5 November 1999
WARFIGHTER INFORMATION NETWORK - TACTICAL (WIN-T)
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT (ORD)
1. General Description of Operational Capability/Operational and Organizational Plan. The Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T) is Army XXI’s tactical telecommunications system consisting of infrastructure and network components from the maneuver battalion to the theater rear boundary. The WIN-T network provides Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities that are mobile, secure, survivable, seamless, and capable of supporting multimedia tactical information systems. The network’s capability to support unit task reorganization and real-time retasking of battlefield support elements, is a vital enabler for Army 2010 and Beyond operational concepts. The WIN-T network will allow all Army commanders, and other communications network users, at all echelons, to exchange information internal and external to the theater, from wired or wireless telephones, computers (internet like capability) or from video terminals. Warfighter and signal units employ their organic WIN-T systems to integrate wide and local area battlefield networks into a commercial information technologies-based tactical network. WIN-T, in turn, connects all users to each other from theater down to the maneuver battalion, to joint and multinational elements, and the Defense Information System Network (DISN). WIN-T employs a combination of terrestrial, airborne, and satellite-based transport options, to provide robust, redundant connectivity. WIN-T information services help achieve information superiority by providing the necessary communications capabilities such that situational information, collaborative planning, sensor-to-shooter linkages, continuous precision operations and focused logistics can be achieved as required by both Joint Vision 2010 and Army Vision 2010. WIN-T’s infrastructure provides commanders and other users, the ability to communicate via voice, data, and video simultaneously at all levels of security. WIN-T supports the warfighter’s requirement for Command and Control (C2) On-the-Move (C2OTM) by integrating the major WIN-T elements into warfighter mobile tactical operations center (TOC) platforms and leveraging the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), legacy wide-band digital radios, and wireless local area network (LAN) technologies. Major components of the WIN-T network infrastructure include switching, routing, transport, transmission media, network management, information assurance (IA), subscriber services and user interfaces to support user multimedia (voice, data, messaging, and video) requirements. These major network components are described as follows:
a. Overall Mission Area. C2.
b. Mission Need Statement Summary.
(1) A separate Mission Needs Statement (MNS) is not required because WIN-T is supported by the MNS for the Horizontal Integration of Battle Command, dated 10 January 1995, and replaces capabilities documented in the Tri-Services Tactical Communications (TRI-TAC) Joint Operational Requirements document, approved 1979; and the Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) Operational Capabilities Document, approved 1984. WIN-T enhances capabilities documented in the Integrated System Control (ISYSCON) Required Operational Capabilities document approved 26 November 1990 and with DA Form 2028 changes dated 12 May 1994 and 18 September 1998. WIN-T supports, or is supported by, the following documentation: "The Army Digitization Master Plan"; "Force Projection Army C4I Support," CG TRADOC, February 1992; "The Army Enterprise Strategy," Army Chief of Staff, January 1993; "The U.S. Army 1998 Modernization Plan," Secretary of the Army, April 1998, Army Battle Command Systems (ABCS) CRD Revision 1b, Final Draft, dated 30 June 1999, and ORD for Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) Version 5.2, dated 23 September 1998.
(2) WIN-T is the key enabler for the following TRADOC Future Operational Capabilities:
SC 97-001. Battlefield Information Passage.
SC 97-002. Power Projection and Sustaining Base Operations.
SC 97-003. Communications Transport Systems.
SC 97-004. Tactical Communications.
SC 97-005. Information Services.
SC 97-006. Information Systems.
SC 97-007. Network Management.
BCG 97-001. Battlefield Information Passage.
BCG 97-002. Data Network Interoperability.
BCG 97-003. Data Network Management and Services.
BCG 97-006. Split-Based/Early Entry Connectivity.
BCG 97-008. Information Protection.
BCG 97-006. Electronic Tethering.
BCL 97-007. System Interoperability.
BCL 97-009. Upgrade Exploitation.
c. Type of System Proposed. WIN-T is the Army’s tactical communications network from theater to battalion level. The major WIN-T elements are network infrastructure (integrated switching, routing, transport), network management, IA, and user interfaces that provide voice, video, and data services throughout the battlespace. WIN-T’s elements will be modular in design, scaleable to the users’ requirements, and capable of adapting to the evolution of the warfight. WIN-T will be a bandwidth and spectral efficient, Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) compliant, commercial standards-based network capability that is easy to upgrade, operate, maintain, manage, and train. WIN-T’s overall design and acquisition strategy must enable fielding of new technologies, as they become available. The objective is to routinely place state-of-the-art technologies and their enabling capabilities into the hands of the warfighters.
d. Operational Concept. WIN-T is Army XXI’s tactical telecommunications network whose elements are owned, operated, and maintained by both signal and non-signal units. The key components include switching, routing, transmission, IA, and network management systems. These components form the communications infrastructure which provides a means for warfighters to transfer information in the form of voice, video, and data throughout the battlespace from maneuver battalion through the theater rear boundary and to interface with national-level organizations. ABCS systems require a communications network to connect its systems. Without WIN-T’s network infrastructure, ABCS systems will not be able to operate in the bandwidth constrained environment that exists today. WIN-T supports the Army XXI battlefield by providing a survivable WAN, reducing signal presence on the battlefield, extending data connectivity to forward elements, replacing forward stationed units and materiel with data traffic, and routing information efficiently and quickly anywhere on the battlefield. WIN-T will establish an environment in which commanders at all echelons will have the ability to operate with virtual staffs that are located at remote locations throughout the battlespace.
A more detailed discussion of the operational concept is provided in the paragraphs that follow:
(1) The signal unit will install, operate, maintain, and manage the WAN (WIN-T backbone) by deploying WAN nodes, Subscriber Nodes, transmission, [LOS and BLOS (i.e., satellite and TROPO systems)], management, and security systems.
(2) WIN-T will provide the network capacity needed to satisfy the tremendous growth in data exchange requirements by battlefield operating systems. The result is increased strategic mobility (less strategic lift required). WIN-T replaces all legacy TRI-TAC and MSE switch, transport, remote, Radio Access Unit (RAU), and Mobile Subscriber Radio Terminal (MSRT) assemblages, as well as the communications functionality of the TROJAN SPIRIT, with modernized, state-of-the-art equipment. WIN-T WAN Nodes, Subscriber Nodes, Transmission Terminals/Relays, RASI, and hand-held user devices provide warfighters from EAC through maneuver battalion with a common, mobile, adaptive network capability.
(3) WIN-T employs innovative system design and engineering to integrate switching/ routing/transport, network management, and IA capabilities into single platforms where feasible, ensure ease of maintenance and upgrade, integrate wireless technologies that expedite CP/TOC set-up and displacement, and create a network of networks with an overarching information management capability. WIN-T’s open system architecture permits network designs that allow battlespace leaders and their organizations to rapidly and efficiently execute C2 during Army, joint, combined, and unified operations. Complexity of network configuration/repair/maintenance, the location of the network infrastructure, or the warfighter’s particular state of motion within the battlespace will be relatively transparent to the user, with the impact limited to reductions in the bandwidth available while in a C2OTM status (due to maximum capability of radio used). Additionally, WIN-T’s network design will support the warfighter’s requirement to exchange critical information by precedence.
(4) Integration of the subscriber node into TOCs reduces the signal unit "footprint" and allows the maneuver commander to execute operations at the quick-halt or on-the-move. The users of the system (non-signal units) will deploy with organic assets and install their own LANs for voice, data, and video service. The LAN will typically be contained within a TOC or CP. WIN-T will employ wireless LANs to enable quick set-up/tear-down of the TOC. In a "quick-halt," the warfighter comes to a complete stop to communicate. However, establishment of communications is immediate and does not require set-up of an assemblage and antenna mast. The user’s LAN will interface with the WAN through WIN-T via wide-band data radios.
(5) WAN, Subscriber Nodes, and Integrated Subscriber Nodes will leverage wide-band data radio capabilities to enable C2OTM. C2OTM capability increases survivability and permits the constant data exchanges required to maintain situational awareness throughout the battlespace. The JTRS radio, with its data networking capability and broadband digital waveform, will be leveraged, in the objective system, to extend critical communications to the most forward elements on the battlefield. The resulting improved situational awareness at all echelons, will allow commanders to weight the main effort through employment of fires and support from all battlefield functional areas.
(6) WIN-T capabilities will be fielded in roughly two phases, as described below:
1. The signal unit employs WAN Nodes to create WIN-T’s high-speed WAN that provides users with a common, multiple security level (MSL), high-speed, high capacity, and intra-theater information distribution backbone. The WAN also serves as the warfighter’s gateway to the Global Information Grid (GIG). WAN Nodes will include integrated switching, routing, and high capacity, wide-band radios, multi-mast/quick erect antenna systems, network management, and IA capabilities that permit the WAN to support rapid CP/TOC displacements. WAN Nodes must interface with C2OTM capable equipment to provide C2OTM. This C2OTM capability is found at all echelons, with the majority of C2OTM equipment found at brigade and below units. For operational flexibility, WAN Nodes will interface with terrestrial-based transmission relays and satellite systems that permit the WAN to expand or contract to support units. WAN Nodes will also be used to supplement Subscriber Nodes in support of high volume information exchanges at CPs.
2. The signal unit will deliver shelterized Subscriber Nodes to each maneuver brigade/separate battalion and higher CP/TOC across all echelons. The Subscriber Node includes an integrated switch/router/high capacity wide-band digital radio capability that connects the warfighter’s CP/TOC to the WAN in order to gain the services noted above. Additionally, the Subscriber Node integrates the TOC’s wired LANs and wireless LANs, providing local users with wired and wireless voice, data, video services, and a TOC intercom interface. Subscriber Nodes bridge the WIN-T WAN with the LANs of the user units, thus completing the WIN-T network and providing seamless data connectivity between users at all echelons. The Subscriber Node will interface with terrestrial, and satellite communications assemblages for range extension in support of the warfighter’s need for increased freedom of maneuver. The Subscriber Node’s integrated switch, router, transport, and antenna design will enable wide-band data connectivity to the WAN within minutes of arrival on site. It will further provide wide-band C2OTM with TOCs and WANs.
3. Integrated Subscriber Nodes will be provided to division maneuver brigade/battalion TOCs and selected supporting battalions (e.g., combat engineer, field artillery, cavalry squadron) to bring WIN-T capabilities directly to the warfighter. WIN-T will utilize wide-band digital radios in order to provide connectivity between the TOC and the WAN.
4. WIN-T will replace the functionality of the RAU and MSRT mobile
user infrastructure with wide area, wireless digital coverage to those mobile users who must execute C2 from TOC, vehicle, and dismounted locations throughout the battlespace. WIN-T’s wireless hand-held device will interface with the WIN-T network and the GIG over terrestrial networks, and over commercial satellites in order to exchange voice and limited data between users.
