THE SURFACE FORCE TRAINING CYCLE
TRAINING AND READINESS CYCLE
Ref: (a) CINCPACFLT/CINCLANTFLTINST 5451.1 (Afloat Training Organization)
(b) CINCPACFLT/CINCLANTFLTINST 3540.2 (Fleet Engineering Readiness Process)
(c) CINCPACFLT/CINCLANTFLTINST 3540.9 (Propulsion Examining Board Assessment and
(d) CINCPACFLT/CINCLANTFLTINST 4790.3, Vol 5. (Joint Fleet Maintenance Manual)
(e) NAVSEAINST 3502.2 (Management Procedures and Policy for the Shop Qualification Improvement
Program, Reserve Shop Qualification Program and Onboard Maintenance Training Program)
(f) COMNAVSURFLANT 4700.4 (Fleet Introduction Handbook)
2101. Overview. The Commanders-in-Chief, Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, have the primary responsibility for the tactical training of naval forces provided to the Unified Commanders. Under the CINCs' Tactical Training Strategy (TTS), primary mission area tactical training is executed by the type commanders in the basic phase of the training cycle and by the numbered fleet commanders in the intermediate and advanced phases of the training cycle in accordance with reference (a). The training cycle begins with CART I near the middle of deployment. CART I is a ship's self-assessment of formal school training, team training, inspections/ assists and material/equipment status. CART II, a demonstration of unit proficiency, is normally conducted between four and six weeks after an overhaul/major maintenance availability and is the beginning of the basic phase. The results of CART II are used to construct a unit training package for execution during Tailored Ship's Training Availabilities (TSTAs). The Final Evaluation Period (FEP), a three to four-day scenario driven evaluation of combat readiness, marks the end of the basic phase. The intermediate and advanced phases of the training cycle occur after CHOP during which combat readiness is reinforced through FLEETEXs and the conduct of exercises of increased complexity. Figure 2-1 provides a graphic representation of the TTS cycle.
CNSL/CNSP OPCON CHOP C2F/C3F OPCON
OVHL/ BASICINTERMEDIATE ADVANCED DEPL
C T T T S F C F C
A S S S P E O L A
R T T T E P M E R
T A A A C P E T
II I II III I T T I
A U E /
L E X M
T X C
Engineering Certification Phases
I II III IV V
Figure 2-1 THE TTS TRAINING CYCLE
2102. Basic Training.
a. The focus of basic training is on unit-level training emphasizing basic command and control, weapons employment, mobility (navigation, seamanship, damage control, engineering, and flight operations) and warfare specialty. A key objective during this period is satisfactory completion of required certifications. Upon completion of the basic phase, a unit is expected to be substantially ready (M2) in all mission areas.
b. The Fleet Engineering Readiness Process conducted in accordance with references (b) and (c), has been developed to fully integrate the engineering assessment and certification process into the Tactical Training Strategy. The new process places emphasis on sustained engineering readiness rather than a snap shot inspection in order to reduce the peaks and valleys of the former OPPE cycle. This new process leverages the engineering expertise of the PEB and ATG by organizationally having them work together to help ships throughout their operational cycles. The engineering readiness process is divided into five sequential phases:
(1) Pre-Light Off Training and LOA: Phase One prepares the ship for light off and initial hot plant operations at the end of the depot level maintenance period following deployment. Equally important, this phase begins the identification of training requirements to be achieved during Phase Three. During Phase One, ATG provides training assistance as required and the ISIC, supported by PEB and ATG, conducts a Light Off Assessment (LOA) for availabilities which exceed 120 days or as the Type Commanders deem necessary to ensure the ship is ready to commence hot plant operations and identify follow-on training requirements.
(2) Assessment of Readiness and Training: Phase Two completes the identification of training requirements to be met during Phase Three. PEB, assisted by ATG, conducts an assessment of the Engineering Department during CART II by assessing any of the five areas formerly reviewed during OPPE that were not completely assessed during LOA. Unlike OPPE, however, this assessment is used to identify objectives for the subsequent training periods.
(3) Train and Certify: Phase Three includes engineering training tailored to meet the objectives identified during the previous two phases and a certification that these objectives have been met. Training is provided by ATG during TSTA I and II and the completion of objectives is certified by PEB on an as occurring basis throughout this phase. Certification is a process vice a single event. Certification should be completed prior to starting Phase Four.
(4) Integrated Total Ship Training and Final Evaluation Period (FEP): Four consists of TSTA III training and the Final Evaluation Period (FEP). During this phase, ATG training focus shifts from peacetime to combat operations and integration of engineering training into shipwide training scenarios culminating in FEP.
