CHAPTER 7

 

TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS

 

 

Section I. Overview

 

7-1. GENERAL

 

Effective transportation requires a balanced and integrated system consisting of movement control, mode operations, and terminal operations. Transportation planning requires that transportation units and assets be provided to the level required and that their operation is centrally controlled. Transportation is essential to move forces and their logistic support systems into, within, and out of an AO. One of the greatest challenges confronting today's planners is to ensure that the right mix of transportation mode operating, movement control, and terminal units arrive in the theater at the right time to support reception, onward movement, and sustainment of forces. A shortfall in any element of the transportation system reduces logistic support’s effectiveness to deployed forces. For example, if the necessary terminal organization does not service an airfield or seaport, it will create a bottleneck, thus breaking down other segments of the supply and transportation network.

 

7-2. TRANSPORTATION MISSION

 

Transportation's mission is to provide transportation services not only to the Army but also to all DOD and other Government agencies throughout the spectrum of military operations. In addition, during combined operations, US logistics may be required to support allied forces. Transportation supports the operational continuum that spans the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. Transportation activities support each level by planning, programming, and controlling movements; providing trans-portation assets; and operating terminals. Army transportation units will accompany the first combat formations that deploy into any theater to open and operate ports, discharge unit equipment and supplies, provide intratheater sealift and highway transportation, and provide onward movement of units and sustainment. Transportation Corps units will move supplies, equipment, and personnel required to sustain operations during the conflict and remain to redeploy forces. Transportation is the system of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store, maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military materiel between origin and final destination. This overview will discuss transportation operations from the strategic to the tactical levels of war.

 

7-3. TRANSPORTATION CONTINUUM

 

Transportation is a system of related but different functions that operate together to form a cohesive movements chain across the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. Strategic transportation, otherwise known as intertheater transportation, moves units, supplies, and equipment from one theater to another. It is normally associated with strategic deployment from CONUS. Operational and tactical transportation, otherwise known as intratheater transportation, is conducted within a theater of opera-tions.

 

Transportation planning is conducted continuously during peacetime. At the national level, the DOT, and its Office of Emergency Transportation, is the emergency planning and coordinating organization. Specifically, DOT prepares national emergency civil transportation policies, plans, and procedures. These plans and procedures provide for the integrated control of all modes of commercial transportation during national emergencies. They also allocate the civil transportation capacity to meet essential civil and military needs.

 

However, under both emergency and nonemergency conditions, when required to deploy forces to an AO, DOD will attempt to use normal operating procedures to obtain commercial transportation to support strategic deployment. This involves both movement from origin to POEs and strategic lift. In the event of competition for resources between DOD and the commercial sector, the JCS can recommend that DOD work with the DOT to use the Defense Production Act as the legal authority to obtain priority use of commercial transportation.

 

Section II. ASCC Transportation

 

7-4. ASCC TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION

 

Previous CSS instruction introduced CSS fundamentals and the organizations and missions of various transportation elements found in the corps and division. Regardless of echelon, transportation services are divided into three components at each echelon of command:

 

· Movement control.

· Mode operations.

· Terminal operations.

 

Various types of Army transportation units may be task organized to support operations under multi-functional or pure transportation HQ. In the ASCC, the TAMCA, its subordinate transportation battalions, and movement control teams (MCTs) perform movement control. The TA TRANSCOM conducts mode operations and terminal operations. The TA TRANSCOM and TAMCA are both major ASCCs. In the ASCC, the DCSLOG is responsible for transportation. The DCSLOG exercises staff supervision of the TAMCA and TA TRANSCOM, along with other logistic commands, to provide an integrated distribution system that supports the ASCC commander's priority of support. For specific unit capabilities, refer to FM 55-15. Figure 7-1 shows a typical ASCC transportation organization.

 

Movement control is planning, routing, scheduling, coordinating, controlling, and the intransit visibility of personnel, units, supplies, and equipment moving over LOCs and committing transportation support IAW command planning directives. Its major functions are movement programming, highway regulation, and coordinating transportation support. Staff planners, movement managers, and mode operators at each echelon conduct movement control. In the COMMZ, these are the DCSLOG, TAMCA, and TA TRANSCOM.

