Index

10th Transportation Battalion (Terminal)

PHIB SEABEE BATTLEBOOK

 

PHIBCB OPERATING SYSTEMS INFORMATION

6 February, 1998

The following paper contains information on systems, platforms, ships, and things the Amphibious Construction Battalions (PHIBCBs) may operate with in support of a ship-to-shore movement. Additionally, the paper contains information on USMC units, PHIBOP, MPF and Water Terminal Operations. The paper contains "tips" learned from exercises, ship visits and review of systems, platform and doctrine documents. It's accuracy is not guaranteed and comments and corrections are welcome. Plagiarism is welcome. The paper started as brief description, system length, components, crew size, operating limits, operating parameters, planning factors, etc. and has evolved into a larger document of, hopefully, useful information. I recommend you edit the document to meet your needs.

Comments and corrections are welcome, address then to:

CDR Mark D. Huntzinger, CEC, USN

1232 Fleetridge Drive

San Diego, CA 92106

[email protected]

 

CAUSEWAY BARGE FERRY (CWF)

Name for a powered section (Causeway Section, Powered (CSP) or Side-Loadable Warping Tug (SLWT)) and one to three non-powered causeway sections. Convention is to indicate the number of non-powered sections and powered sections (i.e. 3+1). CWFs are used in the ship-to-shore movement of dry cargo -- vehicles or containers and can be used to emplace the AABFS/AABWS.

Planning Factors:

1+1 CSP: 97 S/T; 4 to 9 - 20’ containers (transverse); 4 - 40’ containers (longitudinal)

2+1 CSP: 182 S/T; 9 to 20 - 20’ containers (transverse); 8 - 40’ containers (longitudinal)

3+1 CSP: 267 S/T; 14 to 30 - 20’ containers (transverse); 12 - 40’ containers (longitudinal)

Flexing Time: approximately 20 minutes per section to be flexed, in Sea State 0-2. Flexing is the connecting of the 90' causeway sections together end-to-end.

Notes: See Load Limit Chart and Can Integrity Loss Charts for additional information. PH-11 lifting pads on each section, powered or non-powered, must be removed before container or vehicle movements to prevent tire blowouts/damage to the containers. The PH-11 lifting pads are used on the MPF sections. Pontoon can constructed sections are known as "Navy Lighterage" (NL) versions. A CWF crew can see a 4’ x 4’ range marker from about 1.5 to 2 miles (2.4 to 3.2 km) away.

 

SIDE LOADABLE WARPING TUG (SLWT)

Length: 84’ (25.5m) with A-Frame removed; 90’ (27.4m) with A-Frame in up position; 95’-5" (29m) with A-frame in stowed position.

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Draft (unloaded):

Bow: 1’ 6" (0.5m)

Stern: 2’ 8" (0.8m)

Height: 13’ (3.9m) at control station (Coxswain's Flat)(control station 8' (2.4m) above deck); 20’ (6.1m) at top of A-frame (A-frame 12' (3.6m) above deck); 31’ (9.4m) at top of mast (mast 26' (7.9m) above deck)

Displacement: 104.5 Long Tons (light displacement)

Equipment: 2 power modules per craft: Each power module has 1 Turbocharged 8V71T1 Detroit Diesel engines (495 bhp @2300 rpm) and a waterjet propulsion system (30,000 gallon per minute pump) with 360 individual steering; (The Oregon Iron Works (OIW) manufactured craft has a 6V92TA Detroit Diesel engine); 2-drum winch (winch specifics: 13’ (3.9m) length, 7’ 2" (2.2m)width, 5’ 6" (1.7m) high, 6 tons weight, hydraulic power take-off unit, 700’ (213m) of 1" wire rope per drum; 27,000 lbs static line lift from the drum); A-frame; anchor (type, weight); major collateral equipment consists of xxx.

Capacity: 20 Short Tons

Cargo Area: Ahead of winch, may have to remove A-wire.

Crew Size: 8

Primary Function: Salvage/assist vessel.

Secondary Functions: CWF powered unit; add OPDS jewelry for conversion to Lay Repair Barge or Tow Tugs; can carry AABFS/AABWS with removal of A-wire.

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: No capability to house or store flexors, can receive only. Capacity is cargo height and wave height sensitive. The SLWT compass is not accurate as the addition of non-powered sections and loads affects the compass.

 

CAUSEWAY SECTION POWERED (CSP)

Length: 88’ (26.8m)

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Draft (unloaded):

Bow: 1’ (0.3m)

Stern: 2’ 8" (0.8m)

Height: 13’ (3.9m) at control station (control station 8' (2.4m) above deck); 31’ (9.4m) at top of mast (mast 26' (7.9m) above deck)

Displacement: 97.5 tons/88 Long Tons

Equipment: 2 power modules per craft: Each power module has 1 Turbocharged 8V71T1 Detroit Diesel engines (495 bhp @2300 rpm) and a waterjet propulsion system (30,000 gallon per minute pump) with 360 individual steering; (The Oregon Iron Works (OIW) manufactured craft has a 6V92TA Detroit Diesel engine; major collateral equipment cosists of xxx.

Capacity: 44 Short Tons maximum, 37 tons planning factor.

Cargo Area: 60’ x 20’ (18.3m x 6.1m)

Crew Size: 6

Primary Function: CWF powered unit.

Secondary Functions: AABFS/AABWS launch vessel

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: Can store flexors. Capacity is cargo height and wave height sensitive. The CSP compass is not accurate as the addition of non-powered sections and loads affects the compass.

 

 

CAUSEWAY SECTION NON-POWERED (CSNP)

The building blocks of the CWF and other PHIBCB operating systems.

 

INTERMEDIATE (CIN/INT)

Length: 90’ (27.4m)(MPF have shortened versions 88’ (26.8m))

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Displacement: 69 tons/61.6 Long Tons

Equipment: None. CIN (Causeway Intermediate, New) has side flexing capabilities (P-9 cans)

Capacity: 100 Short Tons maximum, 85 tons planning factor

Cargo Area: 80’ x 20’ (24.4m x 6.1m)

Crew Size: none.

Primary Function: CWF intermediate section.

Secondary Functions: RRDF component; ELCAS Roadway component.

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: Capacity is cargo height and wave height sensitive. Wheel load limit 16,000 lbs/wheel. Axle load limit 32,000 lbs/axle; dunnage can increase the wheel load (see NAVFAC P-410). Loading at the ship needs to take into account offloading at the shore. Containers by themselves may not exceed the wheel or axle load limits, however, offload at the beach using the Rough Terrain Container Handler (RTCH) may exceed the limits. Vehicles that exceed the load limit should be placed on the beach end. Do not load vehicles/containers on the P-8 pontoons. CIN has fittings for ELCAS external spudwells/RRDF side shear connectors.

 

BEACH END (CBE/BE)

Length: 90’ (27.4m)

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Displacement: 73.4 tons/65.5 long tons

Equipment: Beach ramps.

Capacity: 70 Short Tons maximum, 60 tons planning factor

Cargo Area: 70’ x 20’ (21.3m x 6.1m)

Crew Size: none.

Primary Function: CWF beach end.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: Capacity is cargo height and wave height sensitive. . Wheel load limit 16,000 lbs/wheel. Axle load limit 32,000 lbs/axle. Vehicle loads that would exceed the wheel or axle limit should be placed on the Beach End. When used for container operations, the first three P-1 cans after the tapered end must be left empty to allow RTCH to engage the containers. Do not load vehicles/containers on the P-8 pontoons. Beach end has two angles that may cause vehicles to hang up -- the 14.1 breakover angle (from the deck to the angled cans/ramp) and the dip angle (from the angled cans/ramp to the ground). Notification to the Beach Party Team of vehicles that may hang up is necessary for them to be prepared to build a sand ramp or stage dunnage. Ramp fingers can be lifted by hand, but is not recommended. Connect ramp fingers together and add a sling to allow a shoreside forklift or bulldozer to raise and lower. Personnel should not exit directly over the ramp fingers as surf action may shift the barge ferry.

 

OCEAN/SEA END (SE)

Length: 90’ (27.4m)

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Displacement: 75 tons/67 long tons

Equipment: Rhino horn for LCU/LCM-8 marriages.

Capacity: 75 Short Tons maximum, 64 tons planning factor

Cargo Area: 60’ x 20’ (18.2m x 6.1m)

Crew Size: none.

Primary Function: Sea end for LST marriage (no longer a mission area).

Secondary Functions: Add to RRDF to allow LCU/LCM-8 marriages using Rhino Horn.

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: Capacity is cargo height and wave height sensitive. Wheel load limit 16,000 lbs/wheel. Axle load limit 32,000 lbs/axle. Do not load vehicles/container on the P-8 pontoons.

 

ROADWAY

Same basic information as Intermediate section, except the ability to side flex.

Length: 90’ (27.4m)

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Displacement: 64 short tons/61.6 long tons

Equipment: Reinforced deck for ELCAS roadway use.

Capacity: 100 Short Tons/85 tons planning factor

Cargo Area: 80' x 20' (24.4m x 6.1m)

Crew Size: none.

Primary Function: ELCAS Roadway.

Secondary Functions: CWF Intermediate section.

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: Fittings for ELCAS external spudwells. Wheel load limit 16,000 lbs/wheel. Axle load limit 32,000 lbs/axle. Roadway supposedly has a reinforced deck for truck traffic.

 

 

PIERHEAD

Length: 90’ (27.4m)

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Displacement: depends on pierhead type, internal spudwells reduce displacement.

Equipment:

Capacity: Depends on pierhead type

Cargo Area: depends on pierhead type, internal spudwells reduce cargo area.

Crew Size: none.

Primary Function: ELCAS Pierhead.

Secondary Functions: In emergency can be used as CWF intermediate sections. Must know loss of capacity and the number and location of internal spudwells for trafficability.

Operating Limits: Wheel load limit 16,000 lbs/wheel. Axle load limit 32,000 lbs/axle.

Notes: Four different types of pierheads -- Type 1: 4 external spudwells, side connectors; Type 2: 6 internal spudwells, 6 reinforced P-1 cans, side connectors; Type 3: 4 internal and 3 external spudwells; Type 4: 7 internal and 3 external spudwells, 6 reinforced P-1 cans, supports 140 ton crane used in ELCAS operations..

 

FENDER SECTION

ELCAS fenders, one string wide, pile run through fender section which can rise with the tide/waves. One fender section per pierhead section length.

 

ROLL-ON/ROLL-OFF (RO-RO)

Uses 6 Intermediate (CIN) Sections.

100 ton maximum capacity.

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: RRDF sections must be CIN's to have capabilities for the side shear connectors and side flexors. Wheel load limit 16,000 lbs/wheel. Axle load limit 32,000 lbs/axle. RO-RO sections may have bitts, cleats, etc. installed.

 

ARMY MODULAR CAUSEWAY SECTION (MCS)

ISO sized components that form CWF, RRDF, Piers, etc.

Width of MCS: 8’ (2.4m)

Length: 20’ (6.1m) for end rakes, beach ends; 40’ (12.2m) for Quadrafloat center sections and powered components.

Height: 5' (1.5m)

Capacity: Depends on configuration.

Use: Army's primary uses of MCS is for RRDF's and floating pier. They can be configured for barge ferry operations, a single wide causeway section is 3 MCS wide (24') or in a double wide configuration, 6 MCS wide (48') (known as a Double Wide Modular Causeway Ferry (DWMCF). The DWMCF is used to carry 40' containers awthwartship.

Notes: MCS end rakes have flexor and shear connectors that are compatible with Navy Lighterage systems.

 

JOINT MODULAR LIGHTERAGE SYSTEM (JMLS)

Next generation lighter, capable of operations in Sea State 3. Modular constructed using 8’ x 8’ x 40’ ISO compatible building blocks. NAVFAC is lead organization for development. Expect initial fielding in 2001.

 

LCM-8 STEEL

Length: 73’-7" (22.4m)

Width: 21’-0" (6.1m)

Depth: 3’-10" fwd (1.1m); 5’-2" (1.6m) aft (Full Load)

Displacement: 67 Tons (Light)

Equipment: Stern anchor, various ground tackle, towing bridal

Capacity: 65 Short Tons

Cargo Area: 42’-9" x 14’-6" (13m x 4.4m)

Crew Size: 5 (3 minimum)

Ramp Width: 14’-6" (4.4m)

Troops Capacity: 150

Speed: 12 kts

Primary Function: Ship-to-shore movement of assault material, equipment and personnel in support of Amphibious Assault and Maritime Prepositioning Force operations.

Secondary Functions: Afloat ambulance/medical craft; dive support craft; deploy/tend AABFS/AABWS. Note: For AABFS/AABWS deployment from LCM-8, space is limited and there have been ramp failures due to the weight of the hose and other factors.

 

LCM-8 ALUMINUM

Length: 74’-3" 22.6m)

Width: 21’-0" (6.4m)

Depth: 3’ (0.9m) fwd; 4’-8" (1.4m) aft (Full Load)

Displacement: 37.8 Tons (Light)

Equipment: Stern anchor, various ground tackle, towing bridal

Capacity: 65 Short Tons

Cargo Area: 42’-9" x 14’-6" (13m x 4.4m)

Crew Size: 5 (3 minimum)

Ramp Width: 14’-6" (4.4m)

Troops Capacity: 200

Speed: 12 kts

Primary Function: Ship-to-shore movement of assault material, equipment and personnel in support of Amphibious Assault and Maritime Prepositioning Force operations

Secondary Functions: Afloat ambulance/medical craft; dive support craft; deploy/tend AABFS/AABWS. Note: For AABFS/AABWS deployment from LCM-8, space is limited and there have been ramp failures due to the weight of the hose and other factors.

 

LCU-1600 CLASS

Length: 135’-3" (41.2m)

Width: 29’-0" (8.8m)

Depth: 3’-2" (0.96m) fwd; 6’-5" (1.96m) aft (Full Load)

Displacement: 191.5 Tons (Light)

Equipment: Stern anchor, various ground tackle

Capacity: 160 Short Tons

Cargo Area: 121’-0" x 25’-0" (x14’-0" at deckhouse) (36.8m x 7.6m (x 4.26m at deckhouse)

Crew Size: 12 (Army 14 - 2 WO/12 enlisted)

Ramp Width: 14’ bow (4.2m); 16’ (4.8m)stern. Bow ramp 14’ long.

Troops Capacity: 375

Speed: 11 kts full

Primary Function: Ship-to-shore movement in the amphibious assault.

Secondary Function: Deploy AABFS.

 

LOGISTICS SUPPORT VESSEL (LSV)

BESSON, CLINGER, SOMERVELL, BUNKER, GROSS, LOUX (Army craft)

Length: 272'-8" (83.14m)

Beam: 60' (18.28m)

Draft (Maximum): 12' (3.66m)

Displacement: 4,199 tons fully loaded

Speed: 12 kts

Payload: 2,000 tons (equivalent to 86 C-141 loads)

Ramps: bow and stern

Cranes: none

Containers: 48 TEU

Equipment:

Capacity: 1,815 metric tons

Cargo Area: about 55’ x 240’, 10,489 sqft (975 m2)

Crew Size: 32 - 8 officers (CWO Master), 24 enlisted

Primary Function: RO-RO

Notes: Bow ramp - 27’ (8.23m) wide; 122 tons potable water tanks; 477 tons fuel; range - 2,969 nm (5,500 km); stern ramp for drive through capability limited by tunnel/stern ramp. 5 total. Self-deploying capability.

Use: Primary ship-to-shore vessel, would marry to RRDF or receive cargo LO-LO. Preferred discharge is to pier, ramp or floating pier.

 

LCU 2000 (Army vessel)

Length: 174' (53.03m)

Beam: 42' (12.8m)

Draft (Maximum): 9' (2.74m) loaded; 4' (1.22m) forward

Displacement: 575 tons light, 1,087 tons fully loaded

Speed: 11.5 kts

Payload: 350 tons

Ramps: bow

Ramp: 16’ (4.8m) wide, 18’ (5.48m) high, 22’ (6.7m) long.

Cranes: none

Containers:

Equipment: bow thrusters, 50 ton kedging winch.

Capacity: 350 Short Tons, maximum examples: 5 M1A1 tanks or 28 - 20’ containers, containers can be double stacked.

Cargo Area: approximately 100’ x 38’ 2,558 sqft (237.8 m2)

Crew Size: 13 - 2 officers, 11 enlisted

Troop Capacity: 375

Speed: 10 kts full

Primary Function: landing craft, beaching draft - 4’ (1.22 m). No stern ramp.

Notes: Built to commercial standards. 35 planned. Too large for Navy amphibious ships, operated by Army. Plan to forward deploy and place on Heavy Lift Prepositioned Ships (HLPS) in Army Prepositioned Stocks (APS) shipping. Containers can not be offloaded by RTCH (bow opening too small).

