1. General Description of Operational Capabilities.
b. This program was initiated by a Commercial Training Device Requirement (CTDR) approved in December 1989, CARDS reference number 0100R. The CTDR followed and provided improved capabilities for devices originally developed under Training Device Requirements (TDR) 074, 076, and 080.
c. In general, a MILES 2000 device shall consist of a shooter weapons simulation system (i.e. a laser based communications channel) and/or a target effects system.
d. The weapons/platforms to be simulated under this ORD are intended as replacements for the existing family of ground direct fire Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) devices currently in the Army inventory. As such, the devices are expected to be capable of adaptation to new and/or improved models of the host weapons/platforms. Not included in this ORD are requirements for "systems" devices [e.g. Line of Sight Anti-Tank (LOSAT), Javelin, Armored Gun System (AGS), Mk-19 GMG, etc.] and requirements for devices which are covered under other requirements documents, either completed or working (e.g. MILES grenade, MILES Claymore mine, etc.).
e. The weapons/platforms to be simulated under this ORD include, but are not limited to individual weapons [e.g. M16 Rifle and Sniper Weapons System (SWS)], machine guns [e.g. Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) and M-60 MG], dismounted anti-armor weapons [e.g. Light Anti-Armor Weapon (LAW) and TOW], and combat/armored vehicles [e.g. M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC), M-1 Tank, and M2/3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV)]. These systems shall be capable of being adapted to portray a variety of Opposing Force (OPFOR) systems. A refined application of a vehicle detection system, to be known as the Mobile Independent Target System (MITS), which can be applied to various combat support/combat service support (CS/CSS) vehicles or other materiel targets is also required. Additionally, an individual soldier target system is required.
f. In addition to the weapons system simulators any support items required to ensure the systems are operational, e.g. controller device, weapons alignment fixture, vehicle test set, etc., are included in this requirement.
2. Threat. MILES 2000 devices will support the following warfighting capabilities packages: engage committed forces, Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT), special operations, Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD), mobility, and counter mobility, as units participate in FOF exercises..
3. Shortcomings of the Existing Systems.
(2) The inability of the MILES system to discriminate as to area of impact of a hit. The current system uses a single probability of kill (Pk) for an entire vehicle whereas the Pk varies on the vehicle depending on the thickness of the armor at the point of impact.
(3) The inability of the MILES system to "fire" more than one type of ammunition from capitol system platforms, for instance tank cannon can fire at least high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) and armor piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) rounds which exhibit different ballistic characteristics and result in different Pk on the target vehicle.
b. Additionally, the existing family of devices does not support training of fratricide issues. Technology has progressed to the point that many of the deficiencies and shortcomings which have been identified can be incorporated into an improved family of devices.
c. In addition to the dated technology used, the current family of devices is beginning to reach the end of its life cycle. As replacement of these devices becomes necessary it appears a prudent business decision to buy devices which not only reflect improved weapons fidelity but also take advantage of improvements which will result in a reduced logistics burden. Examples of logistics support advances include longer life batteries, reduced power consumption by components, advances in electronics design and manufacturing techniques which produce more rugged and robust equipment which will result in reduced maintenance and repair requirements.
4. Capabilities Required.
(b) Be readily adaptable to a Simulation of Area Weapons Effects - Radio Frequency (SAWE-RF)/MILES II configuration using modular SAWE-RF components to retrofit the MILES 2000 devices.
(c) Be adaptable to Combat Training Center (CTC) instrumentation systems without design changes to the MILES 2000.
(d) Be EMI compatible with the training battlefield environment.
(e) Operate effectively under environmental conditions in which a soldier can acquire a target with a non-FLIR assisted eye.
(f) Transmit player identification (PID) IAW PMT 90-S002A.
(g) Have a hit probability (Ph) approximately equal to that achieved with live ammunition at the same ranges and approximate the Probability of Kill (Pk) of the weapon and ammunition type selected for the engagement.
(h) Be as small and light as practical so as to not significantly impede the normal carrying, movement, and functioning abilities of the soldier in conducting his training.
(i) Be capable of operating for 100 hours without power source replacement.
(j) Conform to CFR Title 21, subchapter J, part 1040 for laser equipement, system design, written operator manuals, and maintenance instructions. If 21 CFR 1040 cannot be met due to operational requirements, MIL-STD-1425 shall be used as a design requirement. The laser shall be safe for intrabeam viewing to include magnifying optices up to 7x50 for ranges greater than 75 meters and greater than 12 meters for the unaided eye.
(k) Conform to a hierarchy of weapons effects with respect to lethality and vulnerability.
(l) Employ a surrogate weapon which exhibits the actual weapons characteristics of size, weight and feel in cases where appending a training device to the weapon system is impractical.
(m) Be flexible in design to permit upgrading of the training system to accommodate product improvements to the host weapons platform.
(n) Be capable of storing 500 time-tagged exercise events for future downloading and use during an After Action Review (AAR) via a standard communications data bus. Time-tagged events shall be synchronized for the exercise location.
(o) Provide a means for distinguishing between the receipt of friendly and opposing force fires (fratricide)
(p) Be capable of distinguishing between opposing forces when the equipment is issued.
(q) Have a built in test (BIT) capability which shall include GO/NO GO testing and indication of purposeful deceit (cheating).
(r) Have the capability for use during periods of reduced visibility and darkness generally within the capabilities of the weapons with which it is being used.
(s) Be fired by activation of the weapon's primary trigger or firing switch.
(t) Include appropriate firing signatures to forces being engaged. Use of items already in the Army inventory are encouraged.
