INTEGRATED TRAINING TEAM (ITT)
1. Organization. The Executive Officer is the ITT Leader. A designated Department Head (typically the operations officer) or the training officer is the ITT Coordinator. The ITT Leader along with other team leaders will define the responsibilities and location of (CSTT/SERT, ETT, DCTT, STT, MTT and ATT) team members during scenario based training events.
2. Duties and Responsibilities. The ITT Leader is responsible for exercising the ship at controlling potentially cascading casualties in realistic situations. Training to sustain maximum combat system capability under adverse conditions requires careful planning and full integration of ship's training teams. This integration during training periods is facilitated by the development of timed scenario packages. This timed package is a collection of events designed to exercise the ship's warfighting capabilities under varied conditions. A package may evaluate a single work center or system or it may be a fully integrated, ship-wide battle problem that includes damage control, engineering, combat systems, medical, seamanship and navigation functions. Crew effectiveness is determined by objective ITT evaluation. For training to occur, feedback must be provided and this feedback must be both timely and relevant to be effective. On-station debriefs and post training critiques are invaluable, and well- written critiques will provide a basis for both determining future training requirements and documenting training accomplishment.
3. Scenario Package. Obviously, the number of CSTT/SERT, ETT, DCTT, STT, MTT and/or ATT members required to conduct the scenario package will depend on its purpose, requirements, and complexity. Minimally, a scenario package will contain the following:
a. Purpose. Identifies the training objectives for the integrated scenario. Objectives will vary in complexity from exercising a warfare area with no casualties to conducting a multi-threat scenario impacted by multiple casualties across mission areas. However, a primary purpose of integrated training is to exercise thinking and decision making at key watch stations. Watch team proficiency is best-developed and maintained through the use of functional training teams within each respective mission area. Integrated training should concentrate on internal command and control, and on the interactions of team members within both their own teams, and across other teams. However, it is not reasonable to expect all watchstanders to be under evaluation during each scenario. Accordingly, scenarios should focus on key training objectives and their associated watchstanders.
b. Requirements. Once training objectives have been identified, the scenario can be developed and required support services can be defined. Optimally, the scenario will be generated using onboard simulation systems. Once basic skill levels have been achieved, the addition of casualties to the scenario imparts realism and tests the ability of decision-makers and key watchstanders to "fight through" the damage using available equipment or through system reconfiguration. Casualty insertion is also valuable in exercising both the operator and maintenance areas as it allows for the demonstration of proper restorative actions.
c. Remarks. Major events should be described in sufficient detail to allow the team members to fully understand the intent of the event, the impact on the execution of the scenario package, the tactical impact of the overall package, and any safety warnings and/or cautions. Some events, such as refueling at sea, are inherently dangerous. The application of sound techniques such as Operation Risk Management (ORM) is essential to ensuring the safe conduct of training evolutions (para 3409.b refers).
d. Team Members. The ITT is composed of the ITT leader, the ITT coordinator, and the heads of the functional training teams.
e. Casualty Control. Casualty Control scenarios are normally imposed in a time sequence by the casualty initiator/evaluator. Casualties should be scheduled to coincide with key events and should allow a reasonable time for the initiator/evaluator to fully conduct assigned tasks. The number of casualty drills will depend on the proficiency and the training level of the watch teams, and the desired scope of the scenario.
f. Casualty Control Scenario Package. The casualty control scenario package will normally be generated by the functional training teams and will be submitted via the chain of command for approval.
g. Communication Plan. Providing the method/means of communication established and agreed upon prior to drill commencement.
h. Equipment Status. Current status of any equipment that may affect training; i.e., cause the training team to simulate or deviate from normal procedures during scheduled training events.
i. Safety/Training Time Outs. Procedures providing a means for freezing the training event.
4. Integrated Scenario Development. Integrated training differs from stand alone and parallel training. It requires precise coordination of training teams to be effective. Training teams should demonstrate communication, exchange of applicable information, team initiative and support between and amongst themselves. It requires deconfliction of training/evaluation objectives between training teams and synchronization of overall and individual training team timelines. Integration occurring at the training team level will affect the areas of responsibility of all training teams involved in the event.
The ITT should address the following issues when planning a scenario:
a. Symptom Recognition. Disclosure of symptomatic failures, events and reports to evoke a response that demonstrates recognition of system configuration and operation.
b. Fault Isolation. Identifying and developing casualties that promote the need to isolate systems and equipment .
c. Tactical Impact. Identifying and developing casualties that evoke a response that demonstrates recognition of system and equipment interdependency and overall tactical impact.
d. Reconfiguration. Disclosing casualties that require restoration through reconfiguration of systems and equipment.
5. Scenario Conduct. Scenarios provide the environment in which to train. Whether or not training occurs is a function of the conduct of the scenario events. Participants should be aware of the training objectives, and they should be provided timely feedback on their performance to maximize training value. Scenarios shall be conducted in such a way as to create a learning environment for the watch teams and the training teams. The Executive Officer or the Training Officer shall manage the delivery of training via these scenario. While it is not the intent of this document to enumerate all of the possible learning points, the following thoughts are provided for consideration:
a. Were watchstanders kept informed of developing situations/casualties and were accurate and timely reports made?
b. Was a coherent picture of the tactical situation maintained and correct information exchanged by key decision-makers?
c. Were tactical decisions appropriate to the situations, executed in a timely manner and were they in consonance with higher authority tasking and direction?
d. Were tactical decisions in accordance with the Commanding Officer’s Battle Orders?
e. Did watchstanders’ reactions to casualties reflect appropriate prioritization? For example, was the tactical impact of securing equipment known? Was the switchboard secured during a Class "C" fire while it was feeding power to CIWS during the engagement of an inbound missile? Was a shaft run with a hot bearing because speed or mobility was essential?
f. Did key decision-makers understand the impact of casualties on system performance and did they take appropriate action to ameliorate the affects of damage?
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