 

CAUSEWAY PIER

Length: Varies based on task. Maximum manageable length for NL sections is 12 sections (1,080’ (328m)).

Width: 21’ (6.4m)

Depth: 5’ (1.5m)

Displacement: varies.

Equipment: Must embark anchors, pennants, chain, deadmen (bulldozers/other) for complete system.

Capacity: varies.

Cargo Area:

Crew Size: Need shorebased personnel to tend.

Functions: Through-put platform, gets past surf zone. Craft berthing past surf zone. Army builds trident shaped floating piers using MCS as the offload point for LCU-2000 and LSV. The trident shape allows up to three craft to be discharged simultaneously and allows prime mover vehicles to be turned around at the end of the pier.

Operating Limits: Sea State 2; for specifics see OPLIMITS chart.

Notes: If to be used for craft berthing, run pendants under section to provide adequate depth clearance. Lighting required. Operational problems include: inadequate mooring points, inoperative vehicles, lack of drivers and lack of prime movers. Communication between ship, lighterage and pier is needed to minimize these problems.

Installation Steps (for NL pier):

1. Beach Preparation -- range markers, dig notch/"duckpond", two bulldozers (or other) for initial deadmen, if anchors are to be used for deadmen - pits need to be dug and the anchors set.

2. Beaching -- two craft at sea end, one or two craft several sections back from the beach end (forward of the center of the causeway) for power and steering, install at or near high tide for best beaching.

3. Deploy antibroaching wire -- deploy from causeway to dozer (or other) deadmen, yoke type antibroaching wires preferred, if anchors are used for antibroaching a method for setting from the pier is need.

4. Anchor the Causeway -- Windward positioning craft casts off and sets first anchor from the seaward end (run the anchor pendants under the causeway if it is to be used for securing craft), set the leeward seaward anchor, set other anchors as needed due to sea and environmental conditions.

5. Lower Beach Ramps

6. Rig Broaching Wire -- if heavy seas are expected, run a 3/4" wire from the seaward end opposite the current along the length of the causeway. This will allow easy broaching of the causeway pier (other rigging of the anchor pendants is necessary) using the bulldozer.

7. Set safety gear: lights, life rings, etc.

 

NAVY ROLL-ON/ROLL-OFF DISCHARGE FACILITY (RRDF)

Uses six CIN or RO-RO sections and RRDF kit. A sea end can be added to allow LCU marriages using the rhino horn.

MPF RRDF uses MPF CIN's.

Length: 180’ (54.8m)

Width: approx. 65’ (19.8m)

Displacement: 414 tons

Equipment:

RRDF kit -- lights, zodiac craft, Emergency Anchoring System (EASY), generators, dunnage, flexors, side shear connectors, etc.

Other equipment for operations: Wrecker or tank retriever for vehicle clearing.

Capacity: Desire to limit RRDF moving load to 100 Short Tons

Crew Size: Operations 26 (2 - 13 man crews)

SLWT Operations 16 (2 - 8 man crews)

Primary Function: Serve as a floating platform for rolling equipment to be driven from a ship to a lighter.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits: 3.5’ waves (daytime), 2’ waves (nighttime); Sea State 2, see OPLIMITS chart. Ramp-RRDF interface and ship Master's concerns will drive safe operating decisions.

Planning Factors: 36 hours to install, ?? hours to install CWR

Notes:

If used with non-self sustaining cargo ships requires 80' (24.4m) or 120’ (36.5m) Calm Water Ramp (CWR)(three 40' 12.2m) sections). CWR capacity 134,000 lbs (68 tons). CWR in storage at Port Hueneme. CWR has 14' (4.2m) clear width, 16' 8" (5m) overall width, 10' (3m) height, 152,000 lbs total weight, 64,000 lbs largest single piece. CWR operations limited to Sea State 1/1.2 foot wave height.

Ship’s master will determine when RRDF is to be used (i.e. when he will place his ramp on the RRDF), close coordination and emergency breakaway and anchoring plan essential. Mooring plan, fendering plan, etc. need to be discussed and coordinated with ship's Master. Lighting required for night operations. For side ramp or stern quarter slewing ramp ships, recommend a single point moor with the anchor set from the opposite side of where the RRDF will be to afford some lee.

RRDF Kits staged with each MPSRON, at each PHIBCB and planned for EWTGPAC, Coronado, CA.

Command and Control of the RRDF (who controls vehicles down the ramp and onto the RRDF as well as craft approaches and loading procedures need to be developed and briefed). It is desired to have a tank retriever or wrecker as one of the first pieces offloaded for use on the RRDF to assist in clearing disabled vehicles. This assist vehicle is not a RRDF asset and needs to be coordinated with the supporting units to ensure availability. Line handlers for approaching craft are from the RRDF crew.

The location of the auxiliary equipment for supporting the RRDF (EASY, tank retriever/wrecker, zodiac, generators, etc.) needs to be planned for each type of ramp ship expected.

Craft sequencing needs to be know so vehicles can be properly staged. CWF’s flex-out from the CSP and flex-in to the RRDF allowing a drive on capability; LCU-2000/LCU-1600/LCM-8 use may require vehicles to back on. Minimizing the number of vehicles staged on the RRDF is necessary to allow for unforeseen circumstances and gridlock.

Ship's ramps need to be certified for in-stream discharge via RRDF. Ship ramp weight limits need to be known for RRDF operations. Discussions with Ship Master is necessary to discuss issues such as: are the ramp controls are constantly manned, are the ramp hoist wires are slackened, go/no go decision criteria, etc.

A minimum of 2 SLWT/CSP’s are required to maneuver the RRDF to the ship.

1 SLWT is required to support the RRDF once installed.

A towing bridal should be fabricated and installed as an additional emergency removal option.

Stern Adaptor Unit (SAU) -- R&D efforts to improve RRDF throughput led to the creation of a CSP SAU. The SAU attaches to the stern of a CSP and provides shear and flexor connectors on the CSP. This allows the CSP to directly flex into the RRDF, eliminating the need to unflex the CSP from the non-powered sections. Difficulties include: height differences between the SAU and RRDF (overcome by positioning vehciles on the RRDF to lower or raise the RRDF sections); SAU ramp hangup - the SAU has about a 12" drop, some vehicles may hangup on the ramp transition; CSP weight limits - the CSP load limit is 44 tons, no analysis has been done to determine the weight limit for vehicles that would transit the CSP via the SAU. There is an increased stability/weight carrying capacity as the CSP is flexed into the RRDF, however, analysis needs to be done. CSP freeboard - the SAU adds considerable weight to the stern of the CSP reducing it's aft freeboard.

 

AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT BULK FUEL SYSTEM (AABFS)

Length: 5,000’ (1,522m) per hosereel; up to 10,000’ (3,045m) system capability (limited by ship’s ability to pump/hose pressure limits).

Width: Hose is 6" (15.24 cm) ID.

Displacement: Floating hose.

Hosereel Dimensions:

Weight: 44,000 pounds with hose, 22,000 pounds without hoses

Length: 13'-1" (3.99m)

Width: 13'-6" (4.11m)

Height: 12' (3.66m)

Equipment: 5,000’ (1,522m) of hose installed on a hosereel, the hosereel has a diesel motor for paying out and recovering the hose (drum maximum line speed: 120 feet per minute (fpm)(36.5 meters per minute (mpm)) for bare drum to 177 fpm (53.9 mpm) for full drum (150 fpm (45.7mpm) mean)(rapid reverse 650 fpm (198 mpm). Requires craft to install -- SLWT/CSP/CWF/LCU all approved. Has been deployed from LCM-8, however, the bow ramp has failed under the installation pressures, also anchors and pendants catch on the deck . Limited working areas and other problems make deploying from LCM-8 the least preferred alternative. Anchors employed every 100' (30.4m) to 150’ (45.6m) depending on cross currents (for currents over 3.5 knots use a 200 pound stato anchor, for currents under 3.5 knots use 150 pound lightweight anchors). Buoy and float connection support rings used to attach buoys or anchors. Requires ship capable of pumping 100 psi. Ship connection is a standard 6", eight bolt ANSI 125 or 150 pound flanged fitting. Requires bulk fuel source. Provides fuel to the Beach Interface Unit (BIU) where another unit assumes responsibility. Hose comes in 100’ sections and weighs 4 pounds per foot. Each hose has a 6" male and female split clamp coupling. Desired water depth is 50' (15.2m/8.3 fathoms) or less. Use one 50' anchor pendant for each 10' of water depth. During installation the hose can sweep and the anchors and pendants can catch on the deck. Extreme care is needed to prevent injuries. PHIBCB's install and maintain the hose system. The pumping ship controls the fuel product. The receiving unit ashore controls the bag farm and inland distribution system. Coordination between all parties is necessary. Dedicated lanes for the AABFS that do not have cross-traffic is necessary for safe operation. A process for installation and pumping using a single point moor has been tested by PHIBCB TWO but is not finalized, therefore, the ship must be in a stable moor. An in-line booster pump is in development by NFESC/CESO to allow installation lengths of greater than 10,000'. When pulling hose onto the hosereel drum have the hose under tension to provide a tight wrap. This allows the full length of hose to be loaded and prevents birdcaging and cantinaries. Intended for a operation duration of less than 30 days. A 15,000 gallon contaminated product bladder is recommended.

Capacity: Ship discharge pressure 100 psi and 15 to 20 psi residual at the beach. Maximum ship discharge pressure 150 psi.

Distance GPM

1,000' 1,300

2,000' 1,100

3,000' 920

4,000' 780

5,000' 680

Crew Size: 12 including BIU crew, however does not include installation craft crew.

Primary Function: Ship to shore movement of bulk fuel.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits:

Install: Sea State 2 day/1 night; maximum wave height 5' day/5' night; 10 knot wind; 1.5 knot cross current.

Operate: Sea State 3; 5' wave height; 10 knot wind; 2.5 knot cross current; requires a fire protection plan.

Planning Factors: approximately 5 hours to install 5,000’/10 hours to install 10,000’ under ideal to good conditions.

Basic Process:

a. BIU emplaced at beach.

b. pay out about 2 sections (200’) on beach.

c. Install riding saddle about 100’ from BIU, install and shore anchor (deadman) using 150’ pendants.

(1) Don’t have shore anchoring pendants/anchor cross fuel lines, traffic areas, etc.

d. Pay out hose from shore.

e. Anchor every 150’.

f. Light buoy every 100’.

Notes: Requires daily examination of hose condition. Intended for 30 days or less of operation. Ensure sufficient slack at the ship and beach is provided for ship swing and surf surge. Requires fuel spill plan and fire fighting plan. Lighting required to mark floating hose. System includes hosereel, hose, anchors, buoys, pendants, lighting kits, riding saddle, need NOTAM.

 

AABFS/AABWS BEACH INTERFACE UNIT (BIU)

Description: Manifold assembly, wye, three way valve, fuel transfer.

Length: 3'

Width: 3'

Height: 2'-6"

Weight:

Notes: place about 150' above high water mark. Anchor or deadmen hose above the high water mark using the riding line fitting.

 

AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT BULK WATER SYSTEM (AABWS)

Length: 10,000’ (3,045m) per hosereel.

Width: 4" (10.16 cm) hose diameter (ID)

Displacement: floating hose.

Equipment: See AABFS.

Capacity: ?? gallons per hour.

Cargo Area:

Crew Size: 12 including BIU crew, however does not include installation craft crew.

Primary Function: Bulk fresh water ashore.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits:

Planning Factors: 5 hours to install 5,000’/10 hours to install 10,000’

Notes: Hose comes in 150’ sections, weighs about 1 pound per foot and is contained on 1 hosereel. See AABFS. System includes hosereel, hose, anchors, buoys, pendants, lighting kits, hosereel with hose weighs 22 tons. Need NOTAM. Ensure the system (hoses, bladders, etc.) has not been used for fuel or non-potable water operations. Previously used AABWS hose in extended storage may need super chlorination to remove or reduce water contamination. Test water.

 

AMPHIBIOUS BULK LIQUID TRANSFER SYSTEM

Next generation floating hose system in development by NAVFAC. Uses collapsible hose to allow a greater length of hose per hosereel. Goal is to make the hosereel system ISO (8' x 8' x 20') and airlift compatible.

 

OFFSHORE PETROLEUM DISCHARGE FACILITY (OPDS)

Length: Up to 4 nautical miles (7.4 km) (nominal), need to account for ship swing, emplacement curve, currents, surf surge, etc. Planning factor is 3.5 nautical miles (6.5 km) from shore.

Equipment: Modified medium tanker has -- 4 nautical miles of hose, SALM, OPDS jewelry for SLWT conversion ,anchors, pendants, zodiac craft, etc. Requires four modified SLWTs or ship carried OPDS Utility Boats (OUBs) for installation. Requires UCT support for installation and daily maintenance.

Capacity: 1,000 gallons per minute bulk fuel (1,200,000 gallons per 20 hour pumping day @ 700 psig at the tanker). If two lines are installed, capable of pumping two products simultaneously (two product/line option is limited to 2 nautical miles (nominal)(3.7 km) distance).

Crew Size: 176 (100 PHIBCB) total for system

6 Command and Control

16 (2 - 8 man shifts) Craft Retrofit

8 (2 - 4 man shifts) BTU Operations

22 (2 - 11 man crews) LRB

48 (6 - 8 man crews) Tow Tugs

30 (2 - 15 man crews) Underwater Construction Team DETS

36+/- Tanker Crew

10+/- (2-5 man crews) Dive Support Craft (LCM-8/other)

Use of OUBs to install will change the crew size slightly.

Primary Function: Bulk fuel ashore.

Secondary Functions: none.

Operating Limits:

Installation: Minimum 45’ (13.7m/7.5 fathoms)depth if SALM is not to be employed (Tanker depth requirement). Minimum 65’ (19.8m/10.8 fathoms) depth for SALM installation. Minimum depths are driven by the tanker having enough water under the keel (at least 15’ (4.5m/2.5 fathoms) below maximum tanker draft) and requires Tanker master approval/concurrence. Water damming from currents can occur when less than 20’ of water exists under the keel. When the tanker is fully loaded and listed to port to offload the SALM the draft will be about 10’ (3.1m/1.67 fathoms)) greater than the full load draft of the tanker. Maximum depth for SALM is 190’ (57.9m/31.6 fathoms) due to Navy diver limits using air (200’ if using mixed gas, limit is SALM design). Maximum depth for conduit is 250’ (76.2m/41.6 fathoms). SALM bottom must be coral, sand or mud, SALM needs to create a suction to develop holding power. Bottom slope for SALM maximum of 1:25. SALM can hold a 70,000 DWT ship. Hose can not run across rocks, sharp coral due to puncture damage. 0.5 mile (0.8 km) swing for OPDS Tanker around SALM. UCT bottom survey identifies problem areas and determines conduit run. Installation maximum 5’ wave heights, 1.5 knot cross current (parallel to beach), 16 knots of wind, 1 mile visibility and temperatures between -10 degrees C and +45 degrees C (diver driven). Requires lanes clear of boat traffic for installation and clearance at beach and around ship once installed to avoid damage to the conduit.

Operations: 40 kts. wind, 4 knot current parallel to beach, 1.5 knot current perpendicular to beach, 1 mile visibility and 12’ waves. The SALM must survive 55 knot winds.

Tanker Change: 1.5 knot current (parallel or perpendicular to beach), 5’ significant wave height, and 1 mile visibility.

Survival: 4 knot current parallel to beach, 1.5 knot current perpendicular to beach, Sea State 7 (22.5’ significant wave height (at 65’ depth)/35’ significant wave height (at 200’ depth)).

Planning Factors:

48 hours to convert the craft.

48 hours after tanker arrival to begin delivery of product using a rigid 4-point mooring.

168 hours (7 days) after tanker arrival to have SALM delivery system operational.

Notes:

Must closely coordinate with OPDS Tanker Master and ashore receiving unit. Fuel spill plan, emergency breakaway plan, fire fighting plans essential. Requires daily inspection of hose by divers. intended for 180 day installation. Need NOTAM. OUB's will be prepositioned on some of the OPDS tankers beginning in FY98 to allow eliminate the need for homeport craft and in-theater conversion. Five OUB's will be prepositioned on each OPDS tanker - one for the Lay repair Barge, three as Tow Tugs and one as a dive boat.

An alternative method of deploying the conduit that does not require the OPDS tanker to be in a four-point moor is being developed. This method has the conduit being emplaced from the beach to the ship, with the ship going into a four-point moor, if necessary, to pump product. Concept is to have the SALM offloaded and emplaced as the conduit is being positioned to avoid the need for the four-point moor.

UCT safety and decompression needs requires the UCT to deploy with a portable decompression unit. UCT needs reliable communications with Diving Medical Doctor (DMO)(option is for DMO to deploy with UCT). UCT logistics needs (showers, transportation, etc.) need thorough discussion and planning.