(5) Mid-Cycle Assessment (MCA): Phase Five begins when the ship completes FEP and continues through the start of the next interdeployment training cycle. During this phase, the ISIC, supported by available assets such as PEB, ATG, and RSO (PAC)/RSG (LANT) will conduct a Mid-Cycle Assessment to ensure the ship is maintaining a continuum of engineering readiness and to begin the process of identifying the training requirements for the next training cycle. CART I will also be conducted during this phase and is another indicator of sustained engineering readiness.
This new approach promotes sustained readiness throughout the interdeployment training cycle, uses the expertise of both the PEB and the ATG, eliminates the single event "OPPE" examination, and brings engineering training more in line with other shipboard training. It is based on the Assess-Train-Certify philosophy fundamental to the fleets' Tactical Training Strategy.
c. The Communication Readiness Certification (CRC) (effective 1 January 1997) is a Basic Phase event which combines the former Communications Readiness Assist Team (CRAT) visit, the Comprehensive Communications Assessment (CCC-19-SF), and an optional Communications Assist Team (CAT) visit. The restructuring of the CRAT, CCC-19-SF and optional CAT reduces outside visits, eliminates redundancies, and provides a thorough look at a ship's communications readiness within the framework of the tactical training strategy. It also serves to improve waterfront communications training through identification of common deficiencies.
(1) The CRC will be an ISIC controlled event to occur during the IDTC or (for those ships not included in the IDTC) every 24 months. The successful completion of the CRC will be one of the requirements for the Command and Control Excellence Award (see paragraph 5106). The CRC will begin with a Communications Readiness Assessment (CRA) in CART II during which the ship's self assessment is reviewed by ISIC and ATG. CRA deficiencies will be used as the basis for subsequent communications training during the following TSTA periods. The CRC will culminate with a Comprehensive Communications Assessment (CCC-19-SF). The CRA and the CCC-19-SF will be conducted by ISIC (Senior Observer) and assisted by the ATG. Other assistance by NCTAMS/NCTS is optional.
(2) The CRC will consist of two phases:
(a) Phase 1: During CART II, an ISIC conducted CRA consisting of ATG check sheet items, and (optional) CAT check sheet items.
(b) Phase 2: Follow-on TSTA training including ISIC conducted CCC-19-SF portion.
(3) ISIC is responsible for coordinating all aspects of the CRC, specifically requirements for an assist ship and ISIC OPLAN during the CCC-19-SF portion.
2103. Intermediate Training. The focus of the intermediate phase is warfare team training in support of the Composite Warfare Commander (CWC) organization. It is conducted ashore under TACTRAGRUs and at sea under the training COMCARGRU/COMPHIBGRU and deploying battle group/amphibious ready group commander, culminating in a Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX). Ships will work in primary and secondary warfare areas with one or more units. During this phase, ships begin to look beyond the lifelines and develop warfare skills in coordination with other units while continuing to maintain unit proficiency within the lifelines.
2104. Advanced Training. The focus of the advanced phase is coordinated battle group and ARG/MEU(SOC) warfare skills. This phase is conducted by fleet commanders and includes shore-based war gaming using common standing warfare OPTASKs. The at-sea phase is devoted to a Fleet Exercise (FLEETEX) which evaluates all warfare skills. FLEETEX for amphibious forces is the culmination of the individual, team, and warfare team training conducted by USN/USMC forces.
2105. Basic Training for Forward Deployed Naval Forces (FDNF) The unique situation of FDNF ships, characterized by higher OPTEMPO and often complex operations without respect to particular training phases, requires greater flexibility in adapting the notional tactical training progression to their use. Since FDNF ships do not have a traditional IDTC, basic phase training shall normally be conducted every 24 months. Case by case tailoring by the ISIC of the training requirements based on each ship's needs will be necessary to make the TTS effective.
a. CART I. FDNF ships conduct CART I on return from deployment or as determined by ISIC in conjunction with CO and ATG.
b. CART II. FDNF ship CART IIs are conducted at a time agreed to by CO, ISIC, and ATG with appropriate regard for the availability of assessment teams. CART II must be done early enough to support tailoring/planning of follow-on TSTAs and, if possible, should be done sufficiently after CART I to allow time to correct deficiencies. It should also be conducted as soon as practicable after completion of SRA/PMA. CART II can be scheduled during SRA/PMA as soon as equipment status allows. FDNF ship CART IIs may be additionally tailored to permit limited training team "on-the-spot-training" to address obvious discrepancies when TSTAs may not be scheduled early enough to correct a discrepancy prior to follow-on contingency operations. The final product of a FDNF ship's CART II will be a general IDTC plan agreed to by CO, ISIC and ATG.