5. Signal units will deploy RASI to extend multimedia subscriber service to remote TOCs or enclaves whose operational design/constraints do not support the positioning of Subscriber Nodes (e.g., buildings, bunkers, etc.). RASI can also be used to support an enclave of CPs/TOCs, acting as spokes to the Subscriber Node’s hub, thus economizing the allocation of network assets. RASI further support the remoting of the Subscriber Node from the TOC, to overcome constraints imposed by terrain, the enemy situation, and/or the technical limitations of the network.
1. The WIN-T WAN Node will leverage antenna, protocol, and transmission technology in order to achieve mobility.
2. The Subscriber Node will leverage the wide-band digital transport technology in order to integrate switching, routing, and transport capabilities within warfighter CP/TOC platforms (down to maneuver battalion). This integrated, easy to use, user owned and operated capability will provide the warfighter with enhanced freedom of maneuver and enable C2OTM capabilities.
3. WIN-T will use airborne communications relay nodes on various platforms to support network expansion options (range extension).
4. WIN-T will expand wireless wide area coverage for the mobile user by providing video services.
(7) WIN-T benefits the force by enabling commanders to exploit the investment in ABCS, network management, and other Information Technology solutions such as VTC, electronic white-boarding, distributed databases, and data and electronic messaging. WIN-T’s networking capability will enable situational understanding by allowing the rapid exchange and dissemination of the common tactical picture (CTP). The shared CTP will contribute to collaborative planning, precision engagement, and focused logistics, and will help to reduce fratricide and friendly fire incidents. The WIN-T network will enable seamless connectivity between commanders, their subordinates, and supporting forces. The wide-band networking capability will allow collaboration between commanders and staffs despite geographical and organizational boundaries. Through virtual presence, the commander and his staff will plan and execute missions to affect the outcome of the battle. WIN-T will provide a fast, reliable, redundant means for weapons systems and sensors to pass critical C2, targeting, and intelligence information. WIN-T’s wide-band data network will facilitate sensor-to-shooter mission threads and SOS to allow precision engagement of enemy forces.
e. System Description. WIN-T is composed of network infrastructure, IA, network management, and user interfaces.
(1) The network infrastructure consists of switching, routing, and transmission capabilities that provide multimedia services to all elements on the battlefield. The infrastructure must have the capability to interface with existing military and commercial terrestrial and satellite, BLOS based communications systems. The network infrastructure will automatically allocate bandwidth, route traffic over multiple transmission paths, recognize categories or classes of service/information, and bypass network outages and congestion in order to ensure the survival of information.
(a) The switching/routing/transport capabilities of WIN-T will be found in the Subscriber Nodes and WAN Nodes and extended remotely using the RASI. Integrated switching/routing/transport capabilities within Subscriber Nodes and WAN Nodes minimize the warfighter’s requirement to task organize for signal support, reduce the user’s air and sea-lift requirements, and lessen the need for signal unit augmentation during the warfight, thus providing the warfighter with enhanced operational freedom of maneuver and execution. WAN Nodes, in particular, provide the warfighter with a high-speed, high capacity, information transfer infrastructure that can handle the distribution of large volumes of C2, intelligence, and logistical data between and among users in the sustaining base and battlespace.
(b) WIN-T transport systems will support CP/TOC, mobile users, and WAN connectivity requirements by employing a variety of transmission options, including wide-band, high capacity LOS radios, and BLOS transmission systems to ensure continuous network connectivity between users.
1. The Subscriber Node will employ high capacity LOS radios and wide-band digital radios to connect the TOC LAN to the WIN-T WAN. The warfighter will utilize organic wide-band digital radio relays to extend connectivity as required to subordinate units.
2. The WAN Node will employ high capacity LOS radios and wide-band digital radios to extend the WAN to the TOC LAN, and provide, as well, high-speed, high capacity connectivity between other WIN-T WAN Nodes.
3. WIN-T transmission relays will include high-speed LOS radios and wide-band digital radio systems that expand WAN coverage, or provide operational flexibility/remote capability to CPs/TOCs within the battlespace.
4. WIN-T WAN Nodes and Subscriber Nodes will interface with existing TROPO, high capacity satellite systems, and airborne communications nodes/relays to expand area coverage for the warfighter and enable the TOC to establish locations based on mission requirements, as opposed to network constraints.
(2) WIN-T’s common communications backbone will support MSL classifications; i.e., TS/SCI, Secret, Confidential, and SBU. IA will provide end-to-end security consistent with the classification of information passed over the WIN-T network, by providing an integrated Defense in Depth approach that starts at the DISN and extends down to individual user devices. IA capabilities will be embedded in each WAN Node and Subscriber Node in order to protect the WIN-T network within its infrastructure and at its network boundaries, detect network attacks in their early stages, and mount vigorous, appropriate responses as required.
(3) Signal soldiers within signal and non-signal units will employ network management tools to configure, monitor and maintain WIN-T’s infrastructure, IA systems, and user interface devices. Network managers will have the capability to remotely manage, configure, and monitor WANs and LANs and their devices from rear echelons to the extent possible. WIN-T’s management tools will provide a capability to the Joint Staff to compile the WIN-T portion of the joint common picture. WIN-T’s network management capability will be distributed throughout the battlespace to ensure the survival of the networks.
(4) User Interfaces. WIN-T will provide three versions of terminal devices that will enable communications over the network infrastructure.
(a) WIN-T provides leaders and selected users with a wireless hand-held device that interfaces with the WIN-T network and the GIG over terrestrial, airborne, and military and commercial satellite links in order to exchange multimedia information between users.
(b) WIN-T provides both secure and non-secure voice telephones.
f. Support Concept. The network hardware will be supported by the standard Army logistics system. Signal units will utilize spares and maintenance shelters in order to ensure the survival of the WIN-T infrastructure. Logistics support requirements will be based on the WIN-T Operational Mode Summary/Mission Profile (OMS/MP) and documented in the Integrated Logistics Support Plan. WIN-T components will be common across all echelons, must be scaleable and modular in design, facilitate plug-and-play operations, and support a push/pull and replace maintenance concept.
a. Threat to be Countered. WIN-T is not designed to counter a specific threat capability; however, certain security components are designed to protect WIN-T from the Information Warfare (IW) threat. The IA components are part of the WIN-T Defense in Depth concept, which is designed to protect the Army’s C2 information network from attempts to penetrate the network to obtain, disrupt, or manipulate the resident information. It allows simultaneous access and processing protection for users at different security levels. It is designed to protect from, rather than counter a specific threat.
b. Projected Threat Environment. WIN-T components will be vulnerable to the same physical threat as the units with which it will be deployed. Information systems and networks are vulnerable to numerous threats including reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition; nuclear weapons and their electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects; and non-nuclear EMP. System attacks may occur in the form of classic electronic warfare measures such as electronic support (intercept or direction finding) or electronic attack (jamming), or as offensive IW. The systems’ growing connectivity and the wealth of valuable information they process and store make them especially lucrative targets. Adversaries will attempt to compromise and corrupt data, disrupt system operation and physically destroy equipment. The IW threat is worldwide, technically multifaceted, and rapidly expanding. While external threats such as hackers, industrial espionage, organized crime, terrorists, and foreign nation states pose a significant threat, the most immediate vulnerability lies with the trusted users who are authorized access to our systems. The migration toward commercial-based technology further increases our vulnerability. Much information about commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf technology, including security and vulnerability issues, is increasingly available in open publications as well as on the World Wide Web. The Army also relies heavily on the Public Switched Network (PSN) to carry information across increasingly extended lines of communication. Vulnerabilities of the PSN are widely known and often attacked. Connectivity to the PSN may increase the potential for attacks against computers and automated systems for the purpose of disrupting, denying, degrading or destroying information resident in the computers and on the network. Attacks against computers/automation systems can severely impact mission accomplishment by destroying the combat effectiveness of weapon systems, distorting the picture of the battlefield, adversely affecting tempo, lethality, battlefield synchronization and survivability. WIN-T systems and their databases will play critical roles in operations, Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence, finance, personnel, and logistics missions. For this reason, WIN-T can be considered a high value target to opposing military forces and rogue states, as well as an attractive target for challenge-seeking independent hackers.
3. Shortcomings of Existing Systems.
a. The Army’s existing tactical communications network is not capable of supporting the warfighters’ needs on the digitized battlefield in the near-term or for the needs of the rapidly developing 21st century force (Force XXI). The forces’ current decades-old tactical communications system served well to support yesterday’s command, control, and support services that relied heavily on voice and short text messaging. But today’s warfighter critically depends on a much broader spectrum of information services: video, graphics data, imagery, collaborative planning tools, remote interactive battlefield operating systems, and distributed data bases. The Army’s aggressive digitization program, and rapidly changing warfighting doctrine and tactics, far outstrip and dangerously surpass the capability and potential of the current tactical communications infrastructure. These developments demand a many fold increase in communications capacity; as well as great advances in information security, mobility, efficiency and transparency. Fortunately, with the tremendous technological advances in communications, automation, and network management in recent years, a communications network responsive to the Army’s new information needs is competitively producible - WIN-T.
b. Many information, automation and communication lessons were learned in the 1990’s from experiences such as Desert Storm, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and the Army Warfighting Experiments. Operational concepts have changed significantly along the way and warfighter expectations and needs for a responsive tactical communications infrastructure have grown far beyond the scope of MSE/TRI-TAC services. WIN-T is an integrated network of communications, automation, network management and information security systems that collectively fix the warfighter’s current connectivity shortfalls and reshape tactical communications to support the Army’s 21st century move to achieve spectrum dominance.
c. The current tactical networks cannot be effectively or efficiently modified to satisfy these operational requirements. WIN-T is the high-speed communications system needed to provide the warfighter information dominance.
d. An analysis of doctrine, training, logistics, organization, materiel upgrades, and soldier considerations resulted in the determination that a new materiel solution was required in order to meet user requirements.
4. Capabilities Required. Requirements are delineated as threshold or objective, and some threshold requirements are further defined as Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). A threshold value is the minimum acceptable value that is necessary to satisfy the operational need. An objective value is that desired performance above the threshold. A KPP defines capability or characteristics so significant, that failure to meet the threshold will result in program reevaluation. An asterisk designates a KPP (*).
Key Performance Parameter
Threshold and Objective
Wireless Hand-Held Device
a. System Performance.