The OPDS conduit is easily stretched. This is caused by excessive towing speed, seas, not calculating the slack needed to sink the conduit, etc. Regular distance to the ship/shore and amount of conduit emplaced calculations need to be made to determine if stretching is occurring. Leaving slack in conduit near the tanker and setting the conduit route markers about every 1,000’ allows a visual reminder of stretching. Stretched conduit can fail or will not allow for proper pumping operations.

When only one conduit is to be employed, care must be taken to ensure the flowpath through the floating hoses, submarine hoses, SALM product swivel and pigtail hose remains consistent.

Major system components carried on the host tanker:

900 T Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) with SALM Launch and Recovery (SLAR) system.

4 statute miles of 6" i.d. (about 8" o.d.) armored float/sink laid ship-to-shore fuel conduit. Each hosereel carries 1/2 mile of conduit (nominal).

Conduit is 1,014’ per section with a conduit coupling. The coupling consists of a male and female fitting, connected by 6 cap screws. An O-ring and two backup rings on the male coupling provides an oil tight seal at pressures to 1,125 psi. The male coupling has a swivel flange for ease in connection.

Mooring/Towing Winches - 2 stern winches used for mooring in the four-point moor and towing SALM. 3,000’ of 1-3/4" (1-1/2" on OPDS 1) galvanized wire.

Heeling System

OPDS Utility Boats (OUB) are modified LCM-6’s that are being configured to be the Lay Repair Barge, Tow Tugs and a Dive Boat for OPDS installation and operations. OUBs will be prepositioned on the OPDS tankers and will replace the modified SLWTs.

Four Point Moor: Position bow into current, position bow anchors approx. 45 off of bow, position stern anchors 60 off of stern. Use 2,000’ of wire with the 9,000 or 11,000 pound quarter (stern) anchors as there is no anchor chain. The Tow Tug cap rail load limit is 24,000 pounds which can be exceeded during stern anchor kedging.

OPDS Hoses:

Submarine hoses are 40’, 2 independent flow paths of 6" i.d. hoseline encased in a 28" o.d. air filled semi-rigid carcass.

Type A Submarine -- 4 - 40’ sections. Weighs 9,620 pounds each (air/empty). The type A-P Submarine section attaches to product swivel, 16’ minimum bending radius.

Type B Submarine -- 3 - 40’ sections. Weighs 9,420 pounds each (air/empty).

Type C Submarine -- 1 - 40’ sections and is always the final floating hose section as it has flow ball valves attached. A type B hose is always attached to the type C hose. Weighs 7,552 pounds each (air/empty).

Pigtail Hose -- 2 - 320’ sections used to connect the SALM to the main conduit. The pigtail hoses are connected to the SALM before the SALM is sunk. Weighs 6,272 pounds each (air/empty).

Floating Hose: 13 - 40’ sections connects the submarine hose to the tanker rail hose. Weighs 1,240 pounds each (air/empty).

Tanker Rail Hose: 2 - 40’ sections designed to resist chaffing and tensile loading. Weighs 1,840 pounds each and can be bent to a 30" radius. Provides the connection from the tanker manifold to the conduit or floating hose.

Bottom-laid product hose (Conduit): 4 statute miles of 6" i.d. (about 8" o.d.) armored float/sink laid ship-to-shore fuel conduit (1,014’ per section)(SS Potomac may have 8 sections of 2,640' conduit, if so, this is 3.5 nmi of conduit). Tension loads over 4,400 pounds will cause stretching and twisting. Currents contribute to the tension loads. An indication of excess tension is the conduit sinking. Conduit strings of up to 1 mile (5 sections) is possible when currents are less than 0.5 knots. Weighs 784 pounds each (air/empty). Hose burst pressure 2,200 psi; 130 psi/mile pressure loss @ 1,000 gpm flow rate. Conduit may shorten 1 to 2% when pressurized.

BTU Hook-up hose: 2 - 40’ sections (1 per BTU). Weighs: 784 pounds each (air/empty).

About 30,000 gallons of liquid is contained in 4 nm and associated OPDS hoses. Contaminated storage bags need to account for the expected contaminated flows. The contaminated fuel bags should be located below the BTU level.

Operations: The elevation difference between the OPDS tanker booster pump and BTU results in an head difference; the elevation distance between the BTU and shoreside storage bags results in a head difference. If the shoreside storage bags are above the BTU and tanker booster pump elevation, product can backflow when pumping stops. The shoreside organization needs to install backflow prevention. Rule of thumb: head pressure in psi is about 0.43 times the elevation difference in feet.

180’ mooring hawser. Maximum hawser load is 270,000 pounds. Mooring hawser has a tensionometer to allow tanker master information on hawser load. The SALM is designed to withstand a horizontal pull of 540,000 pounds. A skin-to-skin OPDS tanker and replenishment tanker for fuel replenishment may exceed the hawser limits.

 

General Sequence of Events:

a. Site preparations and surveys.

(1) SALM site: 300’ x 800’ (91.4m x 243.8m).

(2) Tanker 4-point moor site: 2,000’ x 3,000’ (609.9m x 2438.4m).

(3) Conduit route:

b. Outfitting of SLWT’s as tow tugs and LRB.

c. Tanker makes 4 point mooring.

d. Conduit deployment of conduit and establishment of shoreside IPDS/AAFS bag farm.

e. Product discharge conference.

f. Initial pumping of product to shore facility.

g. Prepare SALM for launch.

h. Launch SALM and move it to Single Point Moor (SPM) site.

i. Submerge SALM and prepare to receive tanker.

j. Tanker recovers four point moor after conduit release.

k. Tanker moors to SPM and connects flow lines.

l. Test flow lines and recommence pumping.

 

OPDS UTILITY BOAT (OUB)

Modified LCM-6 craft to be deployed on OPDS tankers beginning in FY98.

Length:

Width:

Displacement:

Equipment:

Capacity: Short Tons

Cargo Area:

Crew Size:

Primary Function:.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits:

Notes: Five OUB’s will be pre-positioned on each OPDS Tanker. 1 LRB, 3 Tow-Tugs, and 1 Dive Craft.

 

LAY REPAIR BARGE (LRB)

Modified SLWT using OPDS provided jewelry to perform hose clamping function. A-Frame is removed. Stern shoot, conduit supports, tray supports, clamping assembly and bow chute are added along the port side to clamp conduit. Hydraulics from the winch added to run the clamping assembly.

Crew Size: 11

Primary Function: OPDS hose clamping.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits:

Notes: Jewelry installation makes use with CWF incompatible. Requires lifting rail on SLWT to install OPDS jewelry.

 

TOW TUG

Modified SLWT using OPDS provided jewelry to perform hose towing function. Stern Cap Rail (with removable stern pins) extending around port and starboard to Norman Pins, and H-Bit aft provide towing rig (Safety note: Keep people behind Norman Pins at all times. Unexpected strain on the towed conduit can cause tow to jump/bend the stern pins.) Anchor is relocated to the A-Frame. and two Guillotining bits are placed forward.

Crew Size: 8

Primary Function: OPDS Tow Tug.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits:

Notes: Always use a swivel when towing conduit. Tow forces greater than 4,400 lbs will cause conduit stretching beyond design limits. Stream at least 150’ of "B" wire when pulling conduit to allow free movement of the tow wire along the cap rail. Remove the stern pins when towing to avoid putting the tow tug in irons. When towing, keep the engine rpm’s below 1,350 rpm as the SLWT delivers 4,400 pounds of pull at 1,350 rpm.

 

OPDS BEACH TERMINATION UNIT (BTU)

Each tanker carries 2 BTU’s.

Length: 10’

Width: 6’

Height: 5’

Weight: 8,700 pounds (with 1,500 pound anchor and 100’ anchor pendant).

Crew Size: 4

Equipment: 1 - 1,500 pound anchor; 1 - 40’ BTU hook-up hose; 1 - set of 100’ pendants and fairleads; 1 - set of special valve operating wrenches; 1 - conduit restraining bridles and pendants.

Notes: Regulating valve set to 125 psi for product delivery. Pressures over 714 psi will divert product to contaminate flange. Watch anchor and pendant locations with respect to product and contaminate hoses to minimize their crossing.

 

SINGLE ANCHOR LEG MOORING (SALM)

70,000 deadweight ton tanker holding capacity

149’-11" (45.6m) length, 57’-1" (17.4m) width, 12’ (3.6m) height, 730 tons dry weight (839 short tons with both buoys, hose, and anchor chain onboard).

Can be towed up to 2,000 miles (3,218 km).

Product swivel operates at 1,000 gpm and pressures up to 714 psi. About 80 of the swivel is not "piggable". Ship and SALM have a Product Swivel Indicator Device transponder/interrogator system to know when it is safe to "pig".

For water depths up to 119’ (36.27m/19.8 fathoms) the SALM an intermediate depth flooding method will be used, this method has the upcurrent end of the SALM on the bottom while the down current end is still on the surface.

 

MAIN BUOY

30’ (9.1m) in height, 14’-6" (4.4m) in diameter, 55 S/T dry weight.

Used in water depths of 60’ to 200’ (18.2m to 60.9m).

 

AUXILIARY BUOY

15’ (4.5m) in height, 6’-8" (2m) in diameter, 6.5 S/T dry weight.

Used in water depths of 35’ to 59’ (10.6m to 17.9m).

 

ELEVATED CAUSEWAY (Navy Lighterage) (ELCAS (NL))

Navy Lighterage version consists of causeway sections elevated.

Length: varies -- operating parameter is to have the pierhead outside of the surf zone with at least 20’ (6.1m) depth of water.

Width: Roadway - 21’ (6.4m); Single pierhead (2 sections across) - 42’ (12.8m); Double Pierhead (3 sections across) - 63’ (19.2m)

Equipment:

Erection: cranes, pile driving equipment, hydraulic jacks, etc.

Operations: container handling cranes, air bearing turntables, generators, lights, etc.

Capacity: ?? containers (20’ equivalent units (TEU)) per hour (planning factor).

Crew Size:

Erection: 118 (2 - 59 man crews)

Operation: 54 (2 - 27 man crews)(personnel included in the installation numbers)

SLWT: 24 (4 - 8 man crews)

Primary Function: Container movement from lighters to trucks.

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits: MSI 7 (wartime)/4 (training) for installation; 4 knot cross current; 21 knots of wind for crane operations.

Planning Factors:

a. 20’ (6.1m/3.3 fathoms) depth at pierhead and outside of the surf zone.

b. Prefer soft bottom (sand/clay), hard bottom (coral/rock) does not allow pile penetration.

c. Need shoreside area for staging, marshaling, logistics needs, etc. Site should have good access to road network.

Basic Process: Need NOTAM.

a. Assemble sections (ensure the lower pins of the external spudwells are properly seated and secured with the guillotine).

b. Dozer digs slot at beach.

c. Stab beach.

d. Stab piles (ensure they’re vertical to prevent binding at jacking).

e. Drive piles starting at seaward end. Drive to 55 blows per foot.

f. Hang hydraulic jacks, starting at the seaward end.

g. Jack, relocate jacks, repeat (EA’s using survey instruments provide information of necessary height of each section as it’s being jacked)(level marking and cutting of the pile pin holes is necessary to not overstress one side of a pile).

h. Finish with railings, lights, turntable, through-put cranes, etc.

Notes: Requires 4 SLWTs to install. Ammunition containers require insulation link on the crane. 140 ton through-put cranes rated to 68 tons at 25’ (7.6m) radius -- tied to maximum container weights. ELCAS (NL) is designed for movement of containers, vehicles are best taken to the beach and offloaded. The crane does not have the weight capacity or slings for vehicle movement. Structural limits of the ELCAS (NL) are 100,000 pounds per section (from NAVFAC P-401 and based on causeway weight test of 135,000 pounds). Vehicle traffic is limited to one truck (per direction) on a section at a time, because of the narrow roadway (21’), empty vehicles should stop for full vehicles. Vehicles drive on the left side to allow the driver the best view of the edge. The air-bearing turntable is designed for an unloaded tractor-trailer. PHIBCB personnel direct the vehicle movement. Supported units provide the vehicles (tractors and container chassis trailers) and drivers. Hydraulic jacks each have a 50 ton lifting capacity. ELCAS (NL) is not designed for ships to moor to it or long term mooring of craft. ELCAS pierhead space planning needs to include truck traffic, personnel shelter, turntable compressor and, possibly, barge hatch covers.

 

CRANES

ELCAS (NL) uses 140 ton cranes, certified to 68,000 pounds for container movement. The crane outriger pads are set on pile driven through the internal spudwells on the pierhead to provide a foundation.

60 ton cranes are used for pile setting and driving, jack setting, etc. The 60 ton cranes do not use their outriggers and are deliberately oversized to account for the dynamic loads of working in the surf zone.

Operating Limits: 21 knots wind; thunderstorms/lightning within 5 nautical miles.

Due to the 140 ton crane certification and reach, loads on LCU-2000 and LSV's may have to be repositioned by using a RTCH or vessel repositioning.

 

ELEVATED CAUSEWAY (Modular) (ELCAS (M))

ELCAS Modular consists of 8’ x 40’ modular sections cantilever erected over the water. PHIBCB TWO possesses this system.

Following information is extracted from the Trainee Guide for Elevated Causeway System (Modular) Specialist Course, prepared by CESO, May 1997.

Operational requirements

Erect up to 3,000’ in 7 days

Handle cargo from both sides of the pierhead

Compatible with Navy Lighterage, LCM-8, LCU-1600, LCU-2000, LSV, LASH barge and SEABEE barge.

From PHIBCB TWO: LSV did not work well in optest. LSV must use port side of ELCAS (M) due to turntable overhang on starboard side.

Terminology: Port/starboard sides of the ELCAS is as seen from the beach.

ELCAS (M) book has LCU-2000 and LSV operations information.

Maximized ISO Compatibility

Erect from shore

Operate in Sea State 3, survive Sea State 5

Cantilever erection using 175 ton cranes

Planning Factors:

a. 20’ (6.1m/3.3 fathoms) depth at pierhead and outside of the surf zone.

b. Prefer soft bottom (sand/clay), hard bottom (coral/rock) does not allow pile penetration.

c. Need shoreside area for staging, marshaling, logistics needs, etc. Site should have good access to road network.

d. Bottom of roadway pontoon 7’ (2.1m) above mean high water mark.

Modular barge ferries

3 wide x 3 pontoons long (24’ x 120’ without powered section) - carry up to 298,000 pounds of cargo (CWF pontoons are used in the pierhead).

5 wide x 3 pontoons long (40’ x 120’ without powered section) - carry up to 498,000 pounds of cargo (CWF pontoons are used in the pierhead).

Used to carry cranes, pontoons (awthwartship), pile bins, etc.

Marshaling Yards - 7 areas

Area One - Receiving staging, used for inspecting pontoons.

Area Two - Storage of 20’ ISO’s containing ELCAS (M) components.

Area Three - Equipment storage/maintenance - RTCH, mobile crane, EBFL, quick coupled FL, generators

Area Four - Staging pontoons and piles. Beach ramp location.

Area Five - Welded pile stowage, pile welding stations.

Area Six - Pile bin stowage

Area Seven - Pontoon stowage.

Equipment

2 - 175 ton cranes

1 - 30 ton RT hydraulic mobile crane

2 - 25 ton RTCH

3 - Welding machines

Beveling machines

Pile Welding fixture

1 - 15,000 pound RT Quick-Coupled Forklift

1 - 6,000 pound RT Extended Boom Forklift (EBFL)

2 - diesel hammers

2 - portable floodlight trailers

1 - hydraulic vibratory extractor

2 - tractor trailer turntables - 56’ runway, 21’ base diameter, 7.5 ramp, 76,000 pound total weight, capacity: 48,000 pounds dynamic, 130,000 pounds static. 4 - 20,000 pound air bearings. Turntable capable of handling a 48,000 pound tractor trailer.

Various slings

Matting

Uni-matting - heavy wooden matting, used at beach ramp, pile welding areas, 175 ton crane beaching area, under the generators.

Terra-matting - fabricated from recycled tire, used in roadways in the ELCAS (M) area.

Beach ramp - 6 - P40G pontoons, beach fingers, external angled (angled to 7.5 ) left/right spudwells.

Roadways - 201 P40G general pontoons for 3,000’ x 24’

Pierhead - 66 pontoons total - 240’ x 72’

P40S - 24 (S for Spudwell pontoon)

P40RR - 2 (RR for Raked Right pontoon)

P40RC - 6 (RC for Raked Center pontoon)

P40RL - 1 (RL for Raked Left pontoon)

P40F - 12 (F for Fender section)

P40G - 21 (G for General, non-spudwell pontoons)

Note: Raked pontoons (RR, RC, RL) are the used in barge ferry operations as they contain the shear connectors and flexor housing. For the pierhead, any "R" series pontoon can be substituted for another. The above numbers are the planned use and the storage and sequencing plan is based on the above numbers.