c. Tailored Ship Training Availabilities (TSTAs). FDNF ship TSTAs normally cannot be restricted to a 6 month workup period following CART II. While FDNF ship schedules are dynamic, the proper sequencing of TSTA periods is important; i.e., from non-integrated to integrated training. When training schedule tailoring is required, CO, ISIC and ATG will work together using all available opportunities to accomplish discrete modules of the plan developed in CART II. In some cases TSTAs may occur sufficiently apart to require retraining, using Limited Training Teams (LTT) in specific areas. FDNF ship TSTAs focus on developing ship's integrated training teams and are supported by classroom instruction. The high OPTEMPO of FDNF ships ensures adequate underway time in each ship's schedule. This often results in FDNF ship TSTAs mixing basic training periods with more advanced exercises and even contingency operations. FDNF ship TSTAs are frequently augmented by LTT visits in support of CO requested or event driven needs.
d. Final Evaluation Period (FEP). FDNF ship FEPs are designed by the appropriate ISIC and ATG. FEP should be conducted underway in a single two to four day period. FEP is designed to provide the ship with a dynamic scenario to ascertain its overall warfighting ability. FEP is also an evaluation of the ship's ability to conduct its own integrated training. In the event the availability of services does not allow accomplishment of a particular standard FEP event, ISIC and ship, with ATG assistance, may develop an appropriate simulation (or sensor simulation) which allows successful demonstration of the competency under evaluation. Upon completion of FEP, ATG issues an end-of-basic-training report to the ISIC and ship, info the numbered fleet commander (NFC). The ship's ISIC then sends a message to TYCOM, info NFC certifying the ship's readiness for follow-on training and NFC operations. Normally no M-rating adjustments are made as a result of FEP unless directed by ISIC.
e. Intermediate/Advanced Training. For FDNF ships, no distinction is made between Intermediate and Advanced training. Instead, CTF 70 (for CVTG ships), CTF 76 (for ARG ships), CTF 75 (for MEF deployers), and CTF 63 (for MED ships) develop a tailored workup plan. This plan uses imported CONUS based Intermediate/Advanced training organizations; e.g., TACTRAGRUPAC/LANT, when available, and incorporates advanced inport training exercises and warfare seminars. The CV/CVW Intermediate Training Assessment (ITA) may include other battle group ships, in order to incorporate some TG assessment into ITA, which is not otherwise possible in WESTPAC. The numerous USN and bilateral exercises are also an integral part of the workup plan. The workup plan may be shorter than those used in CONUS and can include units that have not completed FEP, if necessary to take advantage of a training opportunity.
2106. Repetitive Training. A specific set of training exercises is of particular importance in maintaining operator or team proficiency. To maintain these essential skills, exercises (including live weapons firings or exercises requiring live services) are identified by mission area in Appendix A for repetitive (proficiency) training.
2107. Training Guidelines
a. SORTS Training Readiness. Appendix A of this manual contains a comprehensive training exercise syllabus for each ship type that summarizes, by mission area, all capabilities a ship is expected to demonstrate during the standard training and readiness cycle. Appendix B prescribes capping criteria which may cause normal readiness reporting to be overridden. Appendix C contains type commander pre-approved exercise equivalencies.
b. Appendix D lists type commander formal school requirements for ships, staffs, and other units of the Naval Surface Forces. Ships must have a system to monitor the status of meeting formal school requirements. Training to support NEC/NOBC requirements in unit manpower documents, class "A" schools, factory training, and approved billet specialty training (i.e., pipeline training) are not included in this manual.
c. PQS Objectives. Chapter 3 Section 3 contains comprehensive guidance for the management of the PQS Program in ships and units of the Naval Surface Forces. Among other requirements, the commanding officer shall:
(1) Ensure watchbills denote watchstanders' level of qualification and projected rotation date (PRD).
(2) Ensure Selected Reserve (SELRES) personnel are fully integrated into all aspects of the command's PQS Program. For additional guidance, refer to Chapter 1, Section 3.
(3) Ensure all personnel complete final qualification in basic damage control and in the appropriate level (maintenance man, work center supervisor, division officer, department head, etc.) of 3M PQS within six months of reporting to the command.