(1) Overall Characteristics of the WIN-T Network. WIN-T employs a robust combination of airborne, terrestrial, and space-based (military and commercial) network options to provide speedy, comprehensive, MSLs, and protected multimedia coverage to warfighters wherever they are in the battlespace. The network infrastructure will route information in the most operationally suitable and bandwidth-efficient manner possible. The WIN-T network will also have the capability to establish virtual dedicated paths, when needed, to support users with a need to exchange critical information on a real-time basis (e.g., air defense, fire support, etc.). The following subparagraphs will discuss the network’s overall characteristics (interoperability, survivability, precedence, data information exchange requirements (IERs), network availability, C2OTM, security, design characteristics, and services):
(a) Interoperability: The network must interoperate with service-specific, joint, NATO, and commercial networks, as specified below:
1. The network will be commercial standards and JTA standards-based, modular in design, scalable to user requirements, compliant with JTA standards to include the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) Common Operating Environment (COE), and adaptable to the evolution of the warfight (threshold).
Rationale: Use of commercial standards (interfaces, buses, software, protocols, etc.) facilitates interoperability with other services, the sustaining base and commercial networks required by Army XXI doctrine. Modular design will provide the capability to keep pace with technology growth and provide the warfighter with the ability to deploy a force with state-of-the-art technologies.
*2. Switching/routing nodes must interface with compatible equipment at Standardized Tactical Entry Point (STEP) sites and the DISN to allow the warfighter to communicate from a deployed location back to the sustaining base. Nodes must also interface with Department of Defense Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) to enable the intelligence community to transport information to and from the sustaining base. WIN-T nodes must interface, as well, with U.S. military satellite communications for range extension and to reach back to the sustaining base from a deployed environment, with joint and selected NATO systems to support Army units serving as part of coalition or NATO operations, and with U.S. commercial systems for civil relief and peacekeeping operations (threshold).
Rationale: WIN-T nodes must interface with STEP sites to enable warfighter reachback communications from foxhole to sustaining base in support of power projection, split-based operations, and connectivity with the national command authority. Communications between the deployed unit and the sustaining base are essential for responsive and timely CSS to the warfighter. Interface with U.S. commercial networks is required for civil relief missions; and interface with other commercial networks is required for Army support to peacekeeping operations. WIN-T must interface with DoDIIS to enable the intelligence community to transport information to and from the sustaining base. WIN-T depends on military satellite systems for range extension and to reach back to the sustaining base from a deployed environment. WIN-T nodes would be entirely dependent on LOS transmission systems in a deployed environment if not properly interfaced with military satellite communications systems for range extension. This would severely limit the transmission range between nodes. The alternative would be to increase the number of nodes, thereby decreasing the distance between nodes to ensure network connectivity, and to prevent isolation of units. If WIN-T could not interface with military satellite systems to reach back to the sustaining base, the alternative would be total reliance on civilian long-range transmission assets, when available. The impact would be increased cost and sporadic availability. Force XXI units will operate, at times, as part of a coalition or NATO operation; therefore, the WIN-T switches must interoperate with Joint Task Force members and other NATO networks through our military and commercial satellite systems. WIN-T will comply with appropriate voice and data interoperability NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) interfaces.
3. Management software must be DII COE compliant (Level 7 threshold)/ (Level 8 objective).
Rationale: Compliance with COE segmentation and application areas to Level 7 will ensure a modular design interoperable with other Army and joint COE compliant systems.
4. Voice subscribers must be able to place and receive secure telephone calls to subscribers located on switched networks using NSA Type I approved secure voice telephones (excluding DSVTs). Speech clarity must meet criterion for "normal acceptable intelligibility" (adequate for voice recognition). Voice communications will not be made unintelligible due to delay or echo (threshold).
Rationale: Split-based operations require secure, reliable communications between power projection platforms (e.g., military installations, bases, and ports, CONUS and OCONUS) and deployed forces. Without this capability, the warfighter will incur unacceptable Operations Security risks.
5. Interface to Army legacy voice and data networks (MSE/TRI-TAC) will be provided. (threshold).
Rationale: During transition to the objective WIN-T, the user must be able to communicate with MSE and TRI-TAC (transmission secured) networks to a user supported by WIN-T. This will ensure an interface exists between units supported by WIN-T and units still supported by the legacy systems.
6. An interface between the joint sponsored Mobile Satellite Service(s) and the WIN-T network is required to support voice and limited data for selected users (objective).
Rationale: Commercial satellite services will be used to provide connectivity to WIN-T when the warfighting scenario requires this type of connection. This interface will allow 100 percent area coverage for intra-theater and inter-theater communications between selected users and the WIN-T network.
7. WIN-T will support a voice interface at WAN Nodes and Subscriber Nodes to Combat Net Radio (CNR) (i.e., Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System or its replacement) users (threshold).
Rationale: CNR (voice) users must have a voice interface to the WIN-T in order to pass critical C2 information.
(b) Survivability: The network must be able to support the warfighter’s requirement to execute operations without excessive regard to network configuration, its overall health, or its infrastructure constraints.
*1. Nodes will be tandem capable (i.e., multiple paths into and out of nodes) and will:
a. Be capable of using available terrestrial and space-based transport systems (threshold) and airborne transport systems (objective).
b. Automatically route around congestion and equipment failures, thus providing the network with several survival options (threshold).
Rationale: The network must enable the commander’s scheme of maneuver. Tandem switching capabilities that employ multiple transmission paths provide WIN-T the capability to respond to the gradual or sudden evolution of the warfight, thus facilitating the warfighter’s ability to take the initiative. If a node has only one transmission link to the network, the warfighting unit supported by that node has no communications capability if that link fails. Additionally, a single link geographically ties the node and the unit it supports, to the one other node to which it is connected, thus limiting the warfighter’s movement scheme. Tandem capabilities integrated into the switches on the battlefield eliminate this single point of failure. Tandem switching capability in all nodes also allows information to take multiple, or alternate, paths to its destination. This adds robustness and redundancy to the network by increasing the chances for successful delivery of information, even when a number of communications links are down or congested.
*2. The network must be able to automatically allocate bandwidth for voice, data, and video information exchanges, based on preset prioritization of information [i.e., when video is required, bandwidth will be allocated to support the VTC; after the VTC is complete, the bandwidth be available for other use (voice, data)] (threshold).
Rationale: Automatic allocation of bandwidth based on prioritization of information is required to support the warfighter’s requirement to successfully exchange the most critical voice, data, and video information in support of the operation’s evolution and commander’s critical information requirements. Automatic bandwidth allocation ensures that the network will be able to weight the main information effort in support of the warfighter’s most pressing operational requirements. The warfighter must be able to leverage the entire network bandwidth in order to insure that the bulk of bandwidth is in direct support of the operational effort. Without automatic bandwidth allocation, warfighters assume an unacceptable risk of delayed command, control, and intelligence information, and a consequent risk to mission accomplishment. Since the most critical information during any period of time could be in the form of data, voice, or video, or varying percentages of the three media, the network must be able to automatically allocate bandwidth between all three to ensure that the most critical information is routed first (e.g., if the most critical information is in the form of a VTC, the network must be able to ensure that the required amount of bandwidth is allocated to that VTC; if the most critical information is in the form of data transmissions which require all or the greater portion of the total bandwidth, the network must be able to allocate the required amount of bandwidth to data transmissions).
(c) Network Availability: The network must be sufficiently robust and redundant to support the warfighter’s requirement to exchange critical information during all phases of an operation. Network availability is a measure of the reliability of the equipment itself and the redundancy built into the network. Equipment reliability and redundancy are measured together to determine overall network availability (i.e., the less reliable the equipment is, the more redundancy must be built into the network to account for equipment outages). The network availability will be 0.96 (threshold); 0.98 (objective).
Rationale: Network availability measures the potential of the user to access the network and successfully exchange meaningful data between users. Network availability measures the robustness and redundancy of the fielded network architecture. It is a measure of the ability of the network to successfully route information from source to destination when equipment in the network is partially functional or inoperative. Network availability is achieved by the appropriate deployment and reliability of the individual components that make up the network. Unsuccessful transmissions resulting from exceeding design parameters associated with capacity and range are excluded from evaluating network availability. 96 percent represents the minimum percentage of time that the warfighter must have the ability to successfully access the network, successfully transmit a message (or make a call), and have it delivered (or talk to the recipient) to meet the completion rate requirements in the following paragraph. This number represents a trade-off between the ideal (AUTODIN was 99.99 percent) and what is minimally acceptable with commercial equipment in a tactical environment.
*(d) Data IERs: The WIN-T network must support the warfighter’s operational requirement to rapidly and reliably exchange data/information. The network must also support voice, data, and video precedence (e.g., Flash Override, Flash, Immediate, Priority, Routine) during busy and non-busy hours in order to support these data exchange requirements. The WIN-T high speed network infrastructure must satisfy designated IER’s in the C4RDP in accordance with the parameters listed below:
% COMPLETION WITHIN DATA INFORMATION EXCHANGE REQUIREMENT
DATA INFORMATION EXCHANGE REQUIREMENT
Alerts, warnings, sensor-shooter data between Army echelons (survival information)
< 5 sec
< 4 sec
Intelligence and fire support information between Army echelons
< 15 sec
< 8 sec
Combat reporting between Army echelons
< 30 sec
< 15 sec
Logistical and administrative reports between Army echelons
< 15 min
< 8 min
Rationale: Survival information requires immediate action (e.g., to attack the enemy, avoid being attacked, and/or to prevent fratricide). It is, therefore, extremely time-sensitive. Survival information includes enemy and friendly positions inside an individual’s or fighting platform’s battlespace, which is defined as anything within range of their weapon systems. This information is unique to each individual and fighting platform in the battlespace. Survival information can be categorized as that which must be delivered in real-time (directly < five seconds, without processing; i.e., alerts, warnings, sensor to shooter) and that which can still be useful if delivered in near real time. Planning information is used as a basis for determining future action and is generally not time-sensitive. It includes the entire battlespace, is common to planners and decision-makers throughout the battlespace, and is normally stored in databases or files. Survival and planning information must be deliverable, respectively, by pre-supplied instructions supporting "survival" conventions and query instructions supporting "planning" conventions to the user within the attribute values defined in user requirements documents. The Command, Control, Communications, and Computers Requirements Definition Program (C4RDP) IER database that will be "validated" for testing will include the message parameters such as speed of service and message size that must be met to satisfy user information exchange requirements. Information exchange requirements IERs are defined as the user’s requirement for a message to transit the network within a certain period of time to accomplish a mission or task. IERs are documented in the C4RDP databases. The C4RDP database includes Global Combat Support System – Army, AFATDS, CSSCS, AMDPCS, MCS, FBCB2, Information Dissemination Management, and the TAIS IERs. Information categories and warfighter requirements are also documented in the FBCB2 ORD. Overall throughput requirements are documented in user requirements documents and will be included in system specifications. If WIN-T cannot meet these requirements, it cannot satisfy the warfighter’s documented IERs. IER/SOS requirements will be measured from the time the IER is offered to the WIN-T high speed network infrastructure until such time that the IER exits the WIN-T high speed network infrastructure. All tactical information can be categorized as either "survival" or "planning", depending on the user’s operational requirements and the tactical situation. These two types of information are described in the Atlantic Command’s draft working paper "Capstone Requirements White Paper for Joint Tactical Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) to Meet the Needs of 2010 and Beyond". Understanding of these two fundamental types of information is necessary to develop the means to meet the information transport needs of the tactical user. ABCS/computer processing time for the IER will not be counted against the SOS requirement. In addition, delivery rates degraded by limiting factors outside the control of the WIN-T high speed network [e.g., terminal devices and routers outside the WIN-T network, satellite system transmission rates, Near Term Data Radio transmission rates, etc.] will not be counted when measuring the speed of service provided by the WIN-T across the division area. SOS, which is based on the warfighter’s IERs, is a measure of how rapidly the network transports information and is dependent on transmission speed ("bandwidth"), in addition to network availability.