 

Transportation mode operations may include air, motor, rail, and inland waterway transport that TA TRANSCOM provides. At corps, corps support groups (CSGs) have subordinate multifunctional corps support battalions (CSBs) or transportation battalions tailored to meet each corps' specific support requirements. The CSBs and transportation battalions have various motor transportation units that provide support on an area basis under the movement control center's (MCC's) centralized control. To express this relationship simply, movement control consists of transportation managers and planners, while movers make up mode operations.

 

Figure 7-1. Typical transportation organization.

 

 

· Truck companies of several different designs can move large quantities of general cargo, petro-leum products, and personnel throughout the AO.

· Cargo transfer companies can work at terminals, depots, or major supply points to prepare sup-plies and equipment for transshipment to users or to distribution points.

· Terminal service companies can operate water ports and off-load ships or assist civilian operators if water ports are available.

· Watercraft companies can move large quantities of supplies along intracoastal or inland water-ways to remote areas that may not be readily accessible to motor vehicles.

 

Terminal operations include commanding and controlling operations at water terminals (established ports, beaches, and inland waterways), air terminals (Air Force and Army), intermodal terminals, and transfer points. The terminal operator (port commander) off-loads ships or aircraft and provides other necessary port services (see FM 55-17 and FM 55-60).

 

Movement control, mode operations, and terminal operations must work together to enable the transportation system to perform its mission effectively. With this in mind, we will now look at the principles of movement.

 

7-5. PRINCIPLES OF MOVEMENT

 

The principles of movement apply to all military transportation services and remain constant in peace and war. Additionally, they apply regardless of the planning level.

 

a. Centralized control/decentralized execution. Movement control will be centralized at the highest level at which it can be adequately exercised by commanders charged with providing total logistic support and monitoring the transportation system and infrastructure. This requires a focal point for transportation movement planning and resource allocation at all levels. That focal point, whether it be an individual or unit, must be constantly aware of requirements and capabilities. Decentralized execution enhances the flexibility to meet local requirements and to rapidly reprioritize support. In a unified command, this would be the unified commander assisted by the joint movement center (JMC) and/or Joint Transportation Board (JTB); in an ASCC, it would be the ASCC commander assisted by the TAMCA.

 

b. Regulated movements. Regulating transportation assets and LOC is required to prevent conges-tion and conflict of movements. This becomes even more critical if US forces must share available airfields, roads, rail lines, water terminals, and inland waterways with allied forces and host nations. Movements must not be validated, approved, or initiated if any part of the transportation system cannot meet the requirement. Movements must be regulated according to command priorities.

 

Unregulated use of a transportation system would soon lead to congestion and confusion, and it would hamper the movement of critical cargo and personnel forward in the theater. For this reason, traffic in the theater must be programmed to provide fluid movement throughout the transportation net. A movement program is a directive that allocates the available transport mode capability to satisfy the movement requirements IAW the commander's priorities. The program normally contains detailed information concerning origins, destinations, weight and cube of cargo, or types and number of personnel to be moved. If moves were not programmed, there would be no orderly interface between the transportation and supply systems.

 

Movement priorities are established IAW the commander's desires. Movement priorities combine supply and transportation priorities to provide a basis for allocating transport resources and for furnishing transportation service when requirements exceed capabilities. At the unified command level, the JTB or JMC establishes rules, regulations, and procedures for the transportation services, users, and movement agencies to use. Component and major command representatives and members resolve transportation issues and establish highway traffic regulation.