(4) Establish a method of final qualification and requalification which is consistent throughout the ship. This method may include any combination of the following:
(a) Acceptance of recommendations.
(b) Oral/written examinations.
(c) Personally observed performance.
(d) Qualification boards.
d. Operational Sequencing Systems. Engineering Operational Sequencing System (EOSS), Combat Systems Operational Sequencing System (CSOSS), Sewage Disposal Operational Sequencing System (SDOSS), Aviation Fuels Operational Sequencing Systems (AFOSS), Chilled Water Operational Sequencing System (CWOSS) are the fundamental references for operational training in these areas. Combat systems readiness will be facilitated by integrated casualty control training involving CSOSS, CWOSS, EOSS and ship's integrated training team.
2108. Naval Reserve Force (NRF) Readiness Criteria. NRF units are generally tasked with the same training requirements as their active duty counterparts. However, due to limited days underway with selected reservists embarked, and limited availability of inport trainers, these units may experience training degradation beyond their control. Accordingly, NRF units may complete the advanced unit phase of training without achieving C1/M1 readiness in all primary mission areas. The mission area readiness ratings listed in Figure 2-2 specifically prescribe the minimum acceptable standards for NRF units at the end of advanced training/during repetitive (proficiency) training.
Selective Minimum Readiness Standards
Mission Area CRUDES AMPHIB MIW
AMW M3 M2
CCC M3 M3 M3
MOB M2 M2 M2
Table 2-2. NRF UNIT ADVANCED PHASE READINESS
a. Ships will not normally conduct CART Phase II or tailored follow-on training prior to entering overhaul.
b. If special circumstances or a protracted period of operations following a deployment will delay the beginning of overhaul, the ship may begin CART Phase II prior to entering overhaul. In these circumstances, ships will continue to meet repetitive training requirements until 60 days before overhaul or 30 days before deactivation start. Some units may be scheduled to participate in evolutions during the 60 and 30 day pre-overhaul/pre-deactivation periods that will provide the opportunity to conduct repetitive exercises. Ships should maintain a continuing training program to ensure operational proficiency while using assets (i.e., fuel, ordnance) economically during this period.
c. Ships will maintain training readiness reporting throughout overhaul. Upon entering a pre-strike period for deactivation, ships will cease reporting.
2110. Pre-Overhaul Training and Readiness. Training emphasis during the pre-overhaul period should be focused on the following areas:
a. The Ship's Overhaul Modernization Manning and Training Information Program (SOMMTIP) should be reviewed for manning changes and training requirements generated by newly installed/modified equipment. A training plan for the overhaul period shall be developed (based on CART Phase I) to include:
(1) Shore-based combat systems team training.
(2) Formal schools training.
(3) Participation in the schoolship program, as applicable.
(4) Afloat Training Group assistance visits.
(5) Continuous training to maintain operator proficiency.
b. If possible, a formal safety survey by the Naval Safety Center should be scheduled before overhaul. Special emphasis should be given to safety training in the potential hazards and safety requirements of the industrial environment.
c. The ship shall review the Pre-Overhaul Planning Guide (PPG) and video tape training series to ensure that the ship's overhaul organization is functioning and ready to start overhaul. The PPG and video tapes will be automatically distributed to each ship several months before overhaul.
d. Quality Assurance (QA) training requirements, detailed in reference (d), shall be reviewed and appropriate training conducted.
e. It is the Navy’s policy to keep an intermediate level of maintenance capability present at sea with the operating forces. In the absence of surface tender support, increased reliance is placed on the Battle Force IMA (BFIMA) concept. Most ships have had their ROC/POE adjusted in the FSO mission area to indicate some capability to contribute to the intermediate level repair efforts.
(1) BFIMA will be strengthened through available training provided by the existing Shop Qualification Improvement Program (SQIP) and the Onboard Maintenance Training (OMT) Program referred to in reference (e). These programs have proven themselves to be highly beneficial over the years in raising unit self sufficiency and in improving accuracy of work identification if outside assistance is required.
(2) SQIP promotes quality and productivity in Intermediate Maintenance Facilities (IMAs) and large deck units by providing on-site, on-the-job, hands-on training and technical support.
(3) The OMT program provides hands-on tailored shipboard organizations (O) level maintenance training of engineering components to maintenance personnel in order to improve material readiness and self-sufficiency. The focus is primarily on ships preparing for deployment but can support other unit requests.