(e) Wired/Wireless Voice Completion Rate:
1. WIN-T will provide a wired call completion rate of 95 percent to all destinations served by WIN-T. Completion rate includes all "attempted" calls that are completed (threshold).
2. WIN-T will provide a wireless hand-held device call completion rate in and around the TOC [one kilometer (km) range] of 90 percent, outside the TOC of 80 percent (threshold); in and around the TOC of 95 percent (objective), outside the TOC of 90 percent (objective).
Rationale: This requirement establishes and mandates a minimum level of service to the warfighter. It recognizes that battlefield dynamics will cause a certain level of service degradation. These call completion rates provide the warfighter the best possible operational capability that technology will provide given the operational environment.
*1. Hand-held Device (HHD): WIN-T will provide selected users with a handset that will connect via terrestrial and satellite means to the WIN-T infrastructure (threshold); via airborne platforms (objective), to communicate within the theater of operations, to include in and around TOCs. It will have a secure (NSA-approved Type 1) capability that provides voice and limited text data communications (threshold) and voice, data, and video communications (objective). The HHD will provide position location information to the user (objective). The HHD must provide a global address and phone number that supports the user’s execution of his duties, either mounted in his TOC, or dismounted (objective).
Rationale: The network infrastructure must support the warfighter's requirement to move swiftly and freely, without sacrificing the ability to communicate as necessary on the battlefield in order to achieve dominant maneuver. Unrestrained movement, with the ability to exchange C2 information, requires that the infrastructure elements be designed to provide multimedia communications to support dismounted warfighter's moving untethered around the battlefield. Current and evolving technologies (military terrestrial, commercial and military satellite, and unmanned aerial vehicles) must be pursued to support mobile forces.
2. Maneuver TOCs: The network must provide maneuver brigade and their subordinate battalion TOCs (including supporting battalions such as combat engineer, field artillery, cavalry squadron) with the capability to exchange voice and limited data while on the move (limited to the throughput of the wide-band digital radio) (threshold), voice, data, and video (objective).
Rationale: All maneuver TOCs (e.g., DTAC, Mvr Bde, Mvr Bn, supporting Bns) require the capability to communicate via voice, data, and video while maneuvering on the battlefield. The mobility of the TOC must not be restricted by the communications infrastructure.
3. Aviation Platforms: The network must provide aviation platforms (rotary wing) with the capability to exchange voice and limited text data (limited to the throughput of the hand-held device) between pilots, commanders, and staff while on the move (threshold); voice, data, and video (objective). This will be provided by the WIN-T hand-held device, which will connect to the network via a console in the platform provided by the aviation program.
4. The WIN-T system will support multi-level precedence and preemption for voice calls within the network and provide seamless multi-level precedence and preemption interoperability to the Defense Switched Network (DSN) for voice calls to and from users on the DSN (threshold).
(g) Security: WIN-T will provide an MSL capability. The network must support TS/SCI, Secret, and SBU information in accordance with the requisite security policy requirements. WIN-T will provide the IA infrastructure to implement DoD Defense in Depth concepts. Mechanisms must be available to control, filter, and protect both incoming and outgoing connections to the network (i.e., boundary protection, network perimeter and internal intrusion detection systems, encryption to prevent interception of data) (threshold).
Rationale: Army XXI units will not survive as a networked force without access to the network at their appropriate security level. Army XXI information systems require protection (e.g., firewalls, guards, intrusion detection systems, and malicious code detection) against computer and information network attacks.
(h) System Design: The WIN-T system design will enable ease of installation, operation, maintenance, training, and management. Its elements will include graphic and multimedia user interfaces, built-in-test equipment, automated fault diagnosis, automation of repetitive and well-defined tasks, management information bases, and training aids that facilitate plug, point, and play installation, support pull/push and replace diagnosis, and maintenance operations. WIN-T workstations and system assemblages must provide efficient and effective interfaces with operators and maintainers, particularly as related to system design, configuration, and required operating procedures. WIN-T’s modular design can be scaled to users’ requirements, and adapted as necessary by mission evolution, expansion, or contraction (threshold).
Rationale: WIN-T’s design will minimize training requirements, ensure simple execution of complex service support to the warfighter, limit network maintenance downtime, enable the warfighter to adapt to battlespace conditions, and rapidly incorporate state-of-the-art technologies into WIN-T’s infrastructure in order to gain the operational advantage. The requirement stated here is for the overall system to be designed with human factors engineering in mind. The sentences which follow the first one in this paragraph describe the specific design factors which should be built into the system to ensure the "ease of installation, operation, maintenance, training, and management." These include "graphic and multimedia user interfaces, built-in test equipment, automated fault diagnosis, automation of repetitive and well-defined tasks, management information bases, and training aids that facilitate plug, point, and play installation, support pull/push and replace diagnosis, and maintenance operations."
(i) Services: WIN-T services are grouped into the categories of voice, video, and data.
1. WIN-T provides the capability to conduct secure and non-secure VTC and white-boarding sessions. WIN-T supports JTA-compliant VTC systems and provides gateways between systems (H.320 to/from H.323) (threshold).
2. Deployed DMS services will interface with the WIN-T infrastructure (threshold). DMS services will be integrated into the WIN-T infrastructure (objective).
3. As the warfighter moves around the WIN-T battlespace, he must be able to exchange information while maintaining his global host name/telephone number. The network must provide the capability for the warfighter to automatically connect to the network, as he/she moves, without having to reconfigure his/her device (threshold).
Rationale: The warfighter requires the appropriate freedom of maneuver within the battlespace to effectively execute the mission. He must be able to take the tactical initiative without the interruption of network services.
4. WIN-T’s design will incorporate state-of-the-art subscriber services, as they become available. Minimum threshold features are described below:
a. Call forwarding.
b. Non-secure voice conferencing (progressive or pre-programmed) with up to 20 simultaneous persons. Secure voice conferencing (progressive or pre-programmed) with up to three simultaneous persons (threshold)/20 simultaneous persons (objective).
c. Call transfer (non-secure).
d. Call waiting.
e. Speed dial.
f. Direct access service.
g. Line hunt groups.
h. Voice mail (non-secure only).
Rationale: The above capabilities are common features of today’s commercial and military voice telephone systems and must be incorporated into the WIN-T design to support the warfighter’s communications requirements, including collaborative planning. These are standard subscriber services. Speed dial is required to minimize the time a subscriber has to spend dialing or redialing. "Line hunt groups" are lists of numbers for key subscribers which can be dialed in sequential order when the first dialed (then the next and next . . .) is not available. The requirement for a division level conference call is 20. A 20-person conference call supports a conference call between the division commander, his staff, and brigade commanders.
5. WIN-T requires use of a Tactical Standard Global Database (joint, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps) that applies a standard naming convention for all voice, data, and video subscribers (threshold).
Rationale: Use of the Tactical Standard Global Database will facilitate interoperability among users throughout the battlespace.
(2) Infrastructure. WIN-T’s infrastructure includes switching, routing, and transmission configurations at CPs/TOCs, WAN Nodes, Subscriber Nodes, Remote Access Subscriber Interface, and information transport systems that augment, enhance, and extend network connectivity.
(a) WAN Node:
1. WAN Nodes will be shelterized assemblages, which include switching/ routing/transmission, network management, and IA capabilities. WAN Nodes will be tandem capable and terminate multiple transmission systems. WAN Nodes will establish the wide area backbone infrastructure and support subscribers at all echelons. WAN Nodes will be capable of remote operation. WAN Nodes must interface with the supported unit’s capability for C2OTM (threshold). The WAN Node is to have the switch/router and high speed LOS radios integrated into a single shelter and employ wireless LAN technology (objective).
2. Utilizes transmission systems that provide high speed, high capacity connectivity to the other nodes within the network (threshold).
3. Supports the use of specified WIN-T user interfaces (threshold).
4. WAN Nodes will include embedded IA solutions that support an MSL network (threshold).
5. Initial setup time (to include at least one link to an adjacent WAN or Subscriber Node) shall not exceed 30 minutes with a maximum crew size of three (threshold). 20 minutes (objective).
6. Set-up/tear-down times may be 50 percent longer at extreme temperatures and/or within a Nuclear Biological Chemical (NBC) environment (threshold).
7. The WAN Node will include wide-band digital radio systems (threshold) JTRS (objective) that connect warfighter LANs to the WAN and support C2OTM operations.
Rationale: The shelterized WAN Node assemblage establishes WIN-T’s high-speed infrastructure and extends WIN-T’s WAN to the warfighter’s LAN. The numbers, locations, and ranges of Subscriber Nodes that support CPs/TOCs are not sufficient to connect all CPs/TOCs across the extensive area of operation. The WAN Node assemblages will provide this connectivity. The WAN Node must be capable of rapid set-up/tear-down in order to keep pace with the rapid movement of the warfighter. The required set-up/tear-down time for the legacy system (MSE) assemblages is 45 minutes with a crew size of three. Legacy systems were not capable of "keeping up" with the warfighter during Desert Storm, according to published Lessons Learned. WIN-T assemblages must be capable of more rapid set-up/tear-down.
(b) Subscriber Node: Subscriber Nodes will come in two versions, shelterized [installed, operated, and maintained (IOM), by the Signal Battalion] and integrated (IOM by the user). Each version will include switching, routing, transmission, and IA capabilities. Subscriber Nodes will extend the WAN to the warfighter’s CP/TOC LAN and be capable of remote operation. The Subscriber Node will include wide-band digital radio systems (threshold) that connect warfighter LANs to the WAN and support C2OTM operations. Wireless LANs will be used to facilitate CP/TOC setup (Objective).
