Force XXI Division Artillery
This chapter describes the Force XXI division artillery's (DIVARTY) organization and capabilities. The DIVARTY can operate across the total spectrum of military operations. The DIVARTY plays a vital role in the divisionís mission to destroy the enemy using firepower, maneuver, and information dominance. With the flexibility and capabilities inherent in its organization, the Force XXI DIVARTY contributes to eliminating the enemyís capability to fight in a coherent manner before and while committing forces to decisive operations.
THE FORCE XXI DIVISION
As stated in FM 71-100-5, the division is organized around nine key principles/capabilities. (1) The division optimizes information-based operations and conducts information operations throughout its battlespace. (2) It is designed to dominate battlespace by capitalizing on speed, space, and time. (3) It controls battlefield tempo with overwhelming lethality and superior survivability. (4) It is able to mount, sustain, and recover from operations more rapidly than today's conventional divisions, in some cases, almost simultaneously. It is also capable of conducting prolonged operations. (5) It is capable of a quick, decisive victory while maximizing force protection through application of the risk management process. (6) The division is rapidly deployable, easily tailorable, sustainable, and operationally agile to allow force optimization, balance and versatility to conduct operations in the joint, interagency, and multinational environment. (7) The division enhances tailorability through modularity across the force. (8) The division diverts tasks and functions that inhibit its primary mission -- to fight and win battles and engagements -- while being prepared to conduct missions across the full military spectrum. (9) It is effective in war and other contingencies as part of a joint and multinational team in all operational environments. In short, the capabilities of this unit make it a potentially devastating force on the battlefield.
DIVISION ROLES AND MISSIONS
The division generally fights as part of a coordinated corps/Joint Task Force (JTF) operation. It attacks, defends, or delays in cooperation with other elements of the corps/JTF to gain tactical or operational results significant to the campaign plan. In general, these corps/JTF operations aim at violent, coordinated action in depth to shock, blind and disorganize the enemy; strike at multiple vulnerabilities simultaneously; and destroy the enemy's ability to react or recover before he is defeated. Corps/JTFs set the terms for such battles with long range fires, information operations, security forces and other means. Corps reinforces the division for its missions as required, allocating air support, fire support, and other combat multipliers necessary to the division's tasks.
While tactics vary with the factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and time available (METT-T), all division operations are combined arms efforts that synchronize combat effects to gain success. The division conducts missions in zones, sectors or areas of operation (AO) of considerable breadth and depth. The commander employs his brigades in coordinated operations, normally assigning them well-defined missions that lead to accomplishing the division's overall objective. The Force XXI division sequences, directs, and reinforces the actions of subordinate units to gain a single specific tactical effect. The division supports the operations of the brigades with security forces, intelligence, fires, command and control warfare (C2W), combat engineers, and logistics. They can isolate specific parts of the battlefield to facilitate brigade operations, but they cannot fight a distinct operation in depth to shape the battlespace for extended periods.
FORCE XXI DIVISION OPERATIONS
The division conducts operations that are characterized by precision. Three emerging capabilities make this possible. First is digitization, providing soldiers and leaders at each echelon the information required for making the best decision in each situation. Second is a full suite of strategic, operational, and tactical sensors, linked to analytical teams that can fuse the increasing amounts of combat information into intelligence products that provide situational
awareness understanding across the battlespace with greater clarity than previously possible. Finally, simulation enables Army elements to be tailored based on an emerging situation/crisis, plan operations based on METT-T, and wargame and rehearse those operations yielding precision in execution.
Precision in operations goes beyond precision strike using lethal and non-lethal, direct and indirect fire weapons. It includes every aspect of military operations from deployment through combat and redeployment, or transition to other operations. In force projection, precision means getting the right force, effectively trained and rehearsed, to the right place on time for any given situation. In combat operations, precision means precise maneuver and munitions that not only strike the intended target, but also achieve the desired effect. Precision in force protection includes the use of advanced dynamic obstacles and more effective employment of air defense artillery (ADA) assets. In sustainment, precision is proactive arming, fueling, fixing, and manning empowered by common situational
awareness understanding. Automated reporting of weapon system, fuel, ammunition, and crew status, along with asset in transit tracking, provides combat service support (CSS) elements with accurate information on which to prepare push packages and to base resupply efforts.
Additionally, Force XXI operations will be distributed, that is executed throughout the depth, width, and height of the division's battlespace. In practice, operations are executed where and when required to achieve decisive effects vice concentrated at a possible decisive point. Dispersion empowers subordinates to operate independently within the commander's intent, leading to synergistic effects that exceed synchronization by a centralized headquarters. Centralized operations tend to be more sequential in nature. In contrast, distributed operations can execute numerous integrated tasks simultaneously across the battlespace. Some functions, such as resource management, are best executed centrally and the division will seek to execute each function using the best operational scheme. The division will develop a central intent and concept, conduct parallel planning and coordination enabled by digitization, and execute distributed precision operations to accomplish the mission.
The division will conduct its missions through a deliberate pattern of operations. The elements of this pattern are not phases nor are they sequential. They serve to focus the many tasks armies have always performed in war and other military operations. The patterns are: project the force, protect the force, gain information dominance, shape the battlespace, decisive operations, and sustain and transition the force.
The DIVARTY is organized to optimize operations against an advanced threat in a medium to high intensity conflict. The DIVARTY organization includes:
Figure 1-1. Division Artillery Organization
The DIVARTY headquarters (HQ) staff synchronizes all supporting fires and provides FA fire support to the division. The DIVARTY headquarters consists of a command post (CP), liaison section, division fire support elements (FSE), S-6 section, administration and logistics section, unit ministry team and meteorological section. The DIVARTY--
The DIVARTY has a limitation in terms of responsiveness of fires if it must perform the role of the counterfire headquarters while supporting both shaping and decisive operations without augmentation.
DIVISION ARTILLERY HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS BATTERY
The DIVARTY HHB provides personnel and support for the DIVARTY CP and the division CPs-- the division main (DMAIN) CP and the division tactical (DTAC) CP. The DIVARTY staff helps the commander plan, coordinate, synchronize and execute fire support for the supported maneuver commander. The fundamental functions of key staff personnel are similar to those outlined in FM 6-20-30 and will not be discussed in this manual. However, the TTPs will change based on the rapid pace of digitization and modernization and will require revisions based on lessons learned in future division training and simulation exercises.
Figure 1-2. HHB Division Artillery
DIRECT SUPPORT CANNON BATTALION
The three 3X6 155mm SP cannon battalions (Figure 1-3) in the DIVARTY are organized and equipped to provide direct support for the maneuver brigade they support. Each battalion provides fire support elements to company, maneuver battalion/task force and brigade level forces. For a detailed description of the responsibilities and general duties of key personnel and how to fight the battalion see ST 6-50-60, Cannon Battalion Operations.
Figure 1-3. 155mm Self-Propelled Cannon Battalion
DIVISION MLRS BATTALION
The most significant change in the organizational structure of the DIVARTY is the creation of the division MLRS battalion (Figure 1-4). The division MLRS battalion contains a Headquarters, Headquarters and Service battery, three 1X6 MLRS batteries and the TAB. The instantaneous firepower and lethality of the division MLRS battalion gives the Force XXI division commander the means to apply overwhelming indirect fires simultaneously, throughout the depth of the battlefield. For a detailed explanation of the responsibilities and general duties of key personnel and how to fight the battalion, see ST 6-60, Division XXI Command and Attack Battalion Operations.
Figure 1-4. Division MLRS Battalion