Note: Pontoon identification and sequencing is critical.

Other pontoons:

P40B - 6 (B for Beach End) used on barge ferries, has beach fingers. A 5 wide CWF has 3 "B" pontoons and 2 "RC" pontoons along the beach face.

Piles - 24" OD (1/2" thickness) steel piles in 38’ lengths (fit into ISO bins). Longer lengths made by welding piles together.

Generic installation procedures:

1. Bring ELCAS (M) materials ashore using 3 or 5 wide CWF/other lighterage. There are specific loading configurations for the 3 wide and 5 wide CWF.

2. Prepare marshaling areas and beach ramp site. The beach ramp hole is located about 79’ back from high water mark and 7’ above the high water mark.

3. 6 - P40G pontoon sections (3 wide by 2 long) are placed for the beach ramp. The left or right angled spudwells are used to maintain the proper ramp angle (7.5 ). 6 piles are used to secure the ramp. Piles are secured to the spudwell by pile grippers. Ramp connectors and ramp fingers are placed. Piles cut off immediately about 3’ above deck (immediately to allow staging of other pontoons).

4. The roadway consists of 3 wide P40G pontoons (201 for a 3,000’ length). The transition from the beach ramp to roadway is via 9 angled connectors. The roadway is erected by fastening two pontoons side by side them lifting into place (the pontoon weight, cantilever distance and crane capacity limits to two sections being lifted at a time). These are cantilevered out then the third section is lifted to make the three wide roadway. The pontoons are connected, the piles driven and the pontoons secured using the pile grippers, the piles are cut, then the crane moved to the "new" pontoons and the process repeated. Piles cut off immediately about 3’ above deck (immediately to allow staging of other pontoons). Temporary lifelines, etc. installed.

5. The pierhead is constructed once the proper distance is met. The pierhead requires specific pontoons to be used in specific locations. Pontoon tracking and management is essential. Pierhead piles are cut 2" below the deck level, pierhead crane piles (load beam) cut off 1" above deck level. "S" pontoons have three pile/spudwell openings, one or mare may be used depending on the location, see installation diagram in ELCAS (M) manual. Pay particular attention to the staging sequencing, tool box repositioning, picking up of cut-off piles, and relocation of the crane as these events must flow concurrently for a smooth installation effort.

6. The turntables, lights, throughput cranes (installation 175 ton cranes), navigation lights (battery powered), lifelines, nets, life ring buoys (every 80’ opposite sides), etc. are erected.

7. Operations: The turned tractor trailer is loaded on the turntable. Vehicle traffic is on the left hand side to allow the driver the view of the roadway edge. Traffic is directed by PHIBCB personnel.

Personnel:

Marshaling Yard Crew - 44 (2-22 man 12 hour shifts)

 

CAMP

Equipment:

Crew Size:

Primary Function:

Secondary Functions:

Operating Limits:

Notes:

 

OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS:

SEABEE SHIP

3 - Cape "M" Series Ships in RRF.

Cape May -- Newport News, VA

Cape Mendicino -- James River, VA

Cape Mohican -- Suisun Bay, CA

38 SEA Barge carrying spaces. Ships delivered with 24 barges each.

14 on upper deck (exposed to weather).

12 each on main and lower deck.

Modified for JLOTS with installation of inner I-beam pedestals for NL causeways and lifting hoist in main deck for double stacking NL causeways. I-beam pedestals do not run the full length of the lower deck on the Camp Mohican, I-beam start aft of frame 72.

 

Ships Characteristics:

Length Overall: 875’-11" (266.39m)

Beam: 105’-11" (32.3m)

Draft: 39’-1" (11.9m)

Displacement Loaded: 57,290 Long Tons

Range: 14,000 NM

Speed: 18.5 kts

Fuel Oil: 4 tanks, 41,500 BBLS (6,260 L/T)

Salt Water Ballast: 23 tanks, 25,137 L/T

Potable Water: 1 tank, 367 L/T, 2 60 tons per day distiller.

Cargo Elevator Platform Size: 104’ long x 74’ 8" wide

Elevator Lift Capacity: 2,000 L/T net (2,240 S/T)

Elevator Speed: 4 feet/minute

Average cycle time per pair of barges -- 40 minutes.

Cargo elevator has about a 5 ships roll limit, elevator has an automatic trip out.

Deck Height Limits: above dock pedestals. Loads need to consider transporter lift requirements (approx. 2").

Upper Deck: 17’ at tunnel.

Main Deck: 17’-2"

Lower Deck: 17’-2"

Deck Width Limits:

Upper Deck: ??

Main Deck: 35’

Lower Deck: 35’

Cranes: Forward - 1,725 lbs cargo

Aft - 7,000 lbs cargo

Barge Capacity: 38 (lower deck forward has port and starboard modified barges)

Containers: 1,784 TEU capacity using CALFs.

Transporter system: 2 each, 1,000 L/T capacity, can be synchronized; three speeds - can only use in slow sped (30 fpm) or dead slow (6 fpm). Hydraulic lifts up to 4 1/2". Transporter, looper rail and system are fragile. No loads on looper rails. Transporter stowed on main or upper deck.

Overhead hoist: Located on main deck, used to double stack NL causeways. MCS can not be lifted, but can be double stacked on. Use 6" x 6" x 10’ dunnage between stacked sections. Due to the time it takes to move loads between decks, recommend double stacked causeways remain on the main deck.

Notes: Load with Causeway launch rails inboard. SLWT/CSP requires dunnage on aft four sets of transporter pads due to bilge pumps. Rudder is just forward of elevator and can be damaged if causeway slides forward off of elevator. No fuel transfer system. 1,200 HP bowthruster.

Pier Operations: Requires space aft of ship for barge removal operations, need adequate room for barges and tugs/powered craft.

SEA Barge Characteristics:

Length Overall: 97’-6" (29.7m)

Beam: 35’ (10.6m)

Draft: Maximum 10’-8" (3.25m) (1’-9" unloaded)

Height: 17’-1" (5.2m)

Cargo Space: 2,723 SF

Interior dimensions:

Length: 90’ (27.4m)

Width: 30’-3" (9.2m)

Height: 11’-3" (3.4m)

Hatches: 7 each at 5,800 lbs each

Hatch Length: 84’-0"

Hatch Width: 30’-3"

Lightweight: 166 L/T

Maximum Weight: 834 L/T

Container Adapter Frame (CAF) -- used to stow 20’ and 40’ containers, or adapted for stowing of LCM-8, LCU (1600 and 2000 series), tugs, LCAC, etc. CAF is buoyancy neutral and needs to be lashed to the elevator when loading/unloading.

CAF Height: 2’-9" (33.5")

CAF Weight: 45.5 L/T (51 S/T) Ensure CAF weight is included in elevator lift calculations when used.

 

OPDS TANKER

SS Potomac (OPDS 1) -- Diego Garcia

Completed: 1985

Length: 620’ (188.9m)

Beam: 84’ (25.6m)

Draft: 34’ (10.36m)

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): 27,467

Product: 168,000 BBL

Sail Berthing: 45

OPP Team: 5

SS American Osprey (OPDS 2) -- Diego Garcia

Completed: 1988

Length: 661’ (201.4m)

Beam: 90’ (27.4m)

Draft: 36’ (10.97m)

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): 34,723

Product: 168,000 BBL

Sail Berthing: 45

OPP Team: 5

SS Chesapeake (OPDS 3) -- Hunter’s Point, SFO (ROS-5)

OPDS conversion completed: 1991, ship built 1963

Length: 708' 2" (216.2m)

Beam: 102’ 4" (31.2m)

Draft: 50' 7" (15.4m)

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): 50,018 LT

Product: 255,000 BBL

Sail Berthing: 45

OPP Team: 5

SS Petersburg (OPDS 4) -- Houston, TX (yards)

Completed: 1994

Length: 736’ (224.3m)

Beam: 102’ (31.1m)

Draft: 40’ (12.2m)

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): 50,063

Product: 255,000 BBL

Sail Berthing: 45

OPP Team: 5

Note: Being converted (1998) to carry 5 OUB's (3 Tow Tugs, 1 LRB, 1 Dive Craft), crane to lift OUB'sand will allow tanker to place bouys on SALM for recovery.

SS Mount Washington (OPDS 5) -- Houston, TX (ROS-5)

Completed: 1995

Length: 736’ (224.3m)

Beam: 102’ (31.1m)

Draft: 40’ (12.2m)

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): 49,471

Product: 269,000 BBL

Sail Berthing: 45

OPP Team: 5

Host tanker has the following modifications:

Additional electrical generators

Heeling system to list the ship for offload and reloading the SALM.

High pressure booster cargo pumps.

High pressure hydraulic pumps.

Spaces for spare parts storage.

Enhanced fire fighting capability.

Four-point mooring system.

 

 

Ships Crane Terminology

Twin cranes - synchronizing two cranes on one pedestal for a heavier lift.

Tandem cranes - synchronizing two crane pedestals for a heavier lift.

Twin tandem cranes - synchronizing twinned cranes in tandem.

 

MARITIME PREPOSITIONING FORCE (MPF) SHIPS

WATERMAN CLASS

MPSRON 1

Homeport: Mediterranean

SS PFC EUGENE A. OBREGON (Alternate Flagship)

SS SGT MATEJ KOCAK

SS MAJ STEPHEN W. PLESS

MPSRON 1 includes the AMSEA Class MV 2ND LT JOHN P. BOBO (Flagship) description below.

Length Overall: 821’-1/2" (250.3m)

Beam: 105’-6" (32.2m)

Draft (Max. Aft): 36’-6" (11.12m)

Freeboard to Highest Point: 149’ @ 21’ Draft

Displacement (Loaded): 51,612 L/T

ESQD (loaded): ????

Breakbulk: N/A

JP-5 (98%) 852,100 gallons (20,290 bbl)

MOGAS (98%) 156,114 gallons ( 3,717 BBL)

Potable Water (100%): 91,932 gallons

Water Production: 25,000 gallons per day

DF-2 (93%): 518,910 gallons ( 12,355 BBL)(DF-2 tanks being used for JP-5)

Crane Lifting Capacity:

1 Twin Forward -- 50 tons each

1 Twin Aft -- 35 tons each

1 Gantry -- 30 tons

Speed:

Maximum Warranted: 20 kts.

Endurance at Max. Speed: 11,176 NM

Propulsion/Fuel: Steam Turbine/DFM

Bunker Capacity: 1,097,460 gallons ( 240,415 BBL)

Crew: 15 officers; 25 crew

OPP Berthing: 2 officer; 1 SNCO; 97 enlisted (Flagship: ???)

Helicopter Certification: Level 3, Class 3

Containers Above Deck: 192

Containers Below Deck: 389

Container Capacity: 581

RO-RO Capacity:

Stern Ramp: 100 tons, 100’ length; Slew 30 to port/starboard (certified to 67.7 tons (135,520 pounds) per Tri-MEF SOP)

Side Ports: One port and starboard -- non-operational for RO/RO operations.

Lighterage:

LCM-8: 2

SLWT: 1

CSP: 4

CIN: 2

CBE: 4

RO-RO: 2

Hosereels:

AABFS: 2 @ 5,000' each

AABWS: 1 @ 10,000'

RO-RO Kit: KOCAK

For the squadron: 34,104.35 short tons square loaded, 683 ground ammunition containers, 410 air ammunition containers

 

MAERSK CLASS

MPSRON 2

Homeport: Diego Garcia

MV CPL LOUIS J. HAUGE JR (Flagship)

MV PVT FRANKLIN J. PHILLIPS (Alternate Flagship)

MV PFC WILLIAM B. BAUGH

MV PFC JAMES ANDERSON JR

MV 1ST LT ALEX BONNYMAN

Length Overall: 755’-6" (230.3m)

Beam: 90’-1" (27.5m)

Draft (Max. Aft): 32’-10" (10m)

Freeboard to Highest Point: 136’ @ 23’ DRAFT

Displacement (Loaded): 46,086 L/T

Breakbulk: 92,831 CF

ESQD (loaded): ????

JP-5 (98%): 719,376 gallons ( 27,770 BBL)

MOGAS (98%): 162,330 gallons ( 3,865 BBL)

Potable Water (100%): 84,924 gallons

Water Production: 25,000 gallons per day

DF-2 (93%): 446,964 gallons ( 10,642 BBL)(DF-2 tanks being used for JP-5)

Crane Lifting Capacity:

1 Twin Forward -- 30 tons each

1 Twin Center -- 30 tons each

1 Twin Aft -- 35 tons each

Speed:

Maximum Warranted: 16.4 kts.

Endurance at Max. Speed: 10,802 NM

Propulsion/Fuel: Slow Speed Diesel/DFM

Bunker Capacity: 598,794 gallons ( 14,257 BBL)

Crew: 10 officers, 21 crew

OPP Berthing: 2 officer, 1 SNCO, 97 enlisted (Flagship: ???)

Helicopter Certification: Level 3, Class 3

Containers Above Deck: 87

Containers below Deck: 296

Container Capacity: 383

RO-RO Capacity: 121,595 SF

Stern Ramp: 60 tons, 102’ length, Slew 35 to Starboard (certified to 14.5 tons (29,000 pounds) per Tri-MEF SOP)

Side Ports: One port and starboard, 2 ramps 94’ (54 L/T weight) and 63’ (27 L/T weight)

Lighterage:

LCM-8: 2

SLWT: 1

CSP: 3

CIN: 2

CBE: 3

RO-RO: none

Hosereels:

AABFS: 2 @ 5,000' each

AABWS: 1 @ 10,000'

RO-RO Kit: BONNYMAN

Notes: Dozer under hatch can not use RO-RO as it is too tall for the intermediate passageways. Topside containers and lighterage must be removed prior to removing interior containers.

 

AMSEA CLASS

MPSRON 1

MV 2ND LT JOHN P. BOBO (Flagship)

MPSRON 3

Homeport: Guam/Saipan

MV 1ST LT JACK LUMMUS (Flagship)

MV SGT WILLIAM R. BUTTON (Alternate Flagship)

MV 1ST LT BALDERMO LOPEZ

MV PFC DEWAYNE T. WILLIAMS

Length Overall: 673’-2" (205.2m)

Beam: 105’-6" (32.2m)

Draft (Max. Mean): 32’-1" (9.78m)

Freeboard to Highest Point: 187’ @ 25’ draft

Displacement (Loaded): 46,111 L/T

Breakbulk: N/A

ESQD (loaded): ????

JP-5 (98%): 872,581 gallons ( 20,775 BBL)

MOGAS (98%): 204,980 gallons ( 4,880 BBL)

Potable Water (100%): 98,990 gallons

Water Production: 25,000 gallons per day

DF-2 (93%): 560,028 gallons ( 13,334 BBL) (DF-2 tanks being used for JP-5)

Crane Lifting Capacity:

1 Single Forward -- 39 tons

1 Twin Center -- 39 tons each

1 Twin Aft -- 39 tons each

Speed:

Maximum Warranted: 17.7 kts.

Endurance at Max. Speed: 11,107 NM

Propulsion/Fuel: Medium Speed Diesel/DFM

Bunker Capacity: 970,368 gallons ( 23,104 BBL)

Crew: 10 officers, 20 crew

OPP Berthing: 2 officers, 1 SNCO, 97 enlisted (Flagship: ???)

Helicopter Certification: Level 3, Class 3

Containers Above Deck: 121

Containers below Deck: 457

Container Capacity: 578

RO-RO Capacity: 152,185 SF

Stern Ramp: 60 tons, 110’ length, slew 39 to port or starboard (certified to 44 tons (88,000 pounds) per Tri-MEF SOP)

Side Ports: none

Ships Chief Mate has hatch cover stowage plan.

Lighterage:

LCM-8: 2

SLWT: 1

CSP: 4

CIN: 2

CBE: 4

RO-RO: None

Hosereels:

AABFS: 22 @ 5,000' each

AABWS: 1 @ 10,000'

RO-RO Kit: LOPEZ

 

MPF (Enhancement)

Up to three new ships converted from civilian merchants to proved additional capabilities to the MPF.

M/V 1st LT HARRY MARTIN

MPSRON 2 (Tentative assignment)

Characteristics not determined.

Flagships carry MPSRON Staff which reduce OPP berthing.

MPF INFO

Vehicle Color Tags

White - CE

Green - GCE

Yellow - ACE

Red - CSSE

Blue - NSE

 

FAST SEALIFT SHIPS

8 former Sea-land container ships: ALGOL, ALTAIR, ANTARES, BELLATRIX, CAPELLA, DENEBOLA, POLLUX, and REGULUS.

