ENCLOSURE B (3110.01)
1. General. The JSCP implements, through the deliberate planning process, the National Military Strategy (NMS). A detailed account of the strategic setting can be found in the NMS. The summary that follows is intended to relate particular aspects of deliberate planning to that setting and strategy.
a. National Military Objectives. As specified by the NMS.
b. Regional Objectives. Enclosure E further identifies and focuses on the regional objectives. Those objectives are based on the NMS and current capabilities in order to make them both decisive and achievable.
3. Strategic Concepts. The fundamental role of the Armed Forces of the United States will remain constant: to deter war and, should deterrence fail, to fight and win our Nation's wars. Our national strategy is founded on the premise that the United States will furnish the leadership needed to enhance opportunities for global peace and security through peacetime engagement and conflict prevention. Though remnants of the former Soviet military might remain significant, improving East-West relations has shifted focus to regional threats of consequence to US vital interests and promoting stability through regional cooperation and constructive interactions with the global community. As the sizes of our active and reserve forces are prudently reduced, it is essential that the United States retain the capability to detect and respond decisively to tomorrow's challenges, including operations other than war. As cold war tensions ease, the complementary relationship grows between military activities and other elements of US national power. Using integrated regional approaches to meet US interests in different parts of the globe, our military objectives will be used in concert with economic, political, and diplomatic elements of power. The strategic concepts of overseas presence and power projection are the two primary means to integrate military objectives with our national interest in a tailored, regional way.
a. Overseas Presence. These forces, including some tailored for specific missions, perform a variety of activities that promote stability and prevent conflict. Additionally, they are a combat-ready force capable of responding to a wide range of threats throughout the world. They are visible proof of US commitment to defend our interests and support our friends and allies. Overseas presence takes the form of permanently stationed forces, routine temporary deployment, and a broad program of contingency deployment.
b. Power Projection. With fewer US forces permanently stationed overseas, we must increase our capability to project power abroad. Credible power projection complements our forward presence, and contributes to deterrence and stability. It provides great flexibility in employing military force, and provides national leaders time for consultation prior to potential crisis or conflict. It is essential for all our military and political objectives.
4. Components of the Strategy. Given the three broad ranges of tasks -- peacetime engagement, deterrence and conflict prevention, and fighting and winning wars -- our Armed Forces are engaged worldwide across the range of military activities:
a. Military-to-Military Contacts. This is one of our most effective instruments to create a more secure world. Today there are many new opportunities to forge cooperative security relationships with both former adversaries and formerly nonaligned nations. The increase in multinational operations of various types ranging from DESERT STORM to humanitarian operations is precisely the result we seek from ongoing military-to-military contacts.
b. Nation Assistance. Our military forces participate selectively in many ways to help friendly nations combat lawlessness, subversion, and insurgency. These efforts must reinforce the host nations' development, specifically, bilateral and multilateral exercises, civil-military cooperation, intelligence and communication sharing, and logistical support.
c. Security Assistance. This program involves selective use of US technology and industry to furnish our friends with the means to defend themselves from aggression and fight alongside US forces in a coalition effort. These activities help to build relationships with emerging democracies, and are a cost-effective alternative to unstable regions. This program also includes International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs.
d. Humanitarian Operations. Our forces stand ready to participate in humanitarian and disaster relief operations at home and abroad. We offer unique logistics, communication, and security capabilities. Once "up and running," military forces are withdrawn and other agencies can take over.
e. Counterdrug and Counterterrorism. Armed Forces of the United States, working in close cooperation with law enforcement agencies, will halt the flow of illegal drugs. We will also work unilaterally and in concert with our security partners to fight terrorism.
f. Peacekeeping. We remain prepared to support peacekeeping operations on a case-by-case basis. If warranted, this may include participation of combat units. When appropriate, we prefer to share these tasks with allies and friends.
g. Nuclear Deterrence. The highest priority of our military strategy is to deter a nuclear attack against our nation and our allies. A recent nuclear posture review validated our needs for the foreseeable future.
h. Regional Alliances. Our regional strategies, and global strategy of which they are a part, are built on the foundation of strong and effective alliances. Our goal of a stable, multipolar world hinges on both the ability to preserve and adapt our existing alliances to existing and anticipated challenges.
i. Crisis Response. Should our resolve to protect vital national interests be challenged, we must be able to respond rapidly with a wide spectrum of options.
j. Arms Control. Arms control efforts contribute significantly to our security by limiting and reducing the number and types of weapons that can threaten the US and by reducing regional arms buildups that can raise tensions.
k. Confidence - Building Measures. Our military forces will continue efforts to foster openness and transparency in military affairs. Implementation of the 1994 Vienna Document is a concrete example, because it includes information exchange, exercise limits and observations, and capability demonstrations.
