SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION 3110.14
MILITARY OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR (MOOTW)
1. PURPOSE. This supplemental instruction gives informational guidance to combatant commanders for planning joint operations in support of forward presence operations.
2. Forward Presence. Forward presence includes forces based overseas, periodic and rotational deployments, access and storage agreements, multinational exercises, security and humanitarian assistance, port visits, and military-to-military contacts.
a. Ways. Consistent with the NMS, forward presence operations are categorized as operational training and deployments, security assistance, protecting US citizens abroad, combating drugs, and humanitarian assistance.
b. Means. Forward presence operations depend on the collective efforts of all governmental departments and agencies. Some of the governmental agencies and international organizations that may be involved include the Department of State, Justice, and Agriculture, DEA, UN, and NATO. The US Ambassadors Country Team is the focal point for coordinating all US governmental agency actions in a particular nation. The CINC provides the theater focus and interest. The CINC also provides the regional coordination point for the various military resources employed throughout the theater and closely coordinates with the country teams to ensure unity of effort.
(1) Maritime Forces. The forward presence of maritime forces demonstrates our ability to protect our interests, expeditiously respond to crises, avoid burden sharing disputes, and project combat power in the littoral region. During a crisis, offshore presence demonstrates US interest, commitment, and power without the potential of putting land-based forces in a crisis region.
(2) Land-Based Forces. The forward presence of air and ground forces usually connotes a longer commitment in a region. The forward basing of forces and pre-positioning of equipment and supplies facilitate rapid response and enhance the capability to project forces. Forward bases and access agreement provide forward staging areas for crisis response, an in-place infrastructure, and often enhance stability.
(3) Air Forces. The forward presence of air forces usually connotes a powerful statement of commitment in a region. Air Forces are rapidly deployable and can be powerful statements of our ability to protect our interests, and expediously respond to crises. Moreover, Air Forces are excellent ways to bolster coalition partners, regional allies, or combined forces. In conjunction with Maritime Forces, Air Forces are the most expeditious means to project power in the short term.
c. Flexible Deterrent Options. Flexible deterrent options are actions to preempt or precipitate actions or reactions that may result in the protection of US interest or the promotion of US influence. FDOs may provide the means to use forward presence operations to counter instabilities when they threaten national vital interests before the only alternative is to cross the threshold from peace to conflict.
3. Planning Guidance. Forward presence operations contribute to the deliberate planning process because through the day-to-day peacetime activities various aspects of operations plans (OPLANS and CONPLANs) can be validated, procedures and plans developed or refine, and forces can become familiar with the environment in which they may have to fight.
a. CINCs are not tasked to develop operations plans for forward presence operations. However, if a CINC should desire to develop such a plan, an option is to sue the concept of a campaign plan. Campaign planning provides strategic unity of effort through which the CINC guides the planning of joint operations within their theater of operation. Campaign plans for forward presence operations may be designed to facilitate crisis response through the execution of selected flexible deterrent options developed during deliberate planning.
4. Planning Considerations. Forward presence operations may include:
a. Support for the accomplishment of theater objectives.
b. Validating plans or portions of plans tasked in the JSCP.
c. Coordinating closely with the country teams.
d. Strengthening US ties with allies.
e. Advancing military-to-military contacts.
5. Operational Training and Deployments. Many specific DOD activates are authorized by law to be carried out during operational training and deployments. Examples of these activities include humanitarian and civic assistance, special operations forces (SOF) training of foreign armed forces, and exercise-related construction. While operational training and deployments are not part of the deliberate planning process, in the long run they contribute to the accomplishment of wartime missions tasked in the JSCP.
6. Security Assistance. Security assistance, (SA) encompasses various military and economic assistance programs for allied and friendly foreign countries conducted by the United States. One of the primary methods used to carry out our foreign and national security policy is through the transfer of defense articles and services, military training, and economic assistance.
a. Security Assistance and Foreign Internal Defense. FID programs seek to help other governments free and protect their societies from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. Although SA encompasses far more than FID, it plays a major FID role through logistic assistance, training, and advisory support.
b. Programs. Generically, SA refers to the range of US programs that are authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) of 1961. The military component of SA implemented by the Department Of Defense in accordance with policies established by the Department of State has as its principal components the Foreign Military Sales, (FMS) program, The Foreign Military Financing Program (FMFP), and the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. Also included are the Excess Defense Articles (EDA) program and the special authorities that provide emergency draw downs of defense inventories. DOS directly manages the other main components of SA, including the Economic Support Fund (ESF) and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO).
c. Peacekeeping Operations.
(1) General. Military PKO support diplomatic efforts to maintain a negotiated peace or truce, covering a wide spectrum of activities. The United States normally provides observe personnel and/or logistics to support an international or multinational peace initiative requiring one of the following types of operations:
(a) Peace observation.
(b) Internal Supervision and Assistance.
(c) Monitor Terms of Protocol.
(2) Tasks. Examples of tasks peacekeeping forces may be involved in are:
(a) Supervision of Free Territories.
(b) Supervision of Cease-Fires.
(c) Supervision of Withdrawals and Disengagements.
(d) Supervision of Prisoner of War Exchanges.
(e) Supervision of Demilitarization and Demobilization.