Length: 946’-2" (288.5m) overall

Beam: 105’-6" (32.2m)

Draft: 36’-8" (11.2m)

Displacement: 53,350 L/T full load

Speed: 33 kts. (30.1 kts loaded)

Endurance: 12,000 nm

Crew: 42 civilians (13 supercargo)

Ramp: 1 each port and starboard;

Notes: RO-RO; twin 50 ton cranes center and twin 35 ton cranes aft, 185,000 sf vehicle space

 

AVIATION LOGISTICS SUPPORT SHIP

2 dedicated ships for Marine Corps Aviation Intermediate Maintenance Activity (WRIGHT and CURTISS).

Length: 602’ (183.2m)

Beam: 90’-0" (27.4m)

Draft (Max. Aft): 34’-0" (10.4m)

Displacement: 27,580 L/T full load

Speed: 23 kts.

Endurance: 10,000 nm

Crew: 11 officers, 22 crew (325 supercargo)

Ramp: RO-RO; stern ramp and 2 (port/starboard) side ramps.

Notes: 10 - 30 ton derricks, 1 -- 70 ton cargo derrick.

 

AUXILIARY CRANE SHIP

Notes: T-ACS have a high holding power, balanced fluke, port anchor for use in discharge operations. Discharge stops at 30 knots of wind. Ship roll of 5 can stop crane operations due to uncontrolled pendulation. Use of tugs or stern anchors can reduce the ship roll to allow operations to continue (may trade roll for pitch). Container ships moor to T-ACS on the T-ACS' starboard side. Two methods of container ship to T-ACS mooring - T-ACS at anchor or both ships underway. The JLOTS Ship Debarkation Officer coordinates with the T-ACS master or mooring master to ensure the mooring plan supports the ship discharge plan. Relocating (warping) the container ship may be necessary to discharge the vessel. T-ACS have a Cargo Control Center (CCC) for the use of the Ship's Debarkation Officer and SLCP. T-ACS forward and aft discharge stations are at ship's bow and stern, CWF's can be drawn under the ship sponsons and structural flair. Yokohama fenders doubled on aft end of T-ACS helps prevent the CWF being drawn under and the LSV/LCU-2000 being provided with adequate stand-off distance. Crane collisions can occur if the crane operators are not coordinating their efforts, this is especially critical during nightime operations (Haaglund cranes have an optional collision advoidance system, check to see if ship is equipped). Coordinate with T-ACS master to see if the ship has an allowance of inspected and certified slings, spreaders, etc. neede to discharge the embarked cargo and expected container ship/alongside ship cargo. If not, a unit needs to be tasked to provide. T-ACS berthing, messing and sanitary facilities are limited. Ship's support needs to be agreed prior to operations. Portable toilets, meals from ashore and crew shift from ashore may be required.

KEYSTONE STATE, GEM STATE, GRAND CANYON STATE

Length: 688'-6" (203.82 m) overall; 632'-11" (192.95m waterline)

Beam: 76'-2" (23.22m)

Draft (Maximum): 33'-0" (10.06m)

Displacement: 28,660 L/T

Cranes: 3 sets of twin 30 ton cranes mounted on starboard side.

GREEN MOUNTAIN STATE, BEAVER STATE

Length: 665'-9" (203 m) overall; 634'-10" (193.55 m) waterline

Beam: 75'-1" (22.92m)

Draft (Maximum): 31'-6" (9.6m)

Displacement: 16,600 L/T (light); 22,900 L/T fully loaded

Cranes: 3 sets of twin 30 ton cranes mounted on starboard side.

Speed: 21 kts

Containers: 650

Notes: Beaver State may not be complete.

GOPHER STATE, FLICKERTALE STATE, CORNHUSKER STATE

Length: 609'-10" (185.93 m) overall; 581'-8" (177.35m) waterline

Beam: 91'-2" (27.77m)

Draft (Maximum): 30'-0" (9.14m)

Displacement: 15,060 L/T light; 25,000 tons fully loaded

Cranes: 2 sets of twin 30 ton cranes mounted on starboard side.

Speed: 20 kts

Notes: GOPHER STATE with APS

 

DIAMOND STATE, EQUALITY STATE

Length: 667'-10" (203.6m) overall; 632'-11" (192.95m) waterline

Beam: 76'-0" (23.2m)

Draft (maximum): 33'-3" (10.1m)

Displacement: 15,138 tons light

Cranes: 3 sets of twin 30 ton

Speed: 20 kts

Containers: 625

 

LASH SHIPS

Berthing, messing and sanitary facilities are limited. Ship's support needs to be agreed prior to operations. Portable toilets, meals from ashore and crew shift from ashore may be required.

 

CAPE FAREWELL, CAPE FLATTERY

Length: 893’-4" (272.3m)

Beam: 100’-3" (30.57m)

Draft (Maximum): 40’-9" (12.44m)

Displacement: 63,314 L/T

Traveling Crane: 510 ton capacity

AUSTRAL LIGHTNING, GREEN HARBOUR, CAPE FLORIDA(?)

Length: 819'-10" (249.94m) overall

Beam: 100'-0" (30.48m)

Draft (Maximum): 40'-9" (12.4m)

Displacement: 44,606 L/T full load

Traveling Crane: 446 ton capacity for barges, 30 ton traveling crane for containers

Barge/Container Capacity: AUSTRAL LIGHTNING - 71 barges/840 containers; GREEN HARBOUR 71 barges/1,000 containers

Speed: 22.5 kts

GREEN VALLEY

Length: 893'-3" (272.35m) overall

Beam: 100'-0" (30.5m)

Draft (Maximum): 40'-10" (12.4m)

Displacement: 62,314 tons fully loaded

Traveling Crane: 510 tons

Barge Capacity: 89

Speed: 22.75 kts

Notes: has small tug embarked for barge movements

JEB STEWART

Length: 857'-3" (261.4m) overall

Beam: 106'-10" (32.6m)

Draft (Maximum): 39'-9" (12.13m)

Displacement: 65,000 tons

Traveling Crane: 510

Barge Capacity: 80

Speed: 18 kts

Notes:

 

Cantilever Lift Frame (CLF): Lifting of NL causeway sections requires the use of the Cantilever Lift Frame (CLF), which reduces the available lift of the LASH traveling crane. Causeways (powered and nonpowered) are lifted by the PH-10 lifting rings. Maximum load on the section should not exceed 100,000 pounds, however the Traveling Crane capacity less the CLF and associated slings, etc., plus the weight of section and load, may dictate a lesser load. CLF stored ???

 

Pier Operations: Requires space aft of ship or barge removal operations, need adequate room for barges and tugs/powered craft.

 

Discharge Planning Factors: 50' (15.24m) minimum water depth; average 25 minute cycle time; control of tugs/lighterage essential to avoid moving loads from the well deck before the load is released from the traveling crane/CLF.

LASH Barge Characteristics:

Length Overall: 61'-8" (18.79m)

Beam: 31'-2" (9.49m)

Draft: 8’-7" Max (2’-5" unloaded)

Height: 15' (4.57m)

Cargo Space: 18,500 CF

Cargo Capacity: 369 LT/490 Metric Tons

Interior dimensions:

Length: 59'-5"

Width: 29'-5"

Height: 11'-7"

Hatches: 3 each at 6,000 lbs each

Hatch Length: xx"

Hatch Width: xx

Lightweight: 80 L/T

Maximum Weight: xx L/T

Notes: Some LASH barges have folding covers which require an external source to fold/stow.

 

CONTAINER SHIP

Berthing, messing and sanitary facilities are limited. Ship's support needs to be agreed prior to operations. Portable toilets, meals from ashore and crew shift from ashore may be required.

STRONG VIRGINIAN (Heavy lift ship)

Length: 511'-10" (156.06m) overall; 475'-8" (145m) waterline

Beam: 100'-3" (11.52m)

Draft (Maximum): 37'-9" (11.52m)

Displacement: 50,000 tons fully loaded

Speed: 16.5 kts

Ramps: stern; two angled side ramps

Cranes: 1-800 ton heavy lift derrick; 2-50 ton cranes

Containers: 1,413 containers and vehicles

LT COL CALVIN P. TITUS, SP5 ERIC G. GIBSON

Length: 784'-10" (239.28) overall; 725'-5" (221-16m) waterline

Beam: 100'-3" (11.52m)

Draft (Maximum): 37'-9" (11.52m)

Displacement: 50,000 tons fully loaded

Speed: 21 kts

Ramps:

Cranes: 2-40 ton

Containers: 1,600 or 45,000 sf vehicle space

 

FLOAT-ON/FLOAT-OFF SHIPS

AMERICAN COMORANT

Length: 738'-2" (225.1m) overall

Beam: 135'-0" (41.15m)

Draft (maximum): 32'-8" (10.0m); 65'-9" (20.05m) flooded

Displacement:

Speed: 16 kts

Submersible deck: 394' x 135'

Submersible deck load: 45,000 tons

Notes: Submersible deck when flooded: approx. 26' below surface. With APS for forward deployment/movement of Army watercraft. Discharge extremely sea state and current sensative (SS2 or 6 knots of current limits).

 

HEAVY LIFT CARGO SHIP

STRONG TEXAN

Length: 268'-4" (81.82m)

Beam: 51'-6" (15.7m)

Draft (Maximum): 18'-3" (5.55m)

Displacement: 4,200 Tons

Speed: 12 Kts

Decks: 3; compartmented lower hold, full length (to bridge house) between deck and exposed main deck.

Ramps: Stern ramp providing access to the between and main decks. Ramp can not be slewed.

Cranes: 2-160 TON, one centerline forward of the holds, the second on the port side 3/4 aft along the holds. The cranes can be paired for a full 320 long ton lift capacity within the crane's reach. Cranes very inefficient for moving break bulk or large numbers of lifts. use of dockside crane is more efficient in these applications.

Containers:

Notes: Has no FLO-FLO capabilities. She can ballast to help position the stern ramp and for seakeeping. . Planned to be added to APS for forward deployment/movement of Army watercraft.

 

PREPOSITIONING SHIPS

BOB HOPE (+3?)

Length: 950'-0" (289.63m) overall

Beam: 105'-10" (32.27m)

Draft (Maximum): 34'-8" (10.57m)

Displacement: 62,069 tons fully loaded

Speed: 24 kts

Ramps: xx

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Notes: launched 6-97, expect in service 1998 and beyond.

MODIFIED BOB HOPE

Length: 950'-0" (289.63m)

Beam: 105'-8" (32.24m)

Draft (Maximum): 34'-0" (10.37m)

Displacement: 62,968 tons fully loaded

Speed: 24 kts

Ramps: xx

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Notes: Under construction, expect in service 1998 and beyond.

 

AFLOAT PREPOSITIONING SHIPS CONVERSIONS

SGT 1ST CLASS RANDALL D. SHUGHART, SGT 1ST CLASS ROONEY J. T. YANO, PFC WILLIAM A. SODERMAN

Length: 907'-0" (276.52m) OVERALL

Beam: 105'-7" (32.2m)

Draft (Maximum): 34'-10" (10.62m)

Displacement: 54,298 tons fully loaded

Speed: 24 kts

Ramps: 1 stern with some angle swing capability; 4 side ramps

Cranes: 2 sets of twin xx capacity cranes

Containers: xx

Notes: Conversions for APS.

MSGT GARY I. GORDON, CPL CHARLES L. GILLARD

Length: 954'-0" (290.85m)

Beam: 105'-10" (32.25m)

Draft (Maximum): 35'-9" (10.9m)

Displacement: 57,487 tins fully loaded

Speed: 24 kts

Ramps: xx

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Notes: Conversions for APS.

WATSON - LMSR

 

VEHICLE CARGO SHIPS

CAPE ORLANDO, AMERICAN FALCON, AMERICAN CONDOR

Length: 635'-3" (199.2m) OVERALL

Beam: 91'-10" (28.0m)

Draft (Maximum): 29'-6" (9.0m)

Displacement: 30,000 Tons

Speed: 22 kts

Ramps: stern

Cranes: xx

Containers: 1,040 containers/116,669 sf vehicle space

CAPE ORLANDO - Stern ramp, weight 95 MT, capacity 73 MT, slewing, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

 

CAPE A

CAPE ALEXANDER

Length: xx

Beam: xx

Draft (Maximum): xx

Displacement: xx

Speed: xx

Ramps: xx

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Notes: Cape Alexander has the Modular Cargo Delivery System (MCDS) installed. MCDS is a mechanized cargo transfer unit that acts as a combination elevator and winch, hoisting pallets of cargo into the air and then across wire lines strung between ships. (CHINFO 352300Z JUN 97)

 

CAPE "D" SHIPS

CAPE DECISION, CAPE DIAMOND, CAPE DOMINICO, CAPE DOUGLAS, CAPE DUCATO

Length: 680'-3" (207.4 m)

Beam: 97'-0" (29.57m)

Draft (Maximum): 31'-6" (9.59m)

Displacement: 35,173 L/T

Speed: 22 kts

Ramp: Stern positioned to starboard, no sleweing, ramp weight 120 MT, capacity 65 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Notes: RO-RO

 

CAPE E

CAPE EDMONT

Length: 652'-11" (199.02m)

Beam: 94'-2" (28.7m)

Draft (Maximum): 31'-6" (9.6m)

Displacement: 32,000 tons

Speed: 19 kts

Ramps: Stern, no slewing, ramp weight 120 MT, capacity 65 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Cranes: xx

Containers: 1,212

Cargo space: 118,325 sf

 

CAPE G

CAPE GIBSON, CAPE GIRRARDEAU

Length: xx

Beam: xx

Draft (Maximum): xx

Displacement: xx

Speed: xx

Ramps: xx

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Notes: Cape Gibson and Cape Girrardeau have the Modular Cargo Delivery System (MCDS) installed. MCDS is a mechanized cargo transfer unit that acts as a combination elevator and winch, hoisting pallets of cargo into the air and then across wire lines strung between ships. (CHINFO 352300Z JUN 97)

 

CAPE "H" SHIPS

CAPE HENRY, CAPE HORN, CAPE HUDSON

Length: 749'-6" (228.5m)

Beam: 105'-10" (32.26m)

Draft (Maximum): 35'-5" (10.8m)

Displacement: 47,200 L/T

Cranes: 1 - 40 ton crane forward

Ramp: stern positioned to starboard, no slewing, ramp weight 425 MT, capacity 160 MT, too heavy for in-stream operations (would sink RRDF). not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Containers: 1,607 to 1,629 20’ containers

Notes: RO-RO

 

CAPE "I" SHIPS

CAPE INSCRIPTION, CAPE ISABEL, CAPE INTREPID (ex-JUIPTER), CAPE ISLAND (ex- MERCURY)

Length: 684’-9" (208.8m)

Beam: 102’-0" (31.1m)

Draft (Maximum): 32’-1" (9.8m)

Displacement: 33,900 L/T

Speed: 24 kts

Ramp: Fixed quarter stern (to starboard)

113’ long, 23’ wide, ramp weight 93 MT, 101.6 MT capacity, INSTREAM certified to 63 MT in sea state 2, 10 MPF travel restriction (MARAD 1 July 97)

Two side ramps (port/starboard)

Cranes: 1-twin ?? forward

Containers:

Notes: RO-RO; can carry 728 tons of liquid cargo

 

CAPE J

CAPE JOHNSON, CAPE JUBY, CAPE JOHN, CAPE JACOB

Length: xx

Beam: xx

Draft (Maximum): xx

Displacement: xx

Speed: xx

Ramps: xx

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Notes: Cape Johnson, Cape Juby, Cape John, and Cape Jacob have the Modular Cargo Delivery System (MCDS) installed. MCDS is a mechanized cargo transfer unit that acts as a combination elevator and winch, hoisting pallets of cargo into the air and then across wire lines strung between ships. (CHINFO 352300Z JUN 97)

 

CAPE K

CAPE KNOX, CAPE KENNEDY

Length: xx

Beam: xx

Draft (Maximum): xx

Displacement: xx

Speed: xx

Ramps: Stern, ramp weight 335 MT, capacity 200 MT, too heavy for instream operations (would sink RRDF), not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Note: Not in MARAD control NOV96

 

CAPE L

CAPE LAMBERT, CAPE LOBOS

Length: 681'-10" (207.9m)

Beam: 75'-2" (22.9m)

Draft (Maximum): 30'-6" (9.3m)

Displacement: 30,375 TONS

Speed: 19 KTS

Ramps: two starboard side side ramps, ramp weight unk, capacity 30.5 MT each, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Cranes: xx

Containers: xx

Cargo space: 189,937 sf

 

CAPE R

CAPE RISE, CAPE RAY, CAPE RACE

Length: 647'-10" (197.52m)

Beam: 105'-10" (32.26m)