(4) SQIP and OMT are voluntary a wide variety of course offerings are available. Both programs are under the cognizance of Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA). To request scheduling contact ISIC with specific type training and dates as windows of opportunity for the training. ISIC will notify TYCOM and contracted provider of the training for availability of OMT course. Provider will arrange with ship’s training officer or engineer officer. List of available training will be issued via message. COMNAVSURFLANT POC is N434A, COMNAVSURFPAC POC is N435.
2111. Prerequisite Training During Major Maintenance Availabilities.
a. To meet the overall objective of the basic phase, ships must plan and accomplish as much individual and team training as possible during major maintenance availabilities. The specific training guidelines for ships in depot level major maintenance availabilities are detailed in the following subparagraphs.
(1) Formal Schools Training. The goal in each mission area should be to complete as much of the required formal schooling specified in Appendix D as possible by the end of the maintenance availability. Emphasis should be placed on individual and team training required to prepare for the initial underway period and on the completion of all school requirements to support underway training availabilities.
(a) Particular emphasis should be placed on a thorough review of the Ship's Overhaul Modernization Manning and Training Improvement Program (SOMMTIP) document produced by NAVSEA. The primary purpose of this document is to highlight manning changes and training requirements generated by equipment installed or modified during the availability.
(b) Applicable training OPORDs and checklists should be reviewed to ensure all training school requirements are completed.
(2) Watchstander/Watch Team Training. In addition to formal school team training, ships in major maintenance availabilities should explore opportunities to crossdeck individuals and teams to other operating ships, where appropriate, to support retention of operational proficiency and to correct training deficiencies. ISICs can assist in this process by formally designating a school/training ship on a rotating basis to serve as a training platform for ships in overhaul or undergoing major maintenance.
(3) Personnel Qualifications. Shipboard PQS programs should be reviewed to identify new equipment and systems that require PQS coverage, to implement PQS standards for new personnel, and to determine required watch station qualifications in preparation for propulsion plant light-off and sea trials.
The projected watchbill is a powerful management tool to validate current PQS/training levels.
(4) Shipboard Training Teams. Commanding officers should review the organization of shipboard training teams required by Chapter 3 of this manual, and take action to maintain teams for post-overhaul training. Teams must be established and functioning before the end of overhaul if critical milestones such as LOA, Crew Certification, and post-overhaul training are to be successful.
(5) Readiness Exercises. Although ships report readiness degradations via SORTS during maintenance availabilities, it is expected that some fundamental exercises will have been completed during the availability and during sea trials.
b. Crew Certification Program. The crew certification program is a two-phased inspection designed to measure the readiness of a ship as it approaches the end of the extended overhaul/modernization/conversion period. Crew certification for other ships that have not been underway for a period of six months or more is encouraged and is at the discretion of the ISIC. During the crew certification process, ships are evaluated by their ISIC (or other formally designated outside monitor) to determine whether ship's training programs are adequate to support minimum underway watch standing requirements during engineering and combat systems sea trials. Phase I of the crew certification focuses on written and oral examinations, the overall quality of the ship's training organization, and training accomplished during overhaul. Phase II consists of a shipboard evaluation of watchstanders' abilities as determined during simulated underway conditions. Where implemented, ISICs will evaluate the use of Operational Sequencing Systems as part of the crew certification program. A detailed discussion of the crew certification program for ships in an overhaul/maintenance availability is in Section 6 of this chapter. NAVSURFLANT newly commissioned ships will follow the guidance for crew certification in reference
2112. New Construction Shakedown Requirements
a. The purpose of shakedown training is to provide a ship that is safe to operate. Shakedown training occurs between commissioning and Post-Shakedown Availability, or commissioning and Combat Systems Ship Qualification Trials (CSSQT) for ships so scheduled. It forms the first step in the TSTA/FEP process leading to operational employment for new construction ships.
b. Shakedown training will comprise basic level training in the following areas:
(1) Damage control
(4) Propulsion engineering
c. Shakedown training is the responsibility of the ISIC and the ATG on the coast where the ship is constructed. The specific shakedown exercise syllabus will be determined during crew certification and will be taken from the applicable mission area TSTA I matrix in Appendix A. In the case of a new construction ship, the ATG on the coast where the ship was built will provide shakedown training; if the ship is to be homeported on the opposite coast, this training will continue until the CHOP point or convenient embark-disembark transfer point (e.g. NAVSTA RODMAN, Panama). At this point the ATG of the receiving coast will continue with shakedown training as necessary.
d. CART II may be conducted prior to sail away depending on ship and ISIC evaluation of training requirements and scheduling needs.