The SA-7 GRAIL (Strela-2) man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude SAM system is similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explsive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. The HN-5 ( Hong Nu = Red Cherry ) is an improved Chinese version with upgraded capabilities. The SA-7 was the first generation of Soviet man portable surface-to-air missiles. Although classed as "fire and forget" types, the missiles were easily overcome by solar heat and, when used in hilly terrain, by heat from the ground.
The SA-7 seeker is fitted with a filter to reduce the effectiveness of decoying flares and to block IR emissions. The system consists of the missile (9K32 & 9K32M), a reloadable gripstock (9P54 & 9P54M), and a thermal battery (9B17). An identification friend or foe (IFF) system can be fitted to the operators helmet. Further, a supplementary early warning system consisting of a passive RF antenna and headphones can be used to provide early cue about the approach and rough direction of an enemy aircraft. Although the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and altitude, it forces enemy pilots to fly above minimum radar limitations which results in detection and vulnerability to regimental and divisional air defense systems.The SA-7a (9K32 Strela-2) was introduced for service in 1968, but was soon replaced by the SA-7b (9K32M Strela-2M) which became the most common production model. The SA-7b, differs from the SA-7a primarily by using a boosted propellant charge to increase range and speed. The SA-7a had a slant range of 3.6 km and a kill zone between 15 and 1500 meters in altitude, with a speed of about 430 meters per second (Mach 1.4). The SA-7b has a slant range of about 4.2 km, a ceiling of about 2300 meters, and a speed of about 500 meters per second (Mach 1.75). Both the SA-7a and SA-7b are tail-chase missile systems, and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of low-flying fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft targets.
The Anza anti-aircraft missiles give Pakistan a response to India's superiority in modern aircraft -- India has a numerical superiority in modern fighter aircraft of more than 3 to 1 over Pakistan. The Anza MK-1, Anza MK-2, and Anza MK-3 surface to air anti-aircraft missiles have ranges of 4, 6 and 15 km, respectively. The missiles are manufactured by the laboratory named after Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear program.
The Anza MKI missiles, which have a range of 4.2 km, were manufactured and handed over to the military forces in 1990. It has been reported that the missile was used during the Kargil incidents between Pakistan and India. Pakistan downed two of India's military planes, a MIG-21 and a MIG-27, with the Anza MKI missiles for violating its airspace on 26 May 1999.
Egyptian technicians have reverse engineered and modified two Soviet SAMs -- the Ayn as Saqr (a version of the SA-7) and the Tayir as Sabah (a version of the SA-2). The Ayn as Saqr [Falcon Eye] anti-Aircraft missile system is designed to counter air-ground attack by all types of aircraft flying at low and very low altitudes due to its simplicity of operation, accuracy, light weight, mobility & versatility (either by one man or to be integrated into other overall A/D systems). Also it can be mounted on any combat vehicle, light or armored. Moreover the basic equipment can be fitted with IFF & night vision units.
|Date of Introduction||1972|
|Reaction Time||5-10 seconds (acquisition to fire)|
|Time Between Launches (sec)||INA|
|Reload Time (sec)||6-10|
|Max. Range||5,500 meters|
|Min. Range||500 meters|
|Max. Altitude||4,500 meters|
|Min. Altitude||18 meters|
|Missile Speed (m/s)||580|
|Propulsion||Solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor.|
|Guidance||Passive IR homing device (operating in the medium IR range)|
|Seeker Field of View||1.9°|
|Warhead Weight (kg)||1.15|
|Fuze Type||Contact (flush or grazing)|
|FIRE CONTROL|| Launcher has sighting device and a target acquisitionindicator. |
The gunner visually identifies and acquires the target.
|Gunner Field of View||INA|
|Acquisition Range (m)||INA|
SA-N-5 Naval version|
HN-5A Chinese version
Strela 2M/A Yugoslavian upgrade
Sakr Eye Egyptian upgrade
Mounted in several types of vehicles in four, six, and eight-tube launcher varieties.
Can be mounted on several helicopters (Mi-24, S-342 Gazelle)
ANZA MK-1 Specifications
|Type||2-stage, low altitude|
|Length||(missile, with retracted tail fins) 1.44 m|
|Weight|| (total launch assembly in firing condition) |
15 Kg (Missile at launch) 9.8 Kg
|Propulsion||solid fuel booster and solid fuel sustainer rocket motor|
|Guidance||uncooled Pbs passive infrared homing seeker|
|Warhead|| HE fragmentation (containing 0.37 Kg HE) with contact |
and graze fuzing
|Average missile cruise speed||500 m/s|
|Max missile manoeuvring||6 g|
|Self destruction time||14-17 s|
|Max target speed||(receding target) 260 m/s|
|Max effective slant range||4,200 m|
|Min effective slant range||1,200 m|
|Max effective altitude||50 m|
|Weapon reaction time||less than 5 s|
|Time from march to ready|| less than 10 s |
|Battery operation time||more than 40 s|
For more information on the SA-7 and efforts to control its proliferation, see ASMP Issue Brief #1: MANPADS Proliferation