Draft (Maximum): 32'-10" (10.0m)

Displacement: xx

Speed: 19.75 kts

Ramps: stern, non-slewing, ramp weight 70 MT, capacity 70 MT (CAPE RACE 100 MT), not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Starboard, ramp weight 42 MT, capacity 45 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Cranes: xx

Containers: 1,315

 

CAPE T

CAPE TEXAS, CAPE TAYLOR, CAPE TRINITY

Length: 627'-10" (191.29m)

Beam: 89'-3" (27.2m)

Draft (Maximum): 28'-2" (8.6m)

Displacement: 26,455 (CAPE TEXAS 24,555) tons fully loaded

Speed: 20.5 kts

Ramps: side and stern

Stern ramp, 33 port and starboard, ramp weight 125 MT, capacity 160 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Cranes: none

Containers: 340 plus vehicles

 

CAPE V

CAPE VINCENT, CAPE VICTORY

Length: 631'-9" (192.6m) overall

Beam: 87'-0" (26.55m)

Draft (Maximum): 27'-8" (8.47m)

Displacement: 27,000 tons

Speed: 16 kts

Ramps: Stern ramp, slews 42 Starboard or 10 Port, ramp weight 110 MT, capacity 318 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Cranes: xx

Containers: 1,306

Notes: Vehicle cargo ship

 

CAPE W

CAPE WASHINGTON, CAPE WRATH

Length: 697'-2" (212.61m) overall

Beam: 105'-11" (32.28m)

Draft (Maximum): 38'-2" (11.63m)

Displacement: 55,000 tons

Speed: 17 kts

Ramps: Main stern, non-slewing, ramp weight 165 MT, capacity 260 MT, too heavy for in-stream discharge (would sink RRDF), not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Aux. Stern, non-slewing, ramp weight 55 MT, capacity 65 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

side doors, quarter doors/ramps, stern ramp slewed to starboard

Cranes: xx

Containers: 1,203 or vehicles

 

COMET

Ramps: Stern, ramp weight 40 MT, capacity 61 MT, too short for in-stream discharge, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Port and Starboard Forward and Aft, ramp weight unk, capacity 61 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

 

METEOR

Ramps: Stern, ramp weight 40 MT, capacity 54.8 MT, too short for in-stream discharge, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

Port and Starboard Forward and Aft, ramp weight unk, capacity 54.8 MT, not certified for in-stream ops (MARAD 1 July 97)

========================================================================

 

LOTS/JLOTS OFFLOAD SEQUENCE and PLANNING FACTORS

Purpose: To outline the steps involved in a LOTS/JLOTS operations (from JCS PUB 4-01.6), outline the factors that effect the steps and consolidate the planning factors that are in various documents.

1. Cast off and clear from the beach/pier.

Defined: Beach -- from the beach to approximately 100 yards seaward of the surf zone.

Pier -- from the beach until positioned for transit to the offload ship.

Factors:

Beachmaster clearance

PCO/JLCC Clearance

Port clearance

Sea state

Environmental factors - rain, fog, day, night

Craft condition

Obstacles

Other traffic

JCS PUB 4-01.6 Planning Factors (minutes):

Craft Beach Pier ELCAS

1+1 17

2+1 40

3+1 40

LCU 1600 7 4

LCU 2000 7 3

LCM-8 2 4

LSV 7 3

DWCWF

2. Transit time to the ship.

Defined: Travel from the beach/pier chop point to the waiting queue at the discharge ship.

Factors:

Craft speed

Craft condition

Course

Tides

Sea state

Environmental conditions - rain, fog, day, night

Other traffic

AFOE Planning factors:

Craft Speed (minutes per mile)

1+1 15 min/mile

2+1 18

3+1 20

LCU 1600 20

LCU 2000

LCM-8 6

LSV

DWCWF

JLOTS III Loaded Lighter Speeds::

Craft Speed (knots)

1+1

2+1

3+1 4.3

LCU 1600 7.3

LCU 2000 7.4

LCM-8

LSV 8.9

DWCWF 3.6

JLOTS III recommended factors:

Craft Speed (minutes per mile)

1+1

2+1

3+1 14

LCU 1600 8

LCU 2000 8

LCM-8

LSV 8

DWCWF 17

3. Approach and moor time at the ship.

Defined: From the waiting queue to secured alongside the ship or ready for RRDF discharge (i.e. flexed or moored to the RRDF).

Factors:

LCO Clearance

Queue location

Craft speed

Craft condition

Crew skill

DCO positioning

Communications

Other craft

Sea state

Environmental conditions - rain, fog, day, night

Flexing into RRDF

JCS PUB 4-01.6 Planning factors:

Craft Time to approach and moor T-ACS (minutes)

1+1

2+1

3+1 12

LCU 1600 16

LCU 2000 11

LCM-8

LSV 13

DWCWF 18

Tri-MEF SOP Planning factors:

Craft Approach and moor alongside

1+1 9

2+1 12

3+1

LCM-8 9

Tri-MEF SOP Planning factors:

Craft Approach and moor RRDF

1+1 11

2+1 11

3+1

AFOE Planning Factors

Craft Approach and moor alongside

1+1 10

2+1 10

LCU 1600 9

AFOE Planning Factor

Craft Approach and moor RRDF

1+1 20

4. Number of Discharge Points.

Defined: Ships capabilities for discharge of cargo.

Factors:

Ship type

Cargo to be discharged

Load plan

Number, type and locations of cranes

Craft type in queue

T-ACS used?

Other discharge systems, i.e. RRDF

Planning factors:

5. Load time at the ship.

Defined: Time to discharge cargo using the various systems (cranes, RRDF, etc.).

Factors:

Crane cycle time

T-ACS cycle time

RRDF cycle time

Crew skills (crane operators, vehicle operators, craft)

Load plan

Discharge plan

Removing hatches/administrative lifts

Lighterage repositioning

Container ship repositioning (warping) alongside T-ACS

Crane conditions

Multiple crane operations coordination

Container/vehicle respotting on lighterage

Needs of supporting unit

Sling changes

Crane capabilities

Vehicle/cargo movement to discharge points/removal of dunnage

Driver cycle times

Vehicle condition (i.e. will they start)

Sea state

Environmental conditions - rain, fog, day, night

Tag line handling on lighterage, ability of lighter crews to get into position (on CWF's, 20' containers block nearly the entire 21' width, crews have to climb over or walk alnong 6" edge)

Need to gripe/secure on craft

Time to ungripe/remove dunnage on the ship

Planning factors:

JCS PUB 4-01.6 NCHF Crane Planning Factors

Instream -- 3 containers/hour/crane (20 minute cycle time)

Pierside -- 4 containers/hour/crane (15 minute cycle time)

Ideal crane cycle time (based on Haaglund crane design) 6 minute cyce time (10 containers/hour)(assumes SS 0, 0 wind).

JCS PUB 4-01.6 RRDF vehicle load time:

Craft Self-sustaining ship Non-self-sustaining ship

CWF 1.5 minutes 1.9 minutes

LCU 5.9 minutes 4.0 minutes

Does not include time to get vehicles to the RRDF from within ship.

TRI-MEF SOP Planning factors:

Cranes: 5 containers/hour/crane (12 minute cycle time)

3.3 vehicles/hour/crane (18 minute cycle time)

RRDF vehicle load time: 1 vehicle/minute

Craft vehicle carrying (LO - lift on/RO - roll on)/container capacity:

Craft LO RO Containers

1+1 8 5 9

2+1 13 10 16

3+1 18 15 23

LCM-8 2 - 0 (1 if crane available to remove at shore)

 

6. Cast off and clear from the ship.

Defined: Time to clear the ship and begin transit to the beach/pier. LCO chop point.

Factors:

LCO Clearance

Craft speed

Craft condition

Crew skill

Communications

Other craft

Sea state

Environmental conditions - rain, fog, day, night

Flexing out of RRDF/reflexing into CWF

Logistics needs - i.e. refueling

JCS PUB 4-01.6 Planning factors:

Craft

1+1

2+1

3+1

LCU 1600

LCU 2000

LCM-8

LSV

DWCWF

Tri-MEF SOP Planning factors:

Craft Cast off and clear

1+1 6

2+1 6

3+1

LCM-8 6

AFOE Planning Factors

Craft Cast off and clear

1+1 8

2+1 14

3+1 18

LCU 1600 5

7. Transit time to the beach/pier.

Defined: Travel from the LCO chop point to the Beach Party Team/Port Control chop point.

Factors:

Craft speed

Craft condition

Course

Tides

Sea state

Environmental conditions - rain, fog, day, night

Other traffic

Planning factors:

Craft Speed (knots)

1+1

2+1

3+1

LCU 1600

LCU 2000

LCM-8

LSV

DWCWF

8. Approach and moor at the beach/pier.

Defined: From the BPT/Port Control chop point to being ready for cargo discharge at the beach/pier.

Factors:

BPT clearance

Sea state

Environmental conditions - rain, fog, day, night

Other traffic

Crew skill

Obstacles

JCS PUB 4-01.6 Planning Factors:

Craft Beach Pier ELCAS

1+1 3

2+1 4

3+1 5

LCU 1600 7 4

LCU 2000 7 4

LCM-8 1 4

LSV 5 43

DWCWF

9. Offload time at the beach/pier.

Defined: Time to discharge cargo.

Beach throughput is dependent on the receipt, transfer and clearance rates.

Receipt - availability of discharge points for lighterage.

Transfer - rate of discharge from lighterage.

Clearance - rate of cargo movement from beach transfer points to staging and marshalling areas.

Beach Discharge Factors:

Beach conditions

Vehicle condition (i.e. will they start)

Vehicle preparations (i.e. moving 155 barrel)

Driver cycle time

Distance vehicles to be moved

Prime movers

Beach transit conditions

RTCH availability, condition and cycle time

Location of container yard

Ungriping of vehicles

JCS PUB 4-01.6 Planning factors:

Vehicle discharge time (minutes)

Craft Time/vehicle (minutes)

CWF 1

LCU 1.2

Assumes self-propelled vehicles, double when prime mover needs to be driven onto craft.

Tri-MEF SOP Planning factor:

Craft Time/vehicle Time/container

CWF 0.8 minutes 4 minutes

LCM-8 1 minutes

AFOE Planning factor

Craft time/vehicle Time/container

CWF 1.2 minutes 3 minutes (2 RTCH team)

Pier Discharge Factors:

Vehicle condition (i.e. will they start)

Vehicle preparations (i.e. moving 155 barrel)

Driver cycle time

Distance vehicles to be moved

Prime movers

Transit conditions

RTCH availability, condition and cycle time

Location of container yard

Ungriping of vehicles

Crane capabilities

Crane cycle time

Crane crew skills

Crane condition

Tides/tidal variance (Ramp angles change with tides)

Planning factors:

10. Clearance time from JLOTS operation area

Defined: Travel of the cargo from the beach/pier receipt area to the receiving unit.

Factors:

Driver cycle time

Distance

Road conditions

Other traffic (vehciles or personnel (refugees))

Convoy/security requirements

Planning factors:

While not included in the LOTS/JLOTS steps, the following is provided for Pierside discharge:

11. Pierside Discharge

Factors:

Tides/tidal variance (Ramp angle changes with tide)

Ramp certification

Driver cycle time (aboard ship and shoreside)

Pier area for staging/maneuvering cargo/vehicles

Vehicle condition (i.e. will they start)

Vehicle preparations (i.e. moving 155 barrel)

Distance vehicles to be moved

Prime movers

Transit conditions

RTCH availability, condition and cycle time

Location of container yard

Ungriping of vehicles

Crane capabilities

Crane cycle time

Crane crew skills

Crane condition

Driver cycle time

Road conditions

Other traffic

Planning factors:

 

OTHER INFORMATION:


Tri-MEF SOP

General time requirements for arrival Operations:

MPSRON 1 15 hours

MPSRON 2 27 hours

MPSRON 3 17 hours

Operation Duration

Offload SLWT’s and LCM-8’s 1.5 hours

Moor anchors 6 hours

Offload other lighters 5 hours

Position ship’s ramp 0.5 hours

Assemble CWF 3.5 hours

Install fenders 1.5 hours

Discharge amphibians 2 hours

Install AABWS/AABFS 9 hours

Assemble RRDF Platform 1 hour

Discharge container handling equipment 3 hours

Remove hatch covers 1 hour

JCS PUB 4-01.6

Offload Systems Preparation Time

System Time (hours)

Container ship moor to T-ACS 2 w/tugs

T-ACS 10 hours to offload lighterage

Breakbulk ship 2

LASH Ship 1

SEABEE Ship 1

RRDF Assembly (w/o CWR) 6-8

RRDF Assembly (w/CWR) 12

RRDF Removal 1

RRDF repositioning alongside ship (w/o CWR) 2.5

RRDF repositioning alongside ship (w/ CWR) 7

AFOE System Preparation Time

System Time

LASH 15 minutes

SEABEE 30 minutes

ELCAS 5-7 days

Speed of Advance (knots) (NWP 22-3)

LCM-8 4 - 8 Aluminum

6 - 8 Steel

LCU 1627 5 - 8

LCU 1646 4.5 - 10

AAVP7 5 - 6.5

LCM-6 (OUB) 6.5 - 7

====================================

 

Conversion Factors:

1 fathom = 6 feet = 1.83 meters

1 meter = 3.28 feet

1 foot = 0.3048 meters

1 mile = 1.609 kilometers

1 kilometer = 0.62 miles

1 Short Ton = 2,000 lbs

1 Long Ton = 2,240 lbs = 1.12 S/T

1 Metric Ton = 1,000 kilograms = 2,204.6 pounds

1 barrel = 42 gallons

1 knot = 1.15 mph

1 Nautical Mile = 1.15 Statute Miles = 1,852 m = 6,076 feet

1 Minute of arc of a great circle = 1 Nautical Mile (measure off of vertical scale)

 

====================================================================

BEACH AND SURF PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

 

Sea State Descriptions:

SS 1 - SMOOTH SEA: Ripples, no foam.

Wind: light air 1-4 knots, not felt on face.

Beaufort 1.

SS 2 - SLIGHT SEA: Small wavelets, no form.

Wind: light to gentle breeze, 4-10 knots, felt on face, light flags wave.

Beaufort: 2-3.

SS 3 - MODERATE SEA: Large wavelets, crests begin to break.

Wind: Gentle to moderate breeze, 7-15 knots, light flags extended.

Beaufort: 3-4.

SS 4 - ROUGH SEA: Moderate waves, many white caps, some spray.

Wind: Moderate to strong breeze, 14-27 knots, wind whistles in rigging.

Beaufort: 4-6.

SS 5 - VERY ROUGH: Seas heaps up, with spindrift and foam streaks.

Wind: Moderate to fresh gale, 27-40 knots, walking resistance high.

Beaufort: 6-8.

SS 7 - VERY HIGH SEA: Very high waves with overhanging crests, sea appears as foam scuds in very dense streaks, visibility reduced.

Wind: Whole gale, 44-55 knots.

Beaufort: 10.

SS 8 - MOUNTAINOUS SEA: Very, very high rolling, breaking waves, sea covered with foam, very poor visibility.

Wind: Storm, 55-65 knots.

Beaufort: 11.

 

Breakers

Spilling (preferred) - crest slides down the face of the wave, gradual release of energy.

 

Plunging - crest plunges over into the preceding trough (surfer’s wave), sudden release of energy.

 

Surging - wave builds like a plunging wave, but backwash stops the plunging and the breaker explodes onto the beach.

 

Underwater Gradient

(1:15 = 1 foot rise in level (elevation) for every 15 foot of beach (horizontal distance)

STEEP >1:15

MODERATE 1:15 to 1:30 (preferred)

GENTLE 1:30 to 1:60

MILD 1:60 to 1:120

FLAT <1:120

 

Landing Craft Capabilities:

Rule of thumb for determining minimum underwater gradient for landing craft is;

Subtract draft forward from draft aft, divide the difference into the overall length of the craft; the resulting quotient expressed as a ratio is the underwater gradient needed for the craft to ground the bow in beaching.

 

Tides

Semi-diurnal (semi-daily) - normally two highs and lows per day. (East coast US)

Diurnal (daily) - normally 1 high and low per day. (West Pacific)

Mixed Tides - high and low tides not divided equally in a 24 hour period by their intensity. (West coast US)

 

Shore Currents

Longshore current - Flows parallel to beach inside breakers. Caused by waves breaking at an angle to the beach.

 

Rip currents - Flow out from shore through the breaker line. Caused by sandbar or other obstruction not allowing normal release of water to the open sea.

 

Landing Craft Casualties

Swamping - by breakers when approaching or retracting.

 

Hanging Up - on a bar or reef.

 

Broaching - on a bar or beach (turning parallel to beach).

 

Plow-In - LCAC only, loss of front skirt.