(f) Maintenance of Law and Order.
(3) Planning Considerations for PKO
(a) Establishing clear objectives for a PKO before committing US personnel.
(b) Maintaining a neutral nonhostile posture because the success of peacekeeping is based on the perceived neutrality of the peacekeepers.
(c) Establishing clear and understandable rules of engagement.
(d) Ending the US participation in the PKO whenever any of the belligerent withdraw their consent for the presence of US personnel in the operation.
(e) Maintaining the capability for evacuation, force protection and security operations, and rapid transition to self-defense operations.
(f) Establishing clear criteria for success and PKO termination.
7. Protecting US Citizens Abroad.
a. General. NEO may be executed as a contingency operation in response to a deterioration of order or as a result of a natural disaster in a host nation. NEO categorizes are permissive, uncertain, or hostile. The goal of NEO is the protection and evacuation of American citizens, designated foreign nationals, and property.
b. Plans. The US Ambassador or Chief of Diplomatic Mission is responsible for the preparation of Emergency Action Plans (EAP) that address the evacuation of US citizens and designated aliens from a foreign country. The conduct of military operations to assist in the implementation of these EAPs is the sole responsibility of the supporting military commander.
c. Threat. Theater NEO planning is based on uncertainty--uncertainty of time, location, and condition.
d. Planning Guidance.
(1) Plan for worst case -- hostile evacuation.
(2) Incorporate the procedures developed by the chief of mission for evacuee notification, movement to assembly areas, and documentation.
(3) Integrate NEO plans with those of the country team and, where appropriate, the host nation or to other nations.
(4) Assess potential threats and our ability to conduct NEOs at various threat levels.
8. Combating Terrorism. An effective program to combat terrorism requires both offensive (counter terrorism) and defense (antiterrorism) measures. Military forces must maintain their coordinated worldwide capability to combat terrorism as outlined in the National Security Strategy and National Military Strategy.
9. Combating Drugs.
a. General. The production, distribution, and sale of illegal drugs threaten stability by endangering the legitimacy of democratic institutions, thus posing a direct threat to the security of the United States. Plans must reflect the multinational and multiagency approach to the problem. DOD efforts must be coordinated with and complement the efforts of the other US agencies and cooperating foreign governments in attacking the illegal entry of drugs into the United States. The counterdrug guidance of the Secretary of Defense establishes a 3-pronged attack against the threat and is directed at the following:
(1) Countries that are the source of the drugs.
(2) Countries that allow the transit of drugs from their source to the United States.
(3) Distribution networks in the United States.
b. DOD Missions. The National Defense Authorization Act of 1989 assigned responsibilities to the Department of Defense including:
(1) Act as single lead US agency for the detection and monitoring of aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs into the United States in support of the counterdrug activities of Federal, State, Local, and Foreign law enforcement agencies.
(2) Integrate into an effective communications network the command, control, communications, and technical intelligence assets of the United States to interdict the movement of illegal drugs into the United States.
c. Planning Guidance.
(1) Plan and conduct operations to detect and monitor aerial and maritime transit.
(2) Provide available assets to assist drug law enforcement agencies (DLEAs) responding to drug trafficking activity.
(3) Collect, process, and disseminate all-source, drug-related intelligence.
(4) Encourage and support host-nation law enforcement programs.
(5) Coordinate with other Federal agencies and/or cooperating host nations engaged in counterdrug activities.
(6) Conduct bilateral and multilateral exercises as required by negotiated agreements and treaties.
10. Humanitarian assistance.
a. General. Increasingly, US forces will be called upon to conduct humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations. Planning considerations need to include options for peace, potential hostilities, during hostilities, and post hostilities.
b. Military Capabilities for Assistance. DOD has transportation, material, special skills - logistics, medical, engineer, military police, (civil affairs, PSYOP, etc.) and personnel assets unmatched in other departments or agencies of the Federal Government. When properly applied, these resources may significantly enhance the efforts of other governmental assistance programs. Commanders of combatant commands are encouraged, where possible, to integrate humanitarian assistance activities and objectives into their forward presence operations.
c. Integrated Effort.
(1) Every effort should be made to ensure the coordination of military and civil agency efforts. Organizations that may be involved include:
(a) Host nation.
(b) Country Team.
(c) UN or other international organizations.
(d) USG agencies.
(e) Nongovernment or private volunteer and contracted organizations.
(f) Supporting CINCs.
(2) DOD involvement in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations must be requested by the Officer of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Agency for International Development (AID/OFDS, and approved by Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs) (ASD(ISA)).
(3) Disaster Relief. The Department of State is the lead agency for the USG.
d. Planning Considerations.
(1) Focusing problem resolution actions on the host nation. The US role is to help nations provide for themselves. The US military is best suited for emergency relied, not sustained assistance.
(2) Integrating military assistance objectives and missions into plans, where possible, including involvement of other USG agencies.
(3) Involving other nations, as much as possible, to show world community concern and involvement.
(4) Formulating assistance operations using the format of a phased campaign plan with a clear cutoff point. The military is best suited for humanitarian assistance and disaster relief by providing relief assistance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.
(5) Developing and maintaining the capability for conducting adequate force protection and security operations either unilaterally or with the support of the host nation.
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