1. Maneuver brigade and higher CPs/TOCs, will be supported by Shelterized Subscriber Nodes. Shelterized Subscriber Nodes will be tandem capable and terminate multiple transmission systems. The Shelterized Subscriber Node will have the switch/router and high speed LOS radios integrated into a single shelter (threshold).
a. .Shelterized Subscriber Nodes support the use of specified WIN-T user interfaces.
b. Shelterized Subscriber Nodes will include embedded IA solutions that support an MSL network (threshold).
c. Initial set-up time (to include at least one link to an adjacent WAN or Subscriber Node) shall not exceed 30 minutes with a maximum crew size of three.
d. Set-up/tear-down times may be 50 percent longer at extreme temperatures and/or within an NBC environment (threshold).
Rationale: The shelterized Subscriber Node assemblage establishes WIN-T’s high speed infrastructure and extends WIN-T’s WAN to the warfighter’s LAN. The Subscriber Node must be capable of rapid set-up/tear-down in order to keep pace with the rapid movement of the warfighter.
2 The Integrated Subscriber Node will be provided to division maneuver brigades and selected battalions in order to provide TOCs that are on-the-move with voice and limited data capability (threshold). The Integrated Subscriber Node in mobile TOC platforms will provide C2OTM capabilities (video and increased throughput) and will replace Subscriber Nodes at division and below (objective). WIN-T provides users with secure and non-secure wireless multimedia switching/routing services that are supported by the user’s organic transmission system (objective). See subparagraph 4a(1)(f)2.
a. Integrated Subscriber Nodes (maneuver brigade/battalion and separate/supporting battalion TOCs) will require wireless voice and data capabilities integrated into each platform to facilitate quick-halt operations. In a "quick-halt," the warfighter comes to a complete stop to communicate. However, establishment of communications is immediate and does not require set-up of an assemblage and antenna mast (threshold).
b. The switch/router will interface with intercom capabilities to facilitate TOC operation (objective).
Rationale: Warfighters require freedom of maneuver in order to seize the operational initiative. Integrated network capabilities that require only organic soldiers to IOM and that adapt to the battle’s evolving requirements will facilitate the warfighter’s ability to execute his intent. Organic network capabilities further minimize the warfighter’s requirement to task organize for signal support, reduce the user’s air and sea-lift requirements, and lessen the need for signal unit augmentation during the warfight. The objective requirement described herein is for node capabilities to be integrated into warfighter platforms to allow them total freedom of maneuver. As described previously, this cannot be accomplished until certain technologies (such as new antenna technologies, protocols, and inclusion of a wide-band digital waveform into the JTRS) are available. This rationale justifies the need for those node capabilities to be integrated into warfighter platforms.
(c) Remote Access Subscriber Interface: The RASI will augment the WAN Node and the Subscriber Node and provide scalability and the capability to provide service to remote subscribers. The RASI will be a man-portable integrated concentrator capable of terminating voice, data, and video subscribers to provide multimedia capability to locations not supported by a WAN Node or Subscriber Node.
1. The RASI will provide multiple loop subscriber connections. "Multiple loop subscriber connections" indicates that the RASI will provide a means for multiple single subscribers to connect to the network (e.g., interface box/boxes) (threshold).
2. The RASI will support at least one secure and one non-secure LAN. (threshold).
3. The RASI will interface with the AN/TRC-170 TROPO, AN/TSC-85B and AN/TSC-93B satellite terminals, Secure Mobile Anti-jam Tactical Terminal (SMART-T), Super High Frequency Tri-band Advanced Range Extension Terminal (STAR-T), and WIN-T terrestrial transmission systems (threshold).
Rationale: Warfighters require freedom of maneuver in order to seize the operational initiative. Integrated network capabilities that require only organic soldiers to IOM and that adapt to the battle’s evolving requirements will facilitate the warfighter’s ability to execute his intent. Organic network capabilities further minimize the warfighter’s requirement to task organize for signal support, reduce the user’s air and sea-lift requirements, and lessen the need for signal unit augmentation during the warfight.
(d) General characteristics of WIN-T’s information transport systems: WIN-T transport systems must interface with WIN-T’s switches and routers. Information transport systems will comply with DoD, national and international spectrum management policies and regulations. WIN-T LOS transmission systems will have secure and non-secure orderwire capability for engineering and troubleshooting between local and remote systems (threshold).
1. WIN-T will have the capability to remote multiple LOS radio systems up to eight km from the node (threshold).
Rationale: Warfighters require the capability to establish operations in locations that are not conducive to signal operations. The capability to remote will allow warfighters to retain their operational flexibility and protect the force from the enemy’s electronic detection capabilities. Eight km is an EAC requirement.
2. Antenna subsystem: WIN-T will deliver functional, easy to install, simple to operate, smart antenna systems that support the WIN-T transmission systems.
a. The LOS antenna mast subsystem must ensure that trees, (45-90 foot trees) do not obstruct radio signals. Each mast must be deployable/recoverable in winds up to 25 miles per hour (mph) and in any direction, provide the system specified pointing accuracy in winds up to 60 mph and in any direction, and must survive winds up to 80 mph in any direction, have no permanent deformation and meet the specified performance when redeployed. (All wind velocities are referenced to ten feet above ground). Each mast must be easy to erect and be easy to use or operate by the soldier with minimal training (threshold).
b. The LOS antenna and mast system(s) must have the capability to be remotely configured for optimal performance (operator must have capability to align antenna from remote location (e.g., inside shelter)) (threshold). The LOS system will be able to automatically report azimuth and elevation to the soldier, be self-aligning, and software programmable (objective).
c. The LOS antenna and mast configurations must minimize visual and thermal identification and radio frequency side and back lobe radiation (threshold).
Rationale: The WIN-T LOS antenna system(s) must connect the infrastructure in order to ensure continuous, uninterrupted exchange of critical information. Antennas that are self-aligning, self-erecting, and difficult to detect facilitate the ability of the warfighter to execute his mission. Antenna masts must withstand winds up to 80 mph in known training and deployment locations [e.g., NTC, Saudi Arabia (based on Lessons Learned)]. The soldier will be hold a signal Military Occupational Skill (MOS).
3. WIN-T must interface with the AN/TRC-170 (V) TROPO, AN/TSC-85B and AN/TSC-93B satellite terminals, SMART-T, and STAR-T (threshold).
Rationale: Legacy information transport systems will continue to be used to provide connectivity for and range extension in support of non-linear and distributed operations as required by Army XXI units.
(e) Transmission Relays/Terminals: WIN-T requires shelterized, high capacity, wide-band LOS radio systems with capability to operate as either transmission relays or terminals (connect to WAN Nodes/Subscriber Nodes) (threshold). The JTRS (wide-band) digital radio capability is to be used when fielded (objective).
Rationale: Transmission terminals will be dual purposed as relays, and will extend WAN connectivity to CPs/TOCs or connect WAN Nodes and Subscriber Nodes as necessary.
(f) The WIN-T will use communications relay packages on airborne platforms for range extension and node-to-node connectivity (transmission system relays) (objective). WIN-T will use airborne communications nodes on various platforms to support network expansion options (objective).
Rationale: Transmission relays in manned airborne platforms or on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are required to provide range extension to CPs/TOCs or connect WAN Nodes and Subscriber Nodes as necessary.
(g) User Interfaces/Devices:
1. Wireless HHD is described in paragraph 4a(1)(f)1
2. WIN-T will provide both secure and non-secure wireline voice telephones (threshold).
Rationale: WIN-T’s user devices must allow the timely sharing of critical command, control, and intelligence information so that warfighters can make knowledge-based decisions and disseminate those decisions in time to make an operational difference.
(3) WIN-T Network Management System (WIN-T NMS). Network management is vital to the awareness of the performance, reliability, security, and structure of the network. WIN-T NMS will use commercial-standard network and systems management protocols and interfaces to manage the entire network, which consists of multiple levels of security.. WIN-T NMS will provide the network management capability for the deployed WIN to include the management of all deployed C4 systems. WIN-T NMS must leverage all present network management capabilities and modules, with a goal of having all network management capabilities on a single DII COE compliant platform. The WIN-T NMS will interface with the Joint Network Management System (JNMS) and all ISYSCON versions to include the V4 and eventually subsume the ISYSCON V4 functionality for the wide-band digital radio and future wide-band waveforms: Tactical Internet (TI) [Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) and Single Channel Ground/Air Radio System (SINCGARS)]; EPLRS non-TI network; and the TOC/CP LAN, at all command echelons. Combat Net Radio (CNR) [non-TI SINCGARS, Improved High Frequency Radio (IHFR), and Single Channel Tactical Satellite] NM capabilities will remain a stand-alone capability until integrated into the WIN-T NMS. The WIN-T NMS will subsume all ISYSCON satellite network management requirements, less the MILSTAR Communications Planning Tool-Interim. WIN-T hardware will be used to host JNMS and WIN-T NMS software capabilities.
(a) WIN-T NMS must allow multiple network managers controlled (i.e., password/ privilege-protected), simultaneous access to the management data base (including a remote capability) in order to perform all aspects of communications system-high level planning; detailed planning, engineering, activation and modification; monitoring, control, and reconfiguration; spectrum planning and management; IA and security management (threshold).
Rationale: Network managers at levels within the WIN must be able to monitor, configure, control and protect their respective portions of the network and observe changes in overall network status. The use of passwords/privilege profiles will prohibit access to the management database by unauthorized users. The ability to assign data access privileges will additionally enhance the survivability of the networks and ensure that control is maintained during required CP movement.
(b) The WIN-T NMS must be able to distribute and selectively replicate, in part or in total, critical information needed to configure/manage the network amongst other WIN-T NMS facilities (threshold).
Rationale: Decisions to change a communications network supporting a mission must be made depending on the dynamics of the battlefield. Vertical and horizontal distribution of critical information (e.g., the CTP) ensures information integrity is maintained and that the management database can be reconstructed in case of a catastrophic failure.
(c) The WIN-T NMS must interoperate with the Army Key Management System (AKMS) Automated Communications Engineering Software (threshold).
Rationale: Network managers must have the ability to interface with AKMS to facilitate the generation and distribution of Signal Operating Instructions (SOI) and frequency resources required to support CNR nets.
(d) WIN-T NMS must provide an automated capability for the development and distribution of Signal Operations Order (OPORD)/Operations Plan (OPLAN) annexes. The automation tools used for network management text and graphics will be consistent with requirements in the ABCS CRD (threshold).
Rationale: The network manager requires automation tools to support the creation and distribution of OPORD and OPLAN annexes over tactical communications systems. The automated capability for the development and distribution of Signal OPORD/OPLAN annexes will provide automatic generation of all signal related annexes (e.g., SOI, Communications Plan). This reduces planning time and increases the commander's ability to react to changes in mission.