(u) Provide appropriate cues (indicating results of engagement) at the target for both the target being engaged and as feedback to the firer. (P3I) Cues shall be compatible with tactical target acquisition and optical systems.
(v) The system shall have no uncontrolled safety or health hazards and shall conform to OSHA requirements, best commercial practices, (and applicable Military Standards when possible).
(w) Provide a visual display which, as a minimum, will report results of BIT and play back of the last 16 exercise events.
(x) (P3I) - Successfully engage targets under conditions and ranges equivalent to the capabilities of the FLIR sights, optical sights, and EM communications equipment on the systems being simulated.
(2) Characteristics of Individual Weapons and Machine Gun Simulators (e.g. M16 and M-60 MG):
(b) Devices shall not interfere with and shall be capable of being zeroed with night vision devices.
(c) Devices shall provide the firer with an indication that the device is firing properly.
(d) Device activation shall correspond directly to the firing of a blank round.
(e) Provisions shall be made for a means to permit device activation without the use of blanks (dry fire).
(3) Characteristics of the Man-Worn Detector System (MWDS):
(b) The MWDS shall provide an indication of hits at the target and shall differentiate between a hit and near miss.
(c) The MWDS shall provide the target with an identifiable indication of casualty assessment.
(d) The MWDS shall provide a visual display which can be viewed under reasonably normal light conditions to permit immediate feedback to the user.
(4) Characteristics of Dismounted Anti-Armor Weapons (e.g. LAW and TOW):
(b) The rate of fire of devices shall be adjustable by authorized personnel.
(c) Guided missile firing shall require gunners to accurately track the target being fired upon to an extent similar to the tactical system.
(d) Simulated missile flight times shall be adjustable.
(e) Guided missile simulators shall provide an indication to the firer when the missile track time is complete.
(f) Crew served Anti-Armor systems (e.g. TOW) shall have a vulnerability component which will permit the weapon itself to be "killed".
(g) (P3I) - Anti-Armor systems shall include appropriate firing obscurants and down range tracking indications to the gunner.
(5) Characteristics of Combat/Armored Vehicle Engagement Systems (VES), (e.g. M113, M1 Tank and, M2/3 BFV):
(c) The Pk shall be specific to each weapon and ammunition type and shall characterize the segment of the target it hits. Pks shall be programmed and inserted into VES via a controlled means, i.e. only available to authorized personnel. As a minimum the following factors shall be programmable and considered in Pk determinations:
(d) Kills (i.e. catastrophic, firepower, mobility, communications) shall render the appropriate vehicle subsystem inoperable, within safety constraints.
(e) A means to ensure that the "ammunition" loaded by the loader is the same as that selected by the gunner shall be provided.
(f) Minimum data requirements for player feedback and AAR purposes are:
(g) The VES BIT shall include:
(h) The results of the MILES 2000 BIT shall be displayable to a crew member.
(i) The following VES parameters shall be programmable:
(k) The VES shall include a remote display capability where appropriate to meet crew member training requirements.
(l) Installation (mounting, system check-out, and boresighting as required) of VES will be accomplished by the vehicle crew onto their operational weapons platform in less than one hour. The equipment shall be capable of being removed from a weapons platform and returned to transit cases in less than one hour by the crew.
(m) Host vehicle type with its associated vulnerabilities and weapons types shall be selectable by authorized personnel.
(n) Vehicle power may be used as the primary power source; however, the system must retain its vulnerability with the vehicle master switch in the "off" position.
(6) Characteristics of the Mobile Independent Target System (MITS):
(b) Relative vulnerability of the MITS to various types of fire shall be adjustable by authorized personnel. The Pk shall be programmable across the range 0-100%.
(7) Characteristics of the MILES 2000 Controller Device:
(8) Characteristics of the Stored Information Downloading Device (SIDD):
|Dismounted Anti-Armor Weapons||950|
|Combat Armored VES||480|
(b) Objective reliability requirements are as follows:
|Dismounted Anti-Armor Weapons||970|
|Combat Armored VES||740|
(3) Users shall perform maintenance to include dusting, cleaning, and changing batteries. All other maintenance shall be performed by contractor logistics support (CLS).
(2) MILES 2000 devices will be supported by an existing or new CLS contract issued by the Simulations, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM).
(3) Maintenance training shall be provided to CLS personnel.
b. Support Equipment. Maintenance above user level shall be performed by CLS using system specific and standard test and diagnostic equipment.
c. Human Systems Integration. MILES 2000 devices will replace systems currently in the field and as such will require no new manpower assets nor personnel qualifications. The system shall be fielded with a training support package consisting of operator and maintenance training to include manuals, documentation, and vehicle specific video installation instructions which shall include system capabilities and detailed installation instructions.
d. Computer Resources. Computer resources for maintenance and life cycle support shall be provided.
e. Other Logistics Considerations.
(2) Storage, handling, and property accountability will be IAW AR 350-38 and other related documents.
(3) Devices shall be provided with containers for individual or multiple systems. The container must be capable of storing and protecting the devices under reasonable conditions of environment and handling. Pamphlets with graphics covering the installations and operation instructions of the equipment shall be included in the container.
b. Transportation and Basing. No special transportation will be required. Using units will be responsible for transportation.
c. Standardization, Interoperability, and Commonality.
(2) This ORD will be provided to other services and allied governments IAW existing regulations to determine interest in cooperative acquisition of MILES 2000 devices.
d. Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Support. NA.
e. Environmental Support. NA.
7. Force Structure.
b. It is anticipated that the devices will be fielded to support Active Component (AC) and Reserve Component (RC) training requirements.
c. The distribution plan currently calls for the following total numbers of devices, which are subject to adjustment as the force structure changes:
A - Rationale
B - Coordination