l. Noncombatant Evacuation. The US will protect the lives and safety of our citizens when abroad. US forces, in support of the Department of State, will use appropriate means to extract Americans promptly and safely.
m. Sanctions Enforcement. Military forces are increasingly used to enforce economic sanctions resulting from national policy decisions and U.N. Security Council resolutions.
n. Peace Enforcement. On occasion, US forces may be directed to participate in peace enforcement operations that stand in the gray zone between peace and war. These efforts, interwoven with diplomatic and economic activity, involve both governmental and non-governmental agencies and may be necessary to support US global or regional interests.
o. Clear Objectives - Decisive Force. These are essential to successful military support of our nation.
p. Wartime Power Projection. If we have forces deployed to a threatened area when crisis turns to conflict, these forces will assist our allies in creating a viable defense to halt invasion and form the basis for the subsequent buildup of combat power needed to defend the aggression decisively.
q. Fight Combined and Fight Joint. While maintaining unilateral capabilities, our Armed Forces will most often fight in concert with our friends and allies.
r. Win the Information War. The remarkable leverage attainable from modern reconnaissance, intelligence collection and analysis, and high speed data processing and transmission warrant special emphasis. The Services and combatant commanders require such fused information systems that enhance our ability to dominate warfare.
s. Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Potential adversaries should recognize our capability to dominate any escalation of conflict should weapons of mass destruction be employed against us. In addition, we will maintain and strengthen our defensive systems against such weapons. We continue efforts to prevent use of WMD and make preparations to operate in environments touched by them.
t. Two Major Regional Contingency Focus. When entering any regional conflict, we will fully apply all the principles addressed above to ensure decisive victory, remaining aware of danger elsewhere. Our strategy allows us to respond decisively to a second major contingency.
u. Force Generation. We will quickly generate combat power in wartime. As our first forces react to a major crisis, we will begin actions to ensure forces are ready to meet a second crisis should it arise.
v. Win the Peace. In the wake of any major theater conflict, our forces will be ready to assist with the needs of the indigenous population. Conflict termination will be central to our planning efforts.
5. Adaptive Planning. To meet our unilateral and alliance responsibilities, the United States needs a diverse spectrum of military options. A smaller total force requires flexibility in planning, training, and employment, placing an even greater premium on maintaining and enhancing technological superiority and the high quality of our total force.
a. The end of the Cold War and profound changes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union call into question many of the traditional warning assumptions used for planning. Whatever warning time or response time is available is far more likely to be well used by key decision makers if they have a menu of options from which to choose. These options need to be pre-planned and gauged to react to a wide range of crises. This fundamental change to our military strategy is reflected in an adaptive planning process, through which planners develop multiple options keyed to specific crises.
b. Adaptive planning offers a range of preplanning options, encompassing all the instruments of national power (diplomatic, political, economic, and military) to clearly demonstrate US resolve, deter potential adversaries, and, if necessary, to deploy and employ force to fight and win, quickly and decisively.
c. The spectrum of available options confronts any opponent's leadership with uncertainty and risk should it contemplate aggression of any kind, including the use of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons.
d. The military strategy offers a framework within which the combatant commanders plan the use of military forces in their areas of responsibility and communicate their recommended military options for decision by the National Command Authorities in times of crisis. There are four general categories of operations combatant CINCs must plan for and be prepared to execute. These operations are broadly explained below and expanded in the subsequent enclosures.
(1) Employ strategic nuclear forces and strategic defenses to deter and respond to a nuclear attack.
(2) Actively employ resources day-to-day to build military and alliance readiness; foster stability; promote peace, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law; protect lives and property; help our friends, allies, and those in need of humanitarian aid. This includes evacuation of noncombatants, such as the 1990 operations SHARP EDGE in Liberia and EASTERN EXIT in Somalia in 1991 and humanitarian assistance during RESTORE HOPE in 1993.
(3) Deploy and employ forces to deter and, if necessary, rapidly and decisively resolve a regional military conflict. The 1989 Operation JUST CAUSE in Panama and the 1990-1991 Operations DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM in Southwest Asia are recent examples. Also in this category are more limited combat operations in support of national policy objectives. The 1986 raid on Libya, Operation EL DORADO CANYON, and Operation URGENT FURY in Grenada are examples.
(4) Planning is decentralized to the CINCs as much as possible. Broad policy and strategy guidance, mission assignment, and final plan review are furnished by the Secretary of Defense. The assumptions, the concepts of operations, and specific forces to be employed are determined by the CINCs and approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in close coordination with the Services and defense agencies.
6. Force Structure. The bottom up review force will have major influence on force structure and force enhancements through 2000. This structure is under constant review and will no doubt be modified to meet existing and projected requirements.
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