(e) WIN-T NMS must be able to receive, store, retrieve, transmit, and print classified and unclassified information between WIN-T NMS workstations at the same classification level (threshold).
Rationale: The data required to manage the two networks, the SBU and Secret, must be received, retrieved and stored separately. This is dictated by regulatory requirements for the handling of classified information. The aggregate listing of units, their associated equipment and locations becomes classified . Additionally, OPLANS and OPORDs are normally classified at least Secret. This information is required by network managers to plan and engineer supporting networks.
(f) The WIN-T NMS must be able to provide statistical and graphical analytical tools to support configuration management (network planning engineering, battlefield spectrum management, WAN, security management). The configuration management tools must be able to plan, engineer, configure, and control the WAN and LAN:
1. WAN Architecture:
a. WIN-T NMS must have the ability to display the map background for network planning and engineering, and have the option to graphically display the network without a map background for WAN management (threshold).
Rationale: Graphical common network picture enables network managers to plan, engineer, and monitor the WAN network. This capability enhances the network manager’s ability to rapidly reconfigure the network within the context of the evolving warfight. The map refers to a topographical map on which the physical layout of the communications network can be displayed. This allows the commander to physically see where communications resources are located on the battlefield for a various number of reasons (e.g., support plans, force protection plans, etc.). This is opposed to a network display without map background, which is easier to monitor and brief. Automatic configuration management allows for the remote gathering of information about the current network status, the use of this information to modify the configuration of the network as necessary, and to store and maintain the status of the network management devices and to reconfigure these devices as necessary. These tasks are virtually impossible to perform manually in a timely manner because of the disparity of these devices throughout the network and with the various different network management systems and operating systems in existence. Without these automated configuration tools, the process would be extremely manpower intensive.
b. WIN-T NMS must be interoperable with and provide the network status to the Joint Network Management System (threshold).
Rationale: The common picture permits joint and Army network managers to support current operations, while planning subsequent network configurations that facilitate the warfighter’s adaptation to the evolving mission. Without this capability, the warfighter runs the risk of outpacing the network infrastructure, potentially jeopardizing mission accomplishment.
c. WIN-T NMS must provide network managers with modeling and simulation capability for planning and training of WIN-T and other tactical communications systems used by the network (threshold).
d. WIN-T NMS must interface with the DMS to remotely perform systems management service functions and configuration of DMS components (threshold). Integrate DMS management services into WIN-T management capabilities (objective).
Rationale: DMS will provide official message services to organizational and individual users. DMS will initially be fielded with a separate management system. Without interface between DMS and the WIN-T NMS, network managers would have to physically check with the operator of DMS to get status information. This interface would provide automated system updates and identify potential problems with any of the DMS components. Additionally, it would allow the remote configuration of system components if DMS fails or is rendered incapable of performing that function.
e. WIN-T NMS must assign and de-conflict frequency assignments for current and future network architectures while monitoring current operations (threshold).
Rationale: Efficient and proper utilization of already scarce spectrum resources is an imperative. The system will be used to analyze authorized frequencies, de-conflict their usage with other systems and against the Joint Restricted Frequency List, and then make assignments against system requirements.
f. WIN-T NMS must plan, configure, and monitor wired and wireless communications services (threshold).
Rationale: The dynamics of the battlefield dictate the employment of highly mobile wireless communications. Effective use of limited spectrum resources requires that planners be able to plan, configure and monitor wired and wireless services required for each individual user. When the services are provided by commercial sources, the system will be used to monitor and provide usage data on individual user services.
g. Assign, monitor, and manage policies to establish user access to network services by utilizing classmarks and specific user profiles (threshold).
h. WIN-T NMS must have an automated capability to plan, assign and control all Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This capability must be transparent to the user and allow warfighters to move and automatically reconnect at any location within the network (threshold).
Rationale. The network manager must be able to configure and control all network and host IP addressing and observe changes in network status. The system must assign an IP address to all data network routers/servers and every host user. The network data equipment and the host users require IP addresses in order to access the data network and use network services. Without the ability to plan, monitor, assign and control IP addresses, WIN-T will not be able to deliver data of any kind to the warfighter
i. WIN-T NMS must monitor and manage name to network address translation service (threshold).
Rationale. This capability will allow the network manager to keep up with all of the host users and reconfigure, initiate control measures, or take other actions required to manage and sustain operations. This allows the user to type in a user’s name or position (e.g., S-3, 3/69 AR, S-4, 1/9 FA) in the "to address" block when sending a message; and the system sends the message to the appropriate IP address of that user. This alleviates the requirement for the user to know the individual IP address of the users to whom he sends mail. This also includes the requirement for the network to find the user even when he/she moves or his/her IP address changes (periodically update name/IP address tables).
j. WIN-T NMS must plan, configure, monitor, and manage interfaces to external networks (threshold).
Rationale. Networks are connected to each other through interfaces or gateways. The network manager must be able to plan, configure, monitor and manage all aspects of the network including these network interfaces. This capability must look at the network and identify all devices connected to the network and any external connections to the network (e.g., identification of a modem). An unauthorized modem connection to a commercial line could allow uncontrolled, unfiltered (through a firewall), and unmonitored (through an intrusion detection system) access to the network.
k. WIN-T NMS must provide a network-mapping tool to identify all network and user external connections (back doors) (threshold).
2. LAN Architecture: Network managers must be able to plan, configure, manage, and control the following:
a. Network services residing on network servers (threshold).
b. Routers and switch port configurations within the LAN (threshold).
c. LAN to WAN interfaces (threshold).
d. Develop access lists to information services (threshold).
e. Network services within the CP/TOC (threshold).
Rationale: The Signal Corps is now responsible for LAN management. Network managers plan network services (e.g., e-mail service, printer services, shared hardware devices, etc) for all users. To establish these services, network managers must have the ability to configure routers and switch port configurations within the LAN without having to physically touch each box. LAN interfaces to the WAN enable users to access other network services external to their LAN. Network planners plan these interfaces to ensure user requirements are met.
(g) Must be able to provide statistical, graphical, and analytical tools to support performance management. The performance management capability must be able to monitor the voice and data network performance of the system and store for future trend analysis and historical reporting (threshold).
Rationale: The network manager must be able to monitor all aspects of the network and observe changes in network status. The capability to obtain performance information (e.g., throughput and speed of service data) allows communications planners to make proactive and reactive adjustments or changes in the communications infrastructure to support users and their associated requirements.
(h) Must be able to provide statistical, graphical, and analytical tools to support accounting management. The accounting management tools must be able to determine network and user utilization for the network and store information for future trend analysis and historical reporting (threshold).
Rationale: This capability enables the manager to measure and report accounting information based on individual and group users. This data can then be used to allocate resources and compute the tactical cost (in terms of bandwidth, dollars, etc.), by user, of transmitting data across the network. This capability will allow the node manager to be proactive upon future system requirements instead of reactive. This information should be available for analysis at a later time (storage or archiving). Accounting management allows the network manager to monitor the individual user’s usage level on the network. This allows for forecasting the need for additional network resources for certain high volume users. Also, accounting metrics can be used to allocate usage to certain users based on need or to deny certain lower priority users access to network services. Accounting services can also be used for tracking user’s usage for billing purposes.
(i) Must provide statistical and analytical tools to support security and IA management. Security management tools must be able to monitor and manage the protection of the network:
1. Graphically display IA systems/components within the network (threshold).
2. Plan, configure, manage and monitor IA systems (e.g., firewalls, firewall feature sets, access control lists, in-line network encryptors, and intrusion detection systems). WIN-T NMS will also alert network managers of computer network attacks and have the ability to plan and implement appropriate responses (threshold).
3. WIN-T NMS will support the installation of security software upgrades and the testing and verification of system configuration management (threshold).
4. AKMS is a component of security management. WIN-T NMS will interface with AKMS security features (threshold); integrate AKMS security features (objective).
Rationale: Security of the network is performed in accordance with DoD’s Defense in Depth concepts. Network managers must be able to view the actual status of network intrusion and detection devices protecting the initial networks established with primary focus on the IP networks. Changes in the status of these devices must be displayed as they occur (near real-time). This capability provides the network managers with an accurate vulnerabilities assessment of these networks. The goal of this capability is to provide network managers with an accurate vulnerabilities assessment of all networks comprising the joint backbone by monitoring and displaying the status of all IA devices on those networks. These capabilities will ensure an uninterrupted flow of information and establishes one of the key enablers for information superiority – network security.
(j) Must provide statistical and graphical analytical tools to support fault management configuration. Tools must provide the network manager with a correlated, near real-time fault notification and event filtering with audible alarm and video display (threshold).
Rationale: The system will automatically monitor and maintain the status of the network’s manageable devices. It will allow a network manager to become aware of network problems as they occur based on trouble tickets generated automatically by the affected device or network. Once the trouble ticket is received, the network manager must be able to respond then or let the system automatically forward it to the next echelon in near real-time. The trouble ticketing system will allow the network manager to track all related actions to a particular event until it is resolved. All data will be archived for later playback and analysis. The system will be capable of interfacing with the trouble-ticketing system at the next higher echelon. This capability alleviates the need for the network manager to dedicate personnel to constantly monitor the network, report outages, and track corrective actions. The system will correlate alarms to eliminate those that are duplicated or false, initiate tests, and perform diagnostics to isolate faults to a replaceable component. This automated proactive capability will respond to pre-determined near-fault conditions that degrade system reliability and may eventually result in an impact on the network or its services. The system will use artificial intelligence or knowledge-based technologies to correct faults or recommend corrective actions based on rule sets, past conditions, or trends indicated by historical data to implement fixes.
(k) The system design must provide for an uncomplicated and intuitive operator interface (threshold).
Rationale: For WIN-T NMS, the human-computer interface (HCI) is particularly critical. The software interface should walk the operator through a process ensuring a "user friendly" interface with respect to human performance constraints. The HCI must minimize complexity and workload requirements, decrease the probability of errors and time delays, and reduce training time/costs.
(4) Security System. The network security services will provide the IA tools to protect, detect, and react to adversarial actions to our information systems, allowing the uninterrupted flow of information which establishes the warfighter’s key enabler of information superiority. The network will provide:
*(a) The capability to transport data utilizing NSA endorsed type 1 algorithms at different security classification levels without any likelihood of intermixing the data (threshold).