 

c. Fluid and flexible movement. The transportation system should provide an uninterrupted flow of traffic that adjusts rapidly to changing situations. It must be flexible enough to meet the changing priorities of a fluid battlefield and reallocate resources as necessary. Adjustments must be made to meet variations in wartime intensity. When forces are in the offensive, the transportation system must expand to maintain the impetus. In retrograde operations, however, the system retracts and the mode changes, and differing cargo priorities may be necessary. The operational environment, for example, would include adjustments to operate in NBC conditions and differing tactical situations that may dictate the types of convoys or controls established for motor movements. Availability and use of ports, beaches, airfields, and road and rail nets not only allow the transportation system to meet tactical changes but also provide redundancy within the net. For example, if a port is destroyed or rendered inoperative, LOTS may have to be conducted at a usable beach. Or if a major portion of a road net is not usable, the mode may have to change to rail.

 

d. Maximum use of carrying capacity. This principle involves more than just loading each transport vehicle to its optimum carrying capacity. Transport capability that is not used in 1 day cannot be stored to provide an increase in capability for subsequent days. Similarly, a situation allowing a fully loaded transport to sit idle is just as much a loss of carrying capacity as is a partially loaded vehicle moving through the system. While allowing for adequate equipment maintenance and personnel rest, planners should keep transportation assets loaded and moving as much as the tactical situation permits.

 

As requirements for transportation within a theater fluctuate, each mode must be properly used to accomplish the commander's objective. For example, air transport is employed if reaction speed is the priority. Motor transport is considered the most flexible surface mode; it provides door-to-door delivery service and an interface with all other transportation modes.

 

7-6. MOVEMENT PLAN AND PROGRAM

 

Transportation planning begins with positioning transportation units (terminal operations, mode operations, and movement control) for theaterwide support or to support specific operations. Trans-portation planners should concentrate their efforts in those areas where HNS may be readily obtained and should recognize that adequate HNS is usually restricted to those areas that have a peacetime transportation activity. HN facilities and capabilities will not necessarily correspond to the disposition of the military forces to be supported. HNS plans should not include using civilian trucking or transfer operations in the forward portion of the corps area. The available military transportation resources should be employed in the CZ supported by HN resources in the COMMZ.

 

Movement programs are the product of movement planning at all levels. They are command direc-tives the TAMCA, MCC, or movement control officer prepares. In the COMMZ, the TAMCA must coordinate with the coordinating staff (DCSLOG/DCSOPS), TAACOM, TAMMC, and other functional commands to plan an integrated distribution system. The distribution pattern at ASCC level is jointly developed, similar to the pattern accomplished at corps. The TAMCA and TAMMC begin with the general scheme of maneuver and the number and locations of troops to be supported. The movement program is used to preplan both known and anticipated transportation requirements for reception, onward movement, and sustainment. During the planning process, movement planners allocate available transportation resources to support requirements based on the commander's priorities. The steps in planning are¾

 

· Assess the distribution pattern.

· Determine requirements.

· Determine transportation capabilities.

· Balance the requirements against the capabilities.

· Determine shortfalls, critical points, and recommended solutions for handling the shortfalls.

· Coordinate the program.

· Publish and distribute the movement program.

Before the program is published, it must be distributed for coordination. At this stage, it is used for guidance and information only and does not, in any way, authorize shipments to take place. It is designed solely to keep the movement organizations, mode operators, supply managers, and other interested agencies abreast of the evolving pattern of projected logistic activity and to identify potential problems early.

 

ASCC, corps, and division movement programs should supplement each other. Division movements that the division cannot satisfy must be submitted to the corps and included in the corps program. Like-wise, the corps must submit movements it cannot accommodate to the TAMCA for inclusion in the overall theater program.

 

The movement program cannot and must not stand alone. It must be integrated into an overall distribution program. That is, for a particular movement, there must be a plan or program that designates who will load and off-load the shipment and what MHE will be required. This integration of functions into an overall program will ensure a rapid and responsive supply and transportation system.

 

The movements programming process goes beyond planning by scheduling those movement require-ments that are of a sufficient priority to warrant allocating transport capability. Transportation capability is not held in reserve; that is, transportation requirements are satisfied, in priority, to the limit of available transport. Transport requests are never denied while transport assets are available to satisfy outstanding requirements. Consequently, programmed movements may well exhaust the projected capability and leave nothing with which to meet unprogrammed movement requirements. Only subsequent changes in priority can then divert capability away from programmed requirements to unpro-grammed movement needs.

