1. Defense Planning Guidance (DPG) Element. This MNS responds to fiscal years 1996-2003 DPG for Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I). It directs CJCS and the Services to provide the Deputy Secretary of Defense with a plan to define DoD-wide requirements and to consolidate service programs into an interoperable, joint program for the development and acquisition of affordable, high-capacity tactical radios to meet the bandwidth needs of various echelons. This will consist of using a family of digital, modular, software-programmable radios, ranging from a low-cost joint tactical digital radio to a higher-capability, joint multi-band, multi-mode radio to provide timely dissemination of battlespace command and control, intelligence, air navigation, and combat identification information to the warfighter at all levels.
2. Mission and Threat Analysis.
(1) A smaller military with global responsibilities will operate across the operational continuum to protect our national interests. We must be prepared to project overwhelming combat power from the Continental United States (CONUS) and forward from the sea in response to crises or other global requirements. The success of joint and combined military operations will depend on the rapid exchange of information throughout a highly mobile and dynamic combat environment, both with other elements of our joint or coalition forces and with civil and national authorities.
(2) Existing tactical communications systems
generally employ 1960's, 1970's and 1980's technology and are
singular in function. Timeliness and volume requirements for
data distribution are rapidly outpacing the capabilities of single-channel
radios and other communications systems. The singular functionality
of current systems requires a commensurate number of unique discrete
radio systems that must each have a costly logistics infrastructure.
The single function hardware design of existing legacy communication
systems also often cannot take advantage of rapid changes in commercial
technology, and therefore cannot provide the increased functionality
and flexibility that is possible and required. Even with the
possible technical improvements to existing legacy systems, those
changes could not compare to the advantages of a consolidated
systems approach to provide substantial benefits in the overall
space, weight, power and cost. Therefore, the need is for a software
programmable and hardware configurable digital radio system that
provides increased interoperability, flexibility and adaptability
to support the varied mission requirements of the warfighters.
The system must be capable of simultaneous networked voice, video,
and data operations with low probability of intercept over multiple
(3) The military must migrate toward commonality
of media among users while concurrently out-pacing the growth
rate of information exchange requirements. The concept behind
JTR is essential to realizing our goal of a fully digitized battlespace.
JTR lays the foundation for achieving network connectivity across
the RF spectrum . The network will provide the means for low
to high rate digital information exchanges both vertically and
horizontally between warfighting elements and will enable connectivity
to civil and national authorities.
b. Threat Analysis. Threats to the communications
capabilities of our future warfighters will employ a range of
technologies from simple commercial electronic devices to advanced
state-of-the-art systems. JTR will specifically be subjected
to a wide variety of threats including electronic support (intercept,
identification and location), electronic attack (jamming and anti-radiation
weapons), and modern information warfare techniques. The intent
is for JTR to be employed by a wide range of weapons platforms
and command and control nodes , at all echelons. Therefore JTR
will be subject to the full spectrum of physical attack, to include
direct and indirect fires, nuclear biological chemical (NBC) munitions,
air strikes, and sabotage and terrorist actions.
c. Priority. Information Warfare and the migration toward a fully
digitized battlespace make the concept of the
JTR essential to future military communications. This makes JTR
a top priority within the communications mission area.
d. Operational Need. Our future warfighter needs an enhanced integrated battlespace communication capability compatible with existing service communications and network systems.
Easy to operate, redundant, secure, networked,
demand adaptive and more survivable than the current generation
of analog radios and stovepipe networks.
Multi-mode; multi-band; open architecture;
digital interface and control; software reprogrammable; modular
(hardware and software); scaleable and flexible form factor;
frequency agile/demand adaptive; compatible with existing service
communication systems; integrated software reprogrammable crypto/infosec.
Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating
Environment compliant; provide remote control and networking capabilities
using industry-standard interfaces and open-systems protocols.
The system will be employed and operated in
several environments. This necessitates a need for a family of
systems that can be deployed from an extremely hostile to a benign
environment worldwide and in all services. To respond to variations
in operating ranges and conditions, the system will need to operate
over multiple frequency bands and with a variety of waveforms.
The JTR must be capable of providing short- to long-range, both
terrestrial and satellite communication, information exchanges
(voice, video and data), with enough capacity for much higher
data rates than available with current equipment. In addition
to low and medium-rate data exchanges, the system must accommodate
continuous high speed data linkages through dynamic allocation
of the resources. For backward compatibility with legacy communications
systems, it must be able to interoperate with our current battlespace
communications systems, as well as, other emerging military and
commercial communications technology.
e. Timing of Need. Elements of JTR must be pursued and acquired
and fielded as quickly as technology permits
in order to realize the digital battlefield at the turn of the
century, as well as, replace aging costly and maintenance intensive
legacy systems and their infrastructures.
f. Systems in the current generation of communications
systems exhibit one or more of the following shortfalls Existing
systems were designed to satisfy specific requirements. As such
they satisfy some, but not all, of the needs of the CINCs and
joint services. Specific deficiencies of current systems include:
(1) restricted to low-to-medium speed data transmission,
routing, and networks.