Rationale: This service allows the warfighter to utilize a common integrated network for transport of combat, combat support, and CSS systems during all phases of the operation. This capability permits complete separation of TS, Secret and SBU data without any likelihood of intermixing the three (e.g., separate encryption of data at different security levels prevents either the possibility that data could be inadvertently "mixed" or that a user at one security level could gain access to data at a higher security level). Intermixing the data means that a message or piece of classified data traveling the network will not be mixed with the message, data, etc. of SBU data. This can be accomplished with NSA endorsed type 1 encryption capabilities. If there were intermixing of data of the different security classifications, we would have the possibility of a compromise of our most sensitive warfighter information, TS or Secret data going to a workstation that should only receive sensitive but unclassified data. With the proper implementation of NSA endorsed type 1 algorithms and equipment, this will essentially eliminate the possibility of this ever happening. The contractor will have to develop a security architecture and design to minimize the probability.
(b) Appropriate security protection mechanisms in order to ensure the concepts of the DoD Defense in Depth strategy are satisfied in accordance with the applicable DoD and Army regulations (e.g., AR 380-19) and approved WIN-T network security policy (threshold).
Rationale: With the increasing dependence on interconnected networks, the Army’s information technology systems (data, video, voice, etc.) require protection (e.g., access control lists, firewalls, guards, intrusion detection systems, and malicious code detection).
(c) A boundary protection component or mechanism to control access to the internal network (threshold).
Rationale: The increased usage of automation systems on the battlefield increases the risk of unauthorized users attempting to gain access to the network deliberately or inadvertently. Mechanisms must be available to control, filter, and protect both incoming and outgoing connections to the network. This is a component of the defense in depth strategy. Boundary protection is used to limit access to the internal network. Boundary protection is usually provided through the use of some combination of routers, firewalls, and guards. This device is intended to operate primarily as an access control device, limiting the traffic that can pass into the network. In general, a router is a packet-filtering device that operates at multiple layers and permits or denies traffic into the internal network based on a set of filters established by the administrator. Router technology continues to advance and currently incorporates more features than simple packet filtering. A guard is generally a highly assured device that provides a very limited number of services in a highly secure way. These devices are most commonly seen between two networks of differing classifications. A firewall is a collection of components placed between two networks (or an individual workstation and a network) with the following properties: all traffic from inside to outside, and vice versa, must pass through this mechanism; only authorized traffic, as defined by the local security policy, will be allowed to pass; and the mechanism itself is immune to penetration. The following could be implemented for boundary protection mechanisms: restrict sources, destinations, and services, and block dangerous protocols such as Internet Control Message Protocol (both incoming and outgoing communications should be restricted); restrict executable services and download capabilities; employ internal access controls where appropriate; use Identification and Authentication (I&A) mechanisms, to include the use of software or hardware tokens, to authenticate outsiders to the boundary point; use encryption to prevent interception of data, such as that which could provide the attacker with means into the network, and for access control (this should include the encryption of remote management data); hide the internal network (addresses, topology) from potential attackers using a mechanism such as network address translation; log and analyze source-routed and other packets and react to or restrict attacks; scan for malicious software; protect itself against attack; facilitate proper configuration by operator (e.g., user-friendly graphical user interface); and provide self-monitoring.
(d) An automatic network perimeter and internal intrusion detection system capable of effective defensive electronic response (e.g., block IP address) (threshold).
Rationale: The increased usage of automation systems on the battlefield increases the risk of unauthorized users attempting to gain access to the network deliberately or inadvertently. An automatic intrusion detection system will provide the capability to identify intrusions and trace back to source. This is a component of the defense in depth strategy. Intrusion detection system will discover attacks at or inside the protected boundary and facilitate tracking and prosecuting of adversaries. Intrusion detection and response systems can protect network or individual clients. Effective intrusion systems detect both insider and outsider attacks. In general, intrusion systems are intended to protect and respond to situations where the available countermeasures have been penetrated either through allowed usage or the exploitation of vulnerabilities that are unknown or have not been patched. The objective is to detect malicious/unintended data/actions, (e.g., altered data, evil executables, requests received which permit unintended resource access unintended use of intended services). Having detected the intrusion, an appropriate response is initiated (e.g., disconnect attacker, notify operator, respond automatically to halt/lessen attack, trace attack to proper source, and counterattack if appropriate.)
(e) A network mechanism for the verification of the originator of a transaction requiring I&A (e.g., automatic password generation, digital signatures) (threshold).
Rationale: The risk of unauthorized access to a network requires the implementation of IA tools to ensure availability of the data/network to the user (e.g., DoD public key infrastructure).
(f) Security components and critical network components will be protected by access controls and strong I&A mechanisms (threshold).
Rationale: The capability to remotely manage security components requires strong I&A to protect the system from unauthorized modifications and timely and effective implementation of countermeasures, when appropriate. Strong I&A provides tools to limit to "authorized administrators only" the function of reconfiguring network level systems above "password only" protection.
(g) A means for automated malicious code detection and eradication, which includes an update capability (e.g., virus detection) (threshold).
Rationale: Malicious code detection is required to prevent the compromise, corruption, and/or modification of information or operating systems. Current/updated versions of the tools must be available for protection. This provides for the addition of information security tools to ensure availability of the network/host to the user.
(h) The capability, local and remote, to prevent unauthorized allocation, transfer, possession, or compromise of information during an emergency situation (e.g., enemy over-run situation) (threshold).
Rationale: Mechanisms (e.g., purge, removable storage, degauss, and encryption of data at rest) are required to prevent accidental or unauthorized receipt of data. This provides an additional information security tool to ensure the safeguarding of information from the enemy.
(i) An audit, automatic notification, and a capability to record events of system malfunction and procedure violations, to include intrusion attempts. Provide audit reduction tools (threshold).
Rationale: This provides the capability to identify and record significant actions or malfunctions and trace back to source. The authorized administrator needs the capability to view records of access, access denials, and manipulations on files and programs, which it protects. Audit trail information for each event such as date, time, user, type of event, and success or failure of the event assists in the protection of networks and data from unauthorized access, manipulation, or destruction. Audit reduction tools are needed to provide timely notification of significant events.
(j) The capability to cryptographically protect (confidentiality and integrity) (e.g., bulk encryption), utilizing NSA endorsed Type 1 algorithms, all transmission group systems and the transmission media used for communications links (e.g., WIN-T network transmission systems, fiber-optic networks, etc.) (threshold).
Rationale: Classified national security information shall be transmitted only by secure means using a transmission security capability endorsed by NSA. NSA Type 1 endorsed products/ cryptography is required to provide protection of this portion of the network. Transmission security is the component of communications security which consists of all measures, designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptographic analysis. These are the bulk encryption devices, currently utilizing KG-194 in MSE/TRI-TAC, that are mounted within our switches and provides the Type 1 encryption that is applied to the total transmission path. The previous requirement for an encryption capability is to encrypt the data at the enclave, as close to the point of generation as possible, until we can get a host based end-to-end encryption capability.
(k) Access to network services for hosts at the classification levels of SBU and Secret (threshold). Access to network services for hosts at the SBU, Secret, and TS/SCI classification levels (objective).
Rationale: Data exchanges will be between users at different classification levels. Hosts on either the SBU, Secret, or TS/SCI classification level must have access to network services (e.g., Domain Name Service, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).
(l) Secure exchange of information between users at different classification levels (i.e., SBU information between users at SBU and higher levels, Secret information between users at the Secret and TS/SCI levels) (objective).
Rationale: The warfighter requires writer-to-reader capability at all levels. Just as the CSS community requires the means to transfer data between SBU and Secret systems, the intelligence community requires the means to transfer data between its Secret and TS/SCI systems.
(m) WIN-T will provide the security solution to the enclave for security protection of those data and video users without an end-to-end security capability (TS/SCI, Secret and SBU). The TS/SCI gateway will be located at the user’s Analysis Control Element and will be user owned, installed, operated, and maintained (threshold).
Rationale: An enclave is a group of collocated users at the same security level with a need to access the network and network services. Users at all security levels need to exchange information across WIN-T. Until all systems have an end-to-end Multilevel Security capability, enclave protection is required.
(5) Reliability. Network availability drives reliability requirements of individual components. WIN-T’s reliability requirements Mean Time Between Essential Function Failure (MTBEFF) for the WIN-T equipment are tabulated below:
WIN-T System MTBEFF
Initial 2nd Corps
WAN Node 900 hours 1200 hours
Subscriber Node (shelterized) 980 hours 1300 hours
Subscriber Node (integrated) 1050 hours 1400 hours
Remote Access Subscriber Interface 1130 hours 1500 hours
Transmission Relay (shelterized) 640 hours 850 hours
Secure Telephone 830 hours 1000 hours
Non-Secure Telephone 900 hours 1200 hours
HHD (voice/data) 680 hours 900 hours
HHD (voice/data/video) 600 hours 800 hours
WIN-T NMS 1130 hours 1550 hours
Rationale: Reliability requirements for the WIN-T equipment are based on established reliability requirements for existing similar equipment. These requirements may need to be updated as technology, configuration, and operational employment evolve. With technological improvements/achievements, objective reliability requirements should be fully achievable.
b. Logistics and Readiness. The Maintenance Ratios (MRs) for the WIN-T are tabulated below:
WIN-T System MR (Unit) MR [Direct Support (DS)]
Initial 2nd Corps Initial 2nd Corps
Production Fielding Production Fielding
WAN Node .000794 .000595 .001587 .001190
Subscriber Node (shelterized) .000735 .000549 .001471 .001099
Subscriber Node (integrated) .000685 .000510 .000137 .000102
Remote Access Subscriber Interface .000641 .000476 .001282 .000952
Transmission Relay (shelterized) .001136 .000840 .002273 .001681
Secure Telephone .000481 .000357 .001442 .001071
Non-secure Telephone .000397 .000298 .001190 .000893
HHD (voice/data) .001064 .000794 .002128 .001587
HHD (voice/data/video) .001190 .000893 .002381 .001786
WIN-T NMS .000431 .000323 .000431 .000323
c. Other System Characteristics.
(1) Environmental conditions below apply. Wind, rain, snow, ice, sand, and dust must be considered for each environmental condition.
(a) The following environmental requirements are shelter level requirements, not component level requirements:
Storage and transit: -500 F to +1600 F. (The requirement to operate from –500F to –200 F will apply to 10 % of the force based on the WIN-T OMS/MP.)
Operating external: -50 0 F to +1200 F with solar loading
Operating internal: +320 F to +1040 F (after initial start-up operational conditions will normally be climatically controlled from 500 F to 800 F)
(b) Non-shelterized equipment must meet the following environmental conditions:
Storage and transit: -500 F to +1600 F. (The requirement to operate from –500F to –200 F will apply to 10 % of the force based on the WIN-T OMS/MP.)
Operating: -400 F to +1200 F (Outside operations)
(2) Shelterized WIN-T components must continue to function after exposure to High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HAEMP). The individual systems/subsystems that comprise the network will be intra-system/platform electromagnetically compatible in order to ensure that system/platform’s operational performance requirements are met. Similarly, the performance of the network and all of its elements will not be degraded when exposed to its operational electromagnetic environment (natural or man-made). Terminal devices and non-shelterized items rendered inoperable due to HAEMP will be removed for repair determination or discarded.