 

SURF OBSERVATION REPORT (SUROB)

ALFA: Significant Breaker Height - average height of 1/3 highest breakers.

BRAVO: Maximum Breaker Height.

CHARLIE: Period of Breakers.

DELTA: Percent by type of breakers.

ECHO: Breaker angle - angle breaker makes with the beach and direction.

FOXTROT: Littoral current - direction and speed.

GOLF: Number of lines in each set of breakers and width of the surf zone in feet.

HOTEL: Remarks - wind direction and velocity, visibility, debris in the surf zone, secondary wave system, dangerous conditions, mines, rocks, obstructions, etc.

 

Modified Surf Report

SUROB is processed, using modification tables, by the PCO into the "Modified Surf Report" which gives a relative number to compare to craft limits.

==========================================

LIFE JACKETS

TYPE I -- Offshore, 22 lbs buoyancy, most face up (Kapok)

TYPE II -- near-shore, 15.5 lbs buoyancy, some face up

TYPE III -- float aide, 15.5 lbs buoyancy, not face up (Sterns)

TYPE V -- Special use, only used for specific use approved

INFLATABLE -- not US Coast Guard approved, 35 lbs buoyancy

===================================================

Safe Sea Room Calculation

Anchorage Diameter (feet) = 2((7x depth of water (feet) + (2x length of ship (feet)))

===================================================

LOGISTICS PLANNING FACTORS

Water - 20 gal/day/man (all factors - food preparation, hygiene, individual consumption, vehicle maintenance)(MC planning figure)

Food - 3 MRE/person/day 576 meals/pallet, each pallet weighs 4560 lbs. (MC planning figure)

Fuel - 11.4 lbs/person/day (1943-45 planning figure)

===================================================

 

PHIBCB MISSIONS

ASSAULT ECHELON

(AE is sequential before AFOE)

1 - AABFS Team

BPT Support

 

ASSAULT FOLLOW-ON ECHELON

Command and Control

BPT Support

Offload Control

Lighterage Repair

OPDS

ELCAS

RRDF

CWF

1,200 man camp (2-600 man camp configuration)

Defense

 

MARITIME PREPOSITIONING FORCE

Command and Control

Offload Control

BPT Support

Lighterage Repair

CWF

AABFS/AABWS

RRDF

850 man Camp

Defense

 

JLOTS

 

 

REAR ECHELON

================================================================

 

FIVE PHASES OF MPF OPERATIONS

PLANNING

1. Contingency Planning prepares for potential crisis and military operations.

2. Execution Planning prepares for the actual commitment of forces in a specific situation when deployment is imminent.

MARSHALING

1. Units complete final preparations for movements to APOEs and loading aboard aircraft.

2. Marshaling Phase begins on arrival of the first element at a designated marshaling point and ends on departure of the last element from a departure airfield.

MOVEMENT

1. Movement Phase consists of the movement of forces by air and sea to the Arrival and Assembly Area (AAA).

2. The Movement Phase begins on lift-off of the first aircraft from the departure airfield or when the MPSRON begins transit to a designated AAA. The Movement Phase ends when the last FIE aircraft arrives at the AAA and the last ship arrives at the offload point.

3. Movement Elements:

a. Survey, Liaison and Reconnaissance Party (SLRP)

USMC OIC - USMC/USN composition. Dissolves on arrival of Advance Party.

MPSRON 2 - CMPF - LNO; CPG-3 - LNO, COMMO, FSO; NBG-1 - OPS, COMMO; PHIBCB ONE - SUPPO, Camp Support.

MPSRON 3 -

b. Offload Preparation Party

USN OIC - USMC/USN composition. Dissolves upon arrival in AAA and transition to PCO organization.

See MPF NSE CESE list for OPP assignments by command.

c. Advance Party

All forces needed to accomplish the offload, to the AAOE’s.

AAOG, LFSP, NSE, AAOE personnel

d. Main Body

Forces that marry to the MPF equipment.

e. Flight Ferry

Self-deploying aircraft of the ACE.

ARRIVAL AND ASSEMBLY

1. Arrival and Assembly begins on arrival of the first MPS or the first aircraft of the main body at the designated AAA.

2. The Arrival and Assembly phase ends when adequate equipment and supplies are offloaded and issued to awaiting units, command and control communications are established, and the MAGTF Commander reports that all essential elements of the MAGTF have attained combat readiness.

3. The Arrival and Assembly Phase includes:

a. Initial preparation of an AAA.

b. Reception of MAGTF and NSE personnel and equipment, and airlift at nearby airfields.

c. Coordinating arrival and offload of equipment and supplies from MPS(s)(in port, across a beach or a combination of both).

d. Issue of maritime prepositioning equipment and supplies (MPS/E) to arriving units.

e. re-establishment of MAGTF organization from the movement group organization necessary for deployment.

f. Provision of local security for arrival and assembly.

g. Preparation for the operational mission.

REGENERATION

1. Return/reloading of the MPS to readiness status.

=================================================

 

AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE

Five Phases of an Amphibious Operation "PERMA"

PLANNING -- From issuance of the initiating directive to the embarkation, however is continuous throughout the operation. See Planning steps below.

 

EMBARKATION -- Commencement of the operational phase. CLF becomes subject to the orders of the CATF.

 

REHEARSAL -- Three types: Separate Force, Staff, and Integrated

 

MOVEMENT -- From Homeport to arrival in the AOA.

 

ASSAULT -- From arrival of ATF in AOA to accomplishment of the mission.

Termination -- accomplishment of mission, CLF is ready to assume responsibility, and approval by higher headquarters.

 

AMPHIBIOUS PLANNING

 

Initiating Directive -- Issued by Commander having overall responsibility for the operation.

1. Establishes the Task Force.

2. Assign a mission: broad in scope; designates areas to be captured; based on existing plan or new situation.

3. Provides air, ground and Naval forces necessary to accomplish the mission.

4. Assigns the assault shipping for the AE and AFOE.

5. Designates Commanders: CATF/CLF by name, other senior Commanders.

6. Defines the AOA: positively defines air, sea and land space within which is the objective areas of the ATF; size of the AOA; command authority within the AOA.

7. Provides a Code Name.

8. Sets limiting dates/target dates: period within which operation must be conducted; coordinated with other operations which may be concurrent.

9. Command Relationships: spells out if different than normal; spells out external to ATF relationships; gives relationships to exist after termination of operation.

10. Guidance on Chemical and Nuclear weapons.

11. Terminating Instructions: Positive instructions as to the disposition of forces and command arrangements at termination of operations; instructions on operations to be conducted after termination (OPDS/ELCAS operation for example).

12. Supporting Operations: provides information on operations to be conducted by forces other than those assigned to the ATF; special instructions pertaining to allocation, employment and control.

13. Cryptographic and OPSEC Guidance.

14. Deception Operations Concept of Operations.

15. Other Information: Public Affairs; Civil Affairs.

 

Basic Decisions

1. Select ATF general course of action. JOINT

2. Select ATF objectives. JOINT

3. Determine Landing Force mission. CLF

4. Designate Landing sites. CATF

5. Determine Landing Force objectives. CLF

6. Determine beachheads. CLF

7. Select landing areas (sea, land and air areas needed for the operation). JOINT

8. Formulate Landing Force concept of operations. CLF

9. Select landing beaches. CLF

10. Select helicopter landing zones. CLF

11. Select fixed-wing aircraft landing zones and drop zones. CLF

12. Select D-day and H-hour. CATF

 

Landing Force Planning Process

Sequence of Command and Staff Actions

15 step process

1. Receipt of Mission -- Initiating Directive

2. Mission Analysis -- Develop specific tasks to accomplish the mission. Analysis assists in determining: Commander’s intent two levels up; acceptable levels of risk; assets available; constraints (things that must be done); restraints (things that can not be done). Restate the mission.

3. Determine information requirements -- what else do I need to know? Intelligence questions.

4. Initial Staff Orientation: S-2: time; weather; terrain; enemy situation. S-3: mission; tasks.

Initial Planning Conference -- Basic Decisions 1 to 4 (ATF general course of action; ATF objectives; Landing Force mission; Landing sites).

CATF Planning Directive.

CLF Planning Directive

Amphibious Lift Requirements.

Basic Decisions 5 to 7 (Landing Force objectives; beachheads; landing areas.)

5. Commander’s Planning guidance -- statement of mission; unusual or particularly significant aspects of the operation; "for consideration" courses of action; priority information requirements; CLF: statement of ATF-LF mission; assumptions; previous decisions, policies or restrictions; analysis of relative combat power with enemy; phasing requirements; nuclear and chemical fire support guidance; mine warfare guidance; ground maneuver guidance: broad courses of action; key terrain; tactical determinations; identify a reserve; defensive considerations; aviation guidance. Combat services support guidance: requirements, priorities and allocation of resources; facility construction requirements; levels of supplies ashore. Security considerations: deception; electronic warfare; COMSEC; OPSEC. Civil affairs, PSYOPS; joint/combined operations guidance.

6. Courses of Action -- Possible plan which may lead to accomplish the mission. Evaluated for: suitable; acceptable; feasible; complete (who, what, where, when , how, why); following the Commander’s guidance.

7. Staff Estimates -- of the possible courses of action.

8. Commander’s Estimate of the situation.

9. Commander’s Decision

10. Commander’s Concept of the Operation. Broad outline of the operation. Provides: formation for landing; scheme of maneuver; landing force objectives; task organization; ship to shore movement means; fire support; deception operations; subsidiary landing plans. Contains Basic Decision 8 (Landing Force concept of operations). Becomes paragraph 3.a.(2) of the OPORD.

11. Warning Orders. Outlines plan, contains Basic Decisions 9 to 11 (Select landing beaches; helicopter landing zones; fixed-wing aircraft landing zones and drop zones).

12. Preparation of Plans/Orders. Contains Basic Decision 12(Select D-day and H-hour)

13. Commander’s Approval.

14. Issuance of Plans/Orders.

15. Command and Staff Supervision.

 

==================================

 

AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

MARINE AIR-GROUND TASK FORCE

All MAGTF units have four elements: Command Element (CE), Ground Combat Element (GCE), Air Combat Element (ACE), and Service Support Element (SSE).

 

MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (MEF) 30,000-50,000 personnel

Ground Combat Element - Marine Division

Aviation Combat Element - Marine Air Wing

Combat Service Support Element - Force Service Support Group (FSSG) -- 60 days of support (AE + AFOE)

NMCBs normally fall under CSSE (OPNAVINST 5450.46J)

 

MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE FORWARD (MEF (FWD)) (old name Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) 16,000 personnel

Ground Combat Element - Regimental landing Team (RLT)

2-5 Infantry battalions; Artillery battalion; Tank Company; Combat Engineer Company; Reconnaissance Company; AAV Company; LAI Company.

Aviation Combat Element - Marine Aircraft Group

Combat Service Support Element - Brigade Service Support Group (BSSG) -- 30 days of support (AE + AFOE)

 

MARINE EXPEDITIONARY UNIT (MEU) 2,200 personnel

Ground Combat Element - Battalion Landing Team (BLT)

1 Infantry Battalion reinforced by LAV, artillery, AAV and combat engineers.

Aviation Combat Element - Composite Squadron

Combat Service Support Element - MEU Service Support Group -- 15 days of support (AE + AFOE)

 

SPECIAL PURPOSE MAGTF

Ground Combat Element - at least a Rifle Platoon.

Aviation Combat Element - task organized to support GCE mission.

Combat Service Support Element - task organized to support GCE mission.

 

MARINE DIVISION

18,000 personnel

Headquarters Battalion

Infantry Regiment

3 Infantry Regiments/Division

Each Regiment has 3 Infantry Battalions and HQ Company.

Each Infantry Battalion has 4 Line Companies and a HQ Company.

Artillery Regiment

1 Artillery Regiment/Division

A Regiment has 4 Artillery Battalions and HQ Battery.

Each Artillery Battalion has 3 Batteries and a HQ Battery.

Tank Battalion

1 Tank Battalion/Division

A Tank Battalion has 3 Tank Companies; HQ and Service Company; and 6 AVLB (scissors bridges).

Assault Amphibian Battalion

1 Assault Amphibian Battalion/Division

An Assault Amphibian Battalion has 4 AAV Companies.

Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion

1 Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion/Division

A Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion has 4 LAR Companies and a HQ and Service Company.

Combat Engineer Battalion

1 Combat Engineer Battalion/Division

A Combat Engineer Battalion has 4 Combat Engineering Companies; 1 Engineer Support Company (deliberate construction) and a HQ and Support Company.

 

MARINE AIRCRAFT WING

11,000 personnel

Six functions of Marine Aviation

1. Air Reconnaissance

2. Anti-air Warfare

3. Assault Support

4. Offensive Air Support

5. Electronic Warfare

6. Control of Aircraft and Missiles

Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron

Marine Air Control Group (MACG)

MACG HQ

Light Antiaircraft Missile (LAAM) Battalion

Marine Wing Communications Squadron (MWCS)

Low Altitude Air Defense (LAAD) Battalion

2 Marine Air Control Squadrons (MACS)

Marine Air Support Squadron (MASS)

Marine Air Traffic Control Squadron (MATCS)

Marine Tactical Air Command Squadrons

Marine Wing Support Group (MWSG)

HQ and HQ Squadron

2 Marine Wing Support Squadrons Fixed Wing

2 Marine Wing Support Squadrons Rotary Wing

Marine Aircraft Group (MAG)

VMA

VMFA

VMAW(AW)

VMAQ

VMGR

VMO

HML(A)

HMM

HMH

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron (Fixed or Rotary Wing)

 

FORCE SERVICE SUPPORT GROUP

8,000 Personnel

Headquarters and Service Battalion

HQ Company

Service Company

Military Police Company

Communications Company

Landing Support Battalion

HQ and Service Company

3 Landing Support Companies

1 Landing Support Equipment Company

1 Beach and Terminal Operations Company

Supply Battalion

H&S Company

Supply Company

Medical Logistics Company

Ammunition Company

Maintenance Battalion

H&S Company

Motor Transport Maintenance Company

Engineer Maintenance Company

Ordnance Maintenance Company

Electronic Maintenance Company

General Support Maintenance Company

Engineer Support Battalion

(Deliberate engineering/construction and heavy equipment)

H&S Company

Engineer Support Company

3 Engineer Companies

Bridge Company

Bulk Fuel Company

Motor Transport Battalion

H&S Company

General Support Company

2 Direct Support Companies

Medical Battalion

H&S Company

4 Collecting and Clearing Companies

2 Surgical Support Companies

Dental Battalion

H&S Company

3 Dental Companies

 

SPECIALIZED FORCES

4,000 personnel

Radio Battalion

Force Reconnaissance Company

Company HQ

5 Force Reconnaissance Platoons

5 Direct Action Platoons

Supply Service Platoon

Air/Naval Gunfire Liaison Company

Company HQ

3 Brigade Air/NGF Liaison Platoons

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Company

Company HQ

maintenance Platoon

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platoon

Communication Battalion

HQ Company

2 Communications Companies

Support Company

Intelligence Company

Surveillance and Reconnaissance Center; Topographic Platoon; Sensor Control and Management Platoon; Force Imagery Interpretation Unit; Counterintelligence Teams; MAGTF All-Source Fusion Center; Interrogation Platoon; Tactical deception Platoon.

HQ and Service Company

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AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

AFLOAT UNITS

Commander Amphibious Task Force (CATF) NAVY

 

Central Control Officer (CCO) NAVY

ZERO Flag

Assigned when two or more colored beaches.

Assigns Primary Control Officer (PCO), Primary Control Ship (PCS), Secondary Control Officers, and Secondary Control Ships.

Controls transport units in the transport area.

 

Assistant Central Control Officer (ACCO) NAVY

Assigned when two or more colored beaches.

Coordinates movement of landing craft, vehicles and ships in assigned area of responsibility.

 

Primary Control Officer (PCO) NAVY

Directly controls movement of all waterborne craft employed in transporting the landing force, beach party personnel, supplies and equipment to and from the shore.

Control all boats assigned to PCS; designate boat to boat communications methods; brief boat crews of the embark/debark plan, known and anticipated navigational difficulties and salvage boat procedures.

Maintain current location status of all boats assigned to PCS; direct all timed waves; monitor surf and weather conditions; recommend weather termination to CATF; maintain plot of ships in PCS area; maintain status of debarkation; maximize utilization of craft; monitor and control all surface traffic in area assigned; monitor fueling of boats and feeding of boat crews.

 

Primary Control Ship (PCS) NAVY

PCO embarked.

PCO control team.

 

Secondary Control Officer (SCO) NAVY

Duplicates function of PCO.

Embarked in a Secondary Control Ship (SCS).

May be assigned to coordinate a BLT landing.