(2) operate on a single frequency band and are limited to a single
waveform. They can inter-operate only with
like radios, mandating multiple radios for most weapons platforms
and command and control nodes.
(3) require complex network management schemes,
and extensive individual training, for operating architectures
composed of different radios.
(4) cannot automatically adjust performance
(bandwidth and power) to meet demand. Fixed data rate channels
waste capacity when it's not needed, and cannot provide higher
capacity when the demand exists.
(5) have numerous system unique components and parts, requiring
individual support creating a logistics burden.
(6) are not capable of simultaneous voice, video and data operations.
(7) do not employ open systems architecture
(8) few are inter-Service interoperable.
(9) require extensive equipment and/or software
changes to implement new capabilities in installed platforms.
(10) do not allow incremental upgrades
of software and hardware to increase operations capability.
(11) represent outdated technology based
on non-modular design and are not conducive to cost effective
improvement or modification to satisfy current, projected or future
(12) require extensive, depot level, equipment
and/or component changes to implement new capabilities in installed
platforms. The JTR will provide the operational forces with an
upgraded communications capability, for more effective battlespace
management and interoperability among Command, Control, Communications,
Computers and Intelligence (C4I) systems.
4. Potential Material Alternatives.
Speakeasy was an ARPA-sponsored, Air Force-led, joint technological
development effort which produced a useable systems architecture
and demonstrated software reprogrammable, multi-band, multi-mode
communications capabilities at the Army Task Force XXI, Advanced
Warfighting Experiment in March 1997 Identification Communication
Navigation Integrated Avionics (ICNIA) and the Joint Combat Information
Terminal (JCIT) are related efforts oriented toward developing
a multi-band, multi-mode capability to integrate legacy radios
for air platforms. The Army's Near Term Digital Radio (NTDR) program
is designed to procure and test a low-cost networked data radio
capable of providing own position location and transporting command
and control as well as situation awareness information between
tactical operations centers. The Army led Joint Tactical Terminal
(JTT) program is a effort to procure an open system architecture
terminal to support the Integrated Broadcast System (IBS). The
Joint Maritime Communications System (JMCOMS) program is a Navy-led
acquisition program to acquire Commercial Off-the-Shelf/Non-Developmental
Item (COTS/NDI) modular programmable radios (Digital Modular Radio
(DMR) and Integrated Terminals Program (ITP) and integrated, automated
network management (Automated Digital Networking System (ADNS)).
b. Mobility/Transportation. The JTR will be
deployed on multiple service platforms across the operational
continuum. Hardware size and weight must not exceed the characteristics
of current radios in use and will permit the consolidation of
the many individual functions.
c. Logistics. The JTR must be inherently
reliable, maintainable, and deployable in order to minimize life
cycle support costs. It will be supported within the standard
DoD logistics infrastructure or by a widely supported commercial
infrastructure. No new support facilities, test equipment,
or repair equipment should be developed for this system.
(1) Manpower and Personnel. The JTR will be general purpose user (GPU) system and will not require new military operational specialties or
additional skill qualifiers. It should be
less manpower and man-hour intensive than current systems.
(2) Training. Development of a program
of instruction, new equipment training, technical documentation.,
extension training materials, training literature, publications
and other training products will be accomplished before unit fielding
and testing of the system.
d. Standardization and Interoperability. The JTR must comply with applicable information technology standards mandated by the Joint Technical Architecture. All C4I resources will be certified for end-to-end interoperability by complying with the intent of CJCSI 6212.01A, 30 Jun 95.
e. Security. The JTR shall have adequate security safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the information passing through or residing on the communication system. Security features of the JTR will comply with the Multi-level Information Systems Security Initiative (MISSI) and will be integrated into the radio.
f. Spectrum Management. The frequency range
of the JTR must be flexible enough to adapt to changes in military
frequency spectrum allocations and modes of operation and be capable
of being used in civilians bands as well as with coalition forces,
both in CONUS and overseas.
g. Network Management. The JTR will be designed
to operate as an RF
extension for tactical and strategic Wide-Area
Networks (WANS), and will not require military-unique or proprietary
communications or control interfaces and protocols.
h. Modularity. The JTR will be scaleable
to suit the operational and environmental requirements of the
specific user (i.e., man-pack systems may be required to have
network management integral with the Radio Frequency (RF) functions,
shipboard systems will probably not need this capability "built-in,").
6. Joint Potential Designator. The recommended designation is Joint.