(3) NBC Contamination Survivability. The equipment shall be designed to enable operators to perform equipment tasks with no more than 15 percent degradation (time) while in Mission Oriented Protective Posture IV suits; and, be able to perform mission tasks in an operational environment without suffering more than a 50 percent degradation (time) considering environmental (internal heat) stress conditions External surfaces of shelters and containers which house electronics shall survive contamination and decontamination processes. Terminal devices and non-shelterized items rendered inoperable due to contamination will be removed for repair determination or discarded.
5. Program Support.
a. Maintenance Planning. The system must be supportable by a standard Army maintenance system in place at the time of fielding. The desired maintenance concept is the three level maintenance concept: Unit, DS, and General Support (GS)/Depot or contractor.
(1) The WIN-T will be maintained by Army DS and unit level maintenance. The combat developer and the materiel developer will ensure that appropriate maintenance support is provided for WIN-T at the GS and Depot levels.
(2) Operator level technical manuals shall be provided in hard copy and in electronic form where feasible. A pocket-sized ready reference guide is also desired.
(3) Cryptographic equipment shall be repaired in accordance with communications security maintenance policies and procedures.
(4) The ability to replace all critical Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) at the unit maintainer level.
b. Support Equipment.
(1) WIN-T components will be supported by the Standard Army Logistics System, using standard tools and Test Measurement and Diagnostic Equipment. Special purpose electronic test equipment, special purpose support equipment, and special purpose tools should be avoided to the maximum extent possible.
(2) Where applicable, WIN-T shall use built-in test diagnostics that fault-isolate to a single LRU 90 percent of the time.
c. Human Systems Integration/MANPRINT.
(a) Manpower: Manpower estimate reports indicate zero growth. WIN-T must be designed so there is no increase in manpower requirements. A crew size of three for each communications assemblage with a set-up/tear-down time of approximately 30 minutes for each assemblage is required. "Communications assemblage" is defined as all WIN-T shelterized assemblages.
(b) Personnel: The WIN-T system will be IOM and managed by signal personnel who are organic to non-signal and signal units. New equipment will be IOM and managed by the personnel currently responsible for those tasks [31F, 31R, 31S, 31U, 31W, ASID9, 25R, 74B, 74C, WO 251A and 250N, and Area of Concentration (AO) 25C/E/25CD5/53/24]. MOS 31W and 74B will also be required to perform system administration and IP network architecture, engineering, and management functions. New MOS may replace some existing MOSs. WIN-T will not have an increase in manpower requirements.
(c) MANPRINT: MANPRINT considerations and constraints describe user characteristics which must be met/overcome by system design to ensure system effectiveness (e.g., if a component must be capable of lift by 95 percent of the female Army population, the component must be designed to ensure that it can be accomplished). MANPRINT issues will be included in the System MANPRINT Management Plan or comparable document, and a MANPRINT assessment will be conducted.
(a) Training Concept: System design will minimize training costs and time. Maximum emphasis will be placed on Distance Learning technologies that reduce the requirement for trainers to travel to all units receiving WIN-T systems. WIN-T training will be supported with Training Aids, Devices, and Simulators and Simulations (TADSS). All WIN-T courses, staff users, operator-maintainer, and repairer courses will use TADSS sources. Task analysis and individual and collective task development will be performed. The use of Interactive Multimedia Instruction and Interactive Computer Based Training (ICBT) is required.
(b) New Equipment Training (NET): The materiel developer’s initial NET for the units being fielded WIN-T will serve as a baseline for the same training programs developed for institutional and unit training. ICBT programs will be made available to the units following WIN-T fielding to the First Unit Equipped and operational testing. NET materials will be verified/validated.
(c) Institutional Training: ICBT will be developed for institutional training on the WIN-T systems. The ICBT programs will be developed for the operator, unit level maintainer, and DS maintainer of WIN-T systems. The ICBT programs will be based on task and skill analysis of WIN-T systems. The programs will be designed so that the training can be accessible through computer diskette, through Compact Disk Read Only Memory (threshold), and the world wide web (objective). The programs will provide a management system for tracking the students’ progression through lessons, exercises, and evaluations. The software management system must be capable of downloading the students’ records. WIN-T training materials will be updated throughout the system’s life cycle.
(d) Unit Sustainment Training: An Exportable Interactive Multimedia Training Support Package (TSP) (i.e., the TSP will include ICBT programs) will be developed for unit sustainment training on the WIN-T. This TSP will be developed for the operator, unit level maintainer, and DS maintainer of WIN-T. The ICBT programs will be based on task and skill analysis of WIN-T systems.
(e) Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP): Proponent-developed TTPs will be developed for units being fielded WIN-T systems. The TTPs will address changes in the units’ doctrine and tactics because of the fielding of WIN-T systems. The authoring system and the delivery media for the TTP will be the same as those for institutional and unit training.
(f) Combat Training Center (CTC) Instrumentation Systems: WIN-T must interface with CTC instrumentation systems. Live force-on-force training at home station, local training areas, maneuver CTC, and deployed training sites will be required to validate the ability of units to employ WIN-T within the force, and mission rehearsal needs.
(g) Embedded Training (ET): The WIN-T systems must maximize the use of ET and help systems. Multimedia training programs which can be loaded onto the system for training (Threshold), or resident on the system (Objective), and help programs will be developed. ET must be identified early enough in system design and development to be included in the operational system development. The design of the ET capability must be a part of the basic system itself and must proceed concurrently in operational system development. The ET concept must address individual, crew, and small unit (squad/platoon) collective training tasks that can be performed in both a garrison and field environment.
(h) Support Concept: Institutional training to support skill and knowledge development for MOSs (31F, 31R, 31S, 31U, 31W, 25R, 74B, 74C, WO 251A and 250N, and AO 25C/E/25CD5/53/24) will be developed. Exportable training packages on all equipment will be provided to each fielded unit. A WIN-T simulator to provide realistic training capability for the network management courses is required.
(3) Human Engineering.
(a) The system design, to include controls, displays, configuration, connections, required procedures, and operating environment, will minimize human performance errors, interface problems, and workload (physical, cognitive, attention) requirements. HCI is an important consideration. It must be as uncomplicated and intuitive as possible and must include concerted attention to such characteristics as screen content and layout, menus, help availability, feedback, and safeguards, and both ready accessibility and procedural requirements associated with critical tasks/functions.
(b) All aspects (design and operation) of the components and network operating environment should conform to applicable human engineering design criteria to support ease of operation.
(4) Health Hazards/System Safety/Soldier Survivability. The network will be designed in accordance with all applicable system safety standards so as to minimize safety risks associated with operating, maintaining, managing, or supporting the system. Any residual hazards or risks associated with installing, operating, or maintaining the system or its components must be identified, attended to in training and support materials, and made manageable. Particular emphasis will be placed on minimizing risks of shock, radio frequency exposure, or visual strain. The materiel developer will arrange for a Health Hazard Assessment on all new equipment procured for the WIN-T.
(5) Salient MANPRINT/Human Systems Integration concerns for systems design, manning, and installation, operation, and maintenance will be translated to appropriate issues and criteria for address during developmental and operational testing.
d. Computer Resources. System software for WIN-T equipment will be developed as applicable and conform to appropriate DII/COE protocols and standards.
e. Other Logistics Considerations.
(1) WIN-T logistics concept must support required network availability.
(2) Maximum use will be made of Army standard equipment (e.g., vehicles, power units, antennas/masts, environmental control units, and trailers).
(3) The system provided will consist of all components, to include shelters, antennas/ masts, and associated cables and wires.
(4) The system components must be protected from damage during storage and transit.
(5) Each WIN-T subsystem, when configured on its prime mover and trailer, must not exceed the gross vehicle weight of the vehicle. The gross vehicle weight includes the mission ready vehicle, the system (shelter with masts and antennas), environmental control units, and assigned operators with complement of authorized personnel gear and mission equipment.
(6) The system components must be sufficiently mobile to keep pace with the force being supported.
f. Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence. WIN-T is the Army’s area common user system.
g. Transportation and Basing. Mountings facilitate ease and speed of loading and unloading on rail, ship or air transport. All assemblages must be transportable by rail, ship, or air, to include roll-on/roll-off Strategic Airlift Command aircraft and sling-load operations using the CH-47 aircraft.
h. Standardization, Interoperability, and Commonality.
(1) The WIN-T must interoperate with strategic/sustaining base, joint, commercial, and NATO systems. The WIN-T must also comply with applicable information technology standards contained in the DoD JTA, to include DII/COE compliance for management systems (Level 7 threshold, Level 8 objective).
(2) Generators will be the minimum size and power required to operate objective equipment/systems.
(3) Electromagnetic Environmental Effects and Spectrum Supportability. All shelterized components of WIN-T shall be designed to be mutually compatible with other electric or electronic equipment within the system’s expected operational electromagnetic shelterized environment. All spectrum dependent equipment must have a frequency supportability assessment conducted and conform to the frequency spectrum certified for Army use worldwide.
(4) WIN-T component design must include consideration for mitigation of cosite interference with other Army equipment operating in the same frequency range(s) and close proximity.
i. Joint Program Designation.
(1) Navy: Joint Interest.
(2) Air Force: Joint Interest.
(3) Marine Corps: Joint Interest.
j. Equipment Characteristics and Parameters. Modeling and simulation of the WIN-T network are required, using government-provided scenario(s) and requirements.
6. FORCE STRUCTURE. WIN-T systems will replace current area common user systems (to include active and reserve components) in all Army EAC, corps, and divisions.
7. SCHEDULE CONSIDERATIONS.
a. WIN-T will be fielded in blocks, as follows:
(1) Threshold Requirements: These include KPP capabilities and those required for system integrity.
(2) Objective Requirements.
b. The fielding schedule and units may be modified based on a best value approach by the materiel developer or changes in DA priorities and funding:
XVIII Airborne Corps, with EAC support units (active and reserve components).
V Corps, with EAC support units (active and reserve components).
I Corps, with EAC support units (active and reserve components).
III Corps with EAC support units (active and reserve components).
c. WIN-T must establish a modernization program that uses spiral development to ensure that WIN-T will maintain currency with new technologies as they become available.
d. Initial operational capability will be established when the first Signal Battalion and supported units have received their complete complement of WIN-T equipment. Full operational capability will be achieved when the last unit scheduled to receive WIN-T has been fielded.
8. Program Affordability. WIN-T is to replace the current MSE and TRI-TAC communications systems. The combined acquisition cost to replace these systems was estimated to be: Threshold: $11.2 Billion, Objective: $10.2 Billion.