 

Boat Group Commander (BGC) NAVY

Zero flag over Beach Color flag

Embarked in water (LCVP), leads first boat wave to line of breakers; after landing of scheduled waves, becomes traffic control officer for the beach, reporting as such to the Beachmasters.

 

Assistant Boat Group Commander (ABGC) NAVY

Whiskey flag over Beach Color flag

Keeps assembly area organized, assists in dispatching waves; after landing of scheduled waves, becomes senior salvage officer afloat for the beach and reports as such to the Beachmaster.

 

Boat Wave Commander NAVY

Responsible for organizing wave in proper numerical order and discipline of boats to the beach.

 

Wave Guide Commander MARINE CORPS

Usually USMC in AAV.

Assigned to each wave of amphibious vehicles

 

LCAC Commander NAVY

Control by LCAC themselves.

 

LCAC Control Ship NAVY

LCAC control by specific ship.

 

Tactical Air Control Center (Afloat) (TACC) NAVY

Senior aviation agency, controls and/or coordinates all aircraft in AOA.

TACRON

 

Helicopter Coordination Section (HCS) NAVY

Integral part of TACC (Afloat).

Senior helicopter control agency.

One HCS in the ATF, is located on CATF flagship.

Consists of:

 

Helicopter Coordination Unit (HCU)

Employment and coordination of helicopters.

 

Helicopter Advisory Unit (HAU)

Current data, availability, locations, regeneration, fuel, maintenance, deck space, etc. of helicopters, also progress of helicopterborne assaults.

Augmented by ACE personnel.

 

Helicopter Direction Center (HDC)

Subordinate to TACC (Afloat).

Embarked on flagship of helicopter transport group commander (CO LPH/LHA). When Marine DASC is established ashore DASC assumed HDC role.

Primary direct control agency. Controls movement of helicopters within assigned control areas; control escort aircraft when directed by TACC; maintains status and location of assigned helicopters; coordinates with TACC on supporting arms; control movement of MEDEVAC on advice of Medical Regulating Section (MRS).

 

Helicopter Logistics Support Center (HLSC)

Coordinates debarkation of air serials in accordance with the landing plan, under the control of the Helicopter Logistics Coordinator (HLC).

 

Direct Air Support Center (DASC) MARINE CORPS

First Landing Force control party established ashore.

Operates under direction of CLF ACE.

Controls and directs tactical air support and helicopters (when control has been passed ashore).

 

Helicopter Coordination (Airborne) (HC(A))

Airborne control of all helicopters in his control area.

May be an extension of the DASC or HDC.

 

Tactical Air Coordinator (Airborne) (TAC(A))

Airborne coordinator of combat aircraft engaged in close air support of ground or sea forces.

On-site extension of DASC or TACC.

 

LAND FORCES

Commander Landing Force (CLF) MARINE CORPS

 

Ground Combat Element MARINE CORPS

 

Aviation Combat Element MARINE CORPS

 

Service Support Group MARINE CORPS

Six Functions: (Always plan for these items!)

Supply

Maintenance

Transportation

Deliberate Engineering

Health Services

Services -- Postal, disbursing, law enforcement, enemy prisoner of war management, automated information systems, exchange services, graves registration, utilities support.

 

Tactical Air Command Center (Ashore) (TACC) MARINE CORPS

CP of CLF ACE.

Also known as Marine TACC.

Takes duties of TACC (Afloat) when control is phased ashore.

 

Helicopter Coordination (Airborne) (HC(A))

Airborne control of all helicopters in his control area.

May be an extension of the DASC or HDC.

 

LANDING FORCE SUPPORT PARTY (LFSP) MARINE CORPS and NAVY

Missions: facilitate the landing and movement of troops, equipment, and supplies across beaches and into landing zones, ports and airfields; assist in the evacuation of casualties and POWs during the early stages of an assault; assist in the beaching, retracting and salvage of landing ships, craft and amphibious vehicles.

 

LFSP Task Organizations;

Battalion across a numbered beach -- Landing Support Platoon.

Regiment across a colored beach -- Landing Support Company.

MEF -- Landing Support Battalion (see FSSG for composition)

Shore Party Team (SPT) -- landing support operations across a numbered beach. Normally in direct support of a BLT.

 

SPT Advance Party

SPT commander and select HQ, Beach party Team commander; SPT liaison team (w/GCE S-4 element)

established advance CP; erect flank/center markers; reconnoiter dump routes, set up supply off-load points; conducts general reconnaissance of the beach; develops Beach Support Area Overlay.

 

Beach Support Area Overlay

Started during planning phase.

Based on intelligence reports and beach studies.

Commander’s concept of how to organize the beach.

Overlay includes:

Traffic Control Points (TCP)

Shore Party/Beach Party HQ

PW Compound

Equipment Parks

Landing spots

Evacuation stations

Dump areas for Supply Classes I to X

Duplicate dumps for survivability

ESQD arcs for ammunition

Water Points

Traffic Flow Patterns

ACB Considerations:

AABFS/AABWS/OPDS tie points (out of traffic lanes (water and land).

ELCAS location and traffic flow.

ROWPU location and tie to water points/away from operating area for "fresh" water source.

 

SPT Service Platoon

Operate supply dumps

 

SPT Motor Transport/Heavy Equipment Platoon

SPT HQ

Operates Shore Party Command Post (SPCP)

Information Center

Clearing station

Report/record maintenance

BSA overlay update

 

Medical Evacuation Section

Helicopter Support Team (HST)

Responsible for logistics at a Landing Zone.

Advance Party, Helicopter Support Team HQ, Helicopter Control Element, landing Zone Platoon.

 

Beach Party Team NAVY

Navigation aides, marking and removal obstacles; suitable landing points; directing the beaching and retraction of landing craft and ships; salvage and emergency repairs of landing craft and amphibious vehicles; maintaining communications with Navy commanders and control units; improving beach approaches from seaward; AABFS/AABWS; ACB operations.

 

 

Naval Beach Group

Beachmaster Unit (BMU)

Amphibious Construction Battalion (PHIBCB)

Assault Craft Unit (ACU) displacement craft or LCAC.

 

SURFACE SHIP TO SHORE MOVEMENT

Unloading operations

Tactical - assault or initial unloading

Logistical - general unloading

Troop and Equipment Categories

Scheduled Waves

On-call Waves or Serials

Nonscheduled Waves

Propositioned Emergency Supplies

Remaining Landing Force Supplies

 

HELICOPTER SHIP TO SHORE MOVEMENT

Unloading operations

Initial Unloading (assault) unloading

General Unloading

Landing Categories

Scheduled Waves

On-Call Waves

Nonscheduled Units

Propositioned Emergency Supplies

Remaining Landing Force Supplies

 

Geographic/Map Features

Assault or Landing Area Diagram

Navy prepares

Overlay for appropriate scale map

Beach designations

Boat Lanes

Line of Departure (LOD)

Transport Areas

Fire Support Areas

LCAC lanes, penetration points and landing zones

 

Transport Area Diagram

Navy prepares

Overlay, area extending about 1,000 yards off beach to 1,000 yards past outermost anchorage.

Transport Area and assignment of anchorages

LHA/LHD/LPH areas

Control Ships

Boat and approach lanes

LOD

AAV launch areas

Causeway areas

LCAC launch areas, lanes, penetration points and landing zones

 

Sea Echelon Plan

Navy prepares

Individual ship sea echelon areas

Swept lanes

PCO station

LOD

LHA/LHD/LPH areas

In bound/Out bound lanes

Fire Support Areas

Beach designations

LCAC launch areas, lanes, penetration points and landing zones

 

Assault Wave Diagram

Navy prepares

Displays assault waves as they will appear at H-Hour.

 

Beach Approach Diagram

Navy prepares

Overlay for large scale map. Covers beach to 300/500 yards seaward of LOD.

Designation and dimensions of landing beaches

LOD, distance to beach.

Position of PCS, SCS, BGC, ABGC, etc. after last scheduled wave has landed.

Position of personnel and cargo, transfer lanes and boats

boat return lanes.

 

Helicopter Landing Diagram

CLF ACE prepares, CATF approves

Graphic portrayal of routes to and from the landing zones

Helicopter control points

ingress and egress routes and altitudes

Assault helicopter landing zones.

 

LCAC Control Reference Features

LCAC Launch Area (CLA)

LCAC Departure Point (CDP)

LCAC Transit Lane

LCAC Control Point (CCP)

LCAC Penetration Point (CPP)

LCAC Landing Zone (CLZ)

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STEPS IN WATER TERMINAL PLANNING

Source: Joint Pub 4-01.5 JTTP for Water Terminal Operations, Chapter II.

 

TERMINAL CAPACITY ESTIMATION CHECKLIST

Source: Joint Pub 4-01.5 JTTP for Water Terminal Operations, Chapter II.

 

WATER TERMINAL RECEPTION CAPACITY AND AVAILABILITY OF LOCAL TUGS/PILOTS

COLLECT: Channel depth, channel width, currents, tidal fluctuations, turning basin size, length of berths, type of berths (such as quay, piers), depth of water at berth, type of terminal at berth (container, RO-RO, breakbulk, ammunition, petroleum), height restrictions on channels, height restrictions at berths, overhang restrictions at berths, distances to berths, number and types of tugs, availability of harbor pilots, etc. Anchorages: diameter of anchorages, prevailing currents, sea states, bottom composition, distance to discharge points (beach or port), obstructions between anchorages and discharge points (reefs, sandbars, etc.), channel traffic interfaces.

COMPUTE: Number of ships, by type, length and draft (minimum 2’ of water depth under its keel) that can be berthed or anchored in a harbor or at a terminal.

 

WATER TERMINAL DISCHARGE CAPACITY

COLLECT: Discharge equipment onboard ships, discharge equipment ashore, width of apron, special lift equipment, numbers of discharge equipment.

COMPUTE: The cumulative amount of cargo that can be discharged from each of the berths and anchorages. Expressed in 20' equivalent units (TEU) or 40' equivalent units (FEU), STONS, MTONS, sqft, net explosive weight (NEW), barrels, etc.

 

WATER TERMINAL TRANSFER CAPACITY

COLLECT: Type of cargo, type of cargo handling equipment, round trip distance, number of cargo handling equipment

COMPUTE: The total capability (by key components (cranes, container movers, forklifts, trucks, lighters, etc.)) to transfer from shipside to storage, measured in cargo units per unit of time.

 

WATER TERMINAL STORAGE CAPACITY

COLLECT: Intrinsic capacity, average dwell time, operating capacity, terminal facilities, stacking methods, equipment used.

COMPUTE: The amount of cargo that can be stored at any one time. Note: Congestion starts at 60% fill, becoming critical at 89% usage of the physical space.

 

WATER TERMINAL CLEARANCE CAPACITY

COLLECT: Clearance conveyance by mode, terminal equipment and personnel, gate capacity, accountability system.

COMPUTE: The ability to move cargo away from the terminal.

 

TERMINAL THROUGHPUT CAPACITY

In every instance, the lowest value of the reception, discharge, or the clearance capacity will be the terminal's throughput capacity. All five capacities must be estimated carefully, considering all operational aspects, even if the limiting factor is obvious. These estimates will make it possible to determine where improvements can generate the greatest increase in throughput capacity. The threat, weather, oceanographic conditions, labor (training, skills, distance from berthing to working sites, etc.), and other factors not a function of the estimating process must also be taken into account.

 

PREPARATIONS FOR SHIP DISCHARGE OPERATIONS

Source: Joint Pub 4-01.5 JTTP for Water Terminal Operations, Chapter III.

 

ADVANCE PLANNING

Terminal (berth or anchorage) location, discharge methods (shoreside crane, ship's crane, floating crane, RO-RO, RRDF, lighters, breakbulk), assignment of units.

 

COORDINATION

Unit assignments, documentation, cargo handling equipment available when needed, identification of special equipment or storage needs.

 

BOARDING PARTY (Meets with Master and mates)

Customs personnel, MSC representative, Terminal Operations Officer, Optional people include: surgeon, veterinarian, harbormaster, embarkation officer or ship platoon leader, lighterage unit representative, troop movement officer, military police, signal officer.

 

VESSEL POLICIES

By ship's cargo officer, details division of labor, ensures the prompt, efficient, safe loading, securing and discharge of cargo.

 

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Specialized equipment and trained personnel, packaging and/or storage

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REAR AREA OPERATIONS

Source: Joint Pub 3-10 Joint Doctrine for Rear Area Operations

 

OPERATIONS WITHIN THE JOINT REAR AREA

 

MOVEMENTS WITHIN THE JOINT REAR AREA

Movement Control function executed by an agency, center, or cell (Joint Movement Center).

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CLASSES OF SUPPLY

I Rations (Crescent Moon)

I R Refrigerated

I S Nonrefrigerated (less combat rations

I C Combat rations, including free health and welfare items

II Clothing, individual equipment, tents, etc. (Key)

II B Ground support materials (i.e. bridging)

II E General Supplies

II F Clothing and textiles

II M Individual weapons

II O General equipment

II T Industrial supplies (i.e. cable, chain)

III POL (Inverse Triangle, Propeller)

III A Aviation

III W Ground or surface

IV Construction Material (includes fortification barrier material) (Lazy E)

V Ammunition (Elongated Bullet)

V A Aviation

V W Ground or surface

VI Personal demand items (non-military sales items) (Stick Person)

VII Major End items (Headset)

VII A Aviation

VII B Ground support material

VII D Administrative vehicles

VII G Electronics

VII K Tactical vehicles

VII L Missiles

VII M Weapons

VII N Special weapons

VII O General Equipment

VIII Medical Material (Cross that fills circle)

IX Repair Parts and components (Sun)

same as class VII, plus IX T Industrial

X Material to support nonmilitary programs (CA)

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RECEPTION, STAGING, ONWARD MOVEMENT, AND INTEGRATION (RSO&I)

Reception - the off-load of personnel and material from strategic or operational transport at a point of debarkation for relocation to designated areas.

 

Staging - organizing and preparing for movement of personnel and material at designated areas to incrementally build forces capable of meeting the operational commander's requirement.

 

Onward movement - relocating forces capable of meeting the commander's operational requirements to the initial point of mission execution. it may include theater sustainment.

 

Integration - in force projection is the synchronized hand-off of units to an operational commander's force prior to mission execution.

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SHIP DISCHARGE PLANS

Plan for discharging the ship's cargo based on ship's stowage plans, knowledge of inoperative vehicles, towed vehicles without prime movers, etc.

Problems that the discharge plans seeks to minimize:

a. More cargo unlashed than can be discharged in a reasonable time, emergency sortie concern. Ship's Chief Mate/Maste will determine the "reasonable time" (4 to 6 hours worth of material).

b. Containers unloaded by stack rather than by tier resulting in a list to the container ship. This "fix" however, may create more work for stevadores.

c. Shoreside need for specific (or type) of equipment.

d. Coordination with ship's company to maximize ship's company effort in opening doors, etc. Ship Debarkation Officer needs to be in constant coordination with Chief Mate.

e. Availability of prime movers, and repair personnel, parts, etc.

f. Method of offload - LO-LO, RO-RO, pierside or in-stream.

g. Obstructions that preclude intended method of discharge - in some cases vehicles can not be RO-RO offloaded because of low ceiling heights, turn radius, door openings, etc.

h. Need for specific equipment drivers and mechanics (when that equipment is being readied for discharge).

SHIP's MEETINGS

Ship Debark Officer should conduct a daily (or before each shift) meeting with the Ship Debarkation Organization (Hatch Crew Supervisor, Debark/augmentation personnel OIC, SLCP, RRDF OIC, Fuel's OIC, MSC representative (if embarked), Ship's representative) to provide the status of offlload, guidance on shift efforts (unlashing plans, discharge plans), special needs ashore, special needs afloat (drivers, mechanics, tools, etc.), weather, lighter needs (fuel, food, ice, lighter shift change times), lighterage usage and loading plans, review safety and go/no-go criteria for systems/lighterage, etc.

T-ACS Ship Debark meeting should include ship to be offloaded representaive and Debark Officer. Discussion items include warping plans, personnel shifts, etc.

JLOTS DEBARK MEETING

JLOTS Commander (or representative) conducts a daily (or before each shift) meeting with OCO/Ship's Debark Officers, JLCC, Clearance Units, Lighterage unit representatives, MSC representative, others as needed to provide information on the status of offload, weather, status and availability of lighterage and crews, guidance on shift efforts, special needs ashore, special needs afloat (drivers, mechanics, tools, etc.), discharge performance, issues, etc. OCO/Ship's Debark Officers probably will not be available (unless they're berthed ashore and transported to ship's) and the directions to them should have been coordinated prior to the meeting via radio (JLCC issue). Tasking to lighterage units for the next day/shift should be made at this meeting.

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JLOTS COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

Questions:

Crane reach and weight capabilities by ship.