Harrison, IN 46216 Comdt, USA Transportation and Aviation Logistics Schools (4) Ft Eustis Va 23604 Supt, United States Military Academy (4) West Point, NY 10996 Comdt, USA War College (4) Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013 Cdr, TRADOC Combined Arms Test Activity (4) Ft Hood, TX 76544 President, USA Combat Developments Experimentation Board (4) Ft Lewis, WA 98433 Director, USA Combat Developments Experimentation Center (4) Ft Ord, CA 93941 Cdr, USA Combined Arms Center & Ft Leavenworth (10) Ft Leavenworth, KS 66027 Cdr, USAFJKSWC (4) Ft Bragg, NC 28307 Cdr, USA Intelligence and Security Command (4) Arlington Hall Station Arlington, VA 22212 U.S. NAVY DISTRIBUTION Chief of Naval Operations Navy Department Washington, DC 20370 Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Fleet Pearl Harbor, HI 96860 Commander in Chief U.S. Naval Forces, Europe FP0 New York 09510 Commander Second Fleet FP0 New York 09501-6000 Commander Third Fleet Pearl Harbor, HI 96860 Commander Sixth Fleet FP0 New York 09501-6002 Commander Seventh Fleet FPO San Francisco 96601-6003 Commander Naval Air Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet Norfolk, VA 23511 Commander Naval Air Force U.S. Pacific Fleet Naval Air Station, North Island San Diego, CA 92135 Commander Naval Surface Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet Norfolk, VA 23511-6292 Commander Naval Surface Force U.S. Pacific Fleet Naval Amphibious Base, Coronado San Diego, CA 92155 Commander Tactical Wings, Atlantic Naval Air Station, Oceana Virginia Beach, VA 23(460 Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic Norfolk, VA 23511 Commanding General Fleet Marine Force, Pacific Camp H. M. Smith, HI 96861 Commander Mine Warfare Command Charleston, SC 29(408 Commander Operational Test and Evaluation Force Norfolk, VA 23511-6388 Commander, Fleet Electronic Warfare Support Group Naval Air Station Norfolk, VA 23511 Commander Naval Special Warfare Group Two Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek Norfolk, VA 23521 Commander Naval Special Warfare Group One Naval Amphibious Base, Coronado San Diego, CA 92155 Commanding Officer Fleet Composite Operational Readiness Group Two Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek Norfolk, VA 23520 Commanding Officer Fleet Composite Operational Readiness Group One Naval Amphibious Base, Coronado San Diego, CA 92155 Commanding Officer Tactical Training Group Atlantic Fleet Combat Training Center, Atlantic Dam Neck Virginia Beach, VA 23461 Commanding Officer Tactical Training Group, Pacific Fleet Combat Training Center, Pacific San Diego, CA 92147 Commander Patrol Wings, Atlantic Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME 04011 Commander Patrol Wings, U.S. Pacific Fleet Naval Air Station Moffett Field, CA 94035 Commander Light Attack Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA 932(45 Commander Fighter Airborne Early Warning Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet Naval Air Station, Miramar San Diego, CA 92145 Commander Training Command, U.S. Atlantic Fleet Norfolk, VA 23511-6597 Commander Training Command, U.S. Pacific Fleet San Diego, CA 92147 Commanding Officer Naval Strike Warfare Center NAS Fallon Fallon, NV 89406 U.S. MARINE CORPS DISTRIBUTION Operational Handbook Joint Laser Designation Procedures (J-LASER) Number.........6-2D1. Applicability
Although this OH is not directive in nature, it is intended to provide general guidance for commanders and their staffs. It also will be used as a basis for instruction conducted by the Education Center, Marine Corps Development and Education Command.
Comments and recommendations on the contents of this manual are invited and are essential to its orderly development.
Marine Corps Development and Education Command (C094)
Quantico, Virginia 22134-5001
Initial distribution of this OH is as shown on the following page. Addressees should ensure that appropriate subordinate organizations are provided copies as required. Requests for additional copies of this publication should be made to the address or by telephone, Autovon 278-2871.
This manual shall remain effective until cancelled by a Marine Corps Bulletin in the 5600 series listing the effective Marine Corps doctrinal and related publications.
DISTRIBUTION: UNIT # COPIES UNIT # COPIES CMC (Code PP 55) (45) CG 3d FSSG (10) CG FMFPac (10) CG 4th FSSG (100) CG FMFLant (25) CG 1st MarBrig (50) Ships Dets (30) CG 4th MAB (10) CG MCDEC (5) CG 5th MAB (10) Dir DevCtr (5) CG 6th MAB (10) Dir DocCtr (600) CG 7th MAB (10) Dir EdCtr (5) CG 8th MAB (10) C&CS (600) CG 9th MAB (10) AWS (400) CG MCAGCC (10) COS (100) CG LFTCLant (400) OCS (100) CG LFTCPac (400) TBS (100) CG MCBases (5 ea) MCI (5) CG/CO MOAS (5 ea) RSU (300) CO MarBks (2 ea) Pubs (220) CO 11th MAU (10) SNCOA (10) CO 13th MAU (10) CG 1 MAF (10) CO 22nd MAU (10) CG II MAF (10) CO 24th MAU (10) CG III MAF (10) CO 26th MAU (10) CG 1st MarDiv (50) CO 28th MAU (10) CG 2nd MarDiv (50) CO 31st MAU (10) CG 3rd MarDiv (50) CO 34th MAU (10) CG 4th Marfliv (50) CO 37th MAU (10) CG 1st MAW (40) CO MATSG Pensacola (2) CG 2d MAW (40) CO MAWTS (5) CG 3d MAW (40) ComPhibGruEastPac CG 4th MAW (40) (Attn: SrMar0) (5) CG 1st FSSG (10) ComPhibGru-One CG 2d FSSG (10) (Attn: SrMar0) (2) ComPhi bGru-Two (Attn: SrMarO) (5) IJSMC Liaison Officers (1 ea) U.S. MARINE CORPS USER SUGGESTION FORM From: To: Commanding General , Marine Corps Development and Education Command (CO94), Quantico, Virginia 22134-5001 Subj: OH 6-2D, JOINT LASER DESIGNATION PROCEDURES MANUAL 1. In accordance with the Promulgation Page to OH 6-2D which invites individuals to submit suggestions concerning this OH directly to the above addressee, the following unclassified recommendation is forwarded: ____ ______________________ __________ ________________ Page Article/Paragraph No. Line No. Figure/Table No. Nature of Change: ____Add ____Delete ____Change ____Correct 1. Proposed New Verbatim Text: (Verbatim, double spaced, continue on additional pages as necessary.) 2. Justification/Source: (Need not be double spaced.) NOTE: Only one recommendation per page.