 

The foregoing applies mainly to scheduled movement planning. Unprogrammed movement require-ments do exist and are expected to be heavy in the intense combat environment. The capability to support these requirements can determine an operation's success or failure.

 

7-7. HIGHWAY REGULATION

 

Operational requirements place a severe burden on road networks. Road networks must accom-modate maneuver, tactical, and nontactical movements. Movement control planners must regulate highways to provide order, prevent congestion, and support the commander's concept of operations. Highway regulation is the responsibility of the commander exercising area jurisdiction; i.e., the ASCC, corps, and division commanders. The TAMCA, MCC, and division transportation office (DTO) perform highway regulation on behalf of their commanders.

 

Highway regulation includes planning, routing, scheduling, and deconflicting MSR use IAW com-mand priorities. It often includes interfacing with HN movement control organizations. Effective highway regulation requires that moving units exercise strict organizational control of their movements to meet start point times, en route checkpoint times, and release point times. It also requires movement control elements to carefully plan highway regulation and traffic circulation plans that support the concept of operations. During execution, movements on controlled routes that require a movement credit, large-unit movements, and movements that cross boundaries must all be scheduled.

 

Figure 7-2. Movement flow (ASCC seaport to COSCOM supply activity).

 

7-8. TRANSPORTATION MOVEMENT PROCESS

 

Movements are classified as programmed or nonprogrammed. Programmed movements in the COMMZ will consist primarily of port clearance and daily distribution from ASCC storage activities. When movement requirements are programmed as described in paragraph 7-6, subsequent requests for transportation are not required. The shipper simply contacts the servicing MCT to activate the program line number. The MCT will verify that the information contained in the program is still valid. For port clearance, the TAMCA and TAMMC receive ship or aircraft advance manifests. The TAMCA will request that the TAMMC verify the cargo's destination or provide the TAMCA with diversion instructions. The TAMCA will normally assign an MCT to both SPODs and APODs to coordinate onward movement. Options for onward movement include ground, air, inland waterway, and rail. For an example of moving cargo from an ASCC seaport to a COSCOM supply activity, see figure 7-2.

 

The MCT will coordinate transportation support at the origin and provide input to the TAMCA to maintain intransit visibility. The TAMCA will coordinate with the destination MCT in the COMMZ or the corps MCC to provide advance arrival information. When shipments cross movement control boundaries; i.e., COMMZ to corps, movement control responsibility is transferred to the destination movement control organization to coordinate delivery. The destination MCT or MCC coordinates with the receiving activity to ensure adequate material handling capability and transportation support are available for movement to the final destination. If a diversion is required, the destination MCT arranges it. The origin MCT also will pass the necessary road traffic clearances for highway movements from origin to final destination. The receiving activity must off-load the cargo at its final destination.

 

Nonprogrammed movements begin when a transportation customer has a movement requirement that has not been programmed. The customer submits a transportation request to a movement control unit. A customer is any unit or agency that has something to move. The customer must prepare the movement request as the respective theater prescribes. For example, within NATO, the prescribed format is Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2156, Surface Transport Request and Reply to Surface Trans-port Request. Whatever the format, the information included in the request must indicate points of origin and destination, detailed cargo description (packaging, complete dimensions, and weight), and loading or off-loading instructions.

 

7-9. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION

 

Figure 7-3 shows the transportation services in the COMMZ. The three significant transportation elements for the ASCC are the ASCC HQ staff, the TAMCA, and the TA TRANSCOM. At the ASCC HQ staff level, the focal point for transportation planning is the DCSLOG transportation staff element. This staff element develops broad policy guidance and provides advice to the commander and other staff elements on transportation matters. This staff section acts as the¾

 

· Transportation staff link between the ASCC and the theater JTB/JMC, the TAACOM, and the COSCOM transportation staff sections.

 

 

Figure 7-3. Transportation services in a theater of operations.

· Transportation staff adviser to, and coordinator with, other ASCC general and special staff sec-tions.

· TAMCA’s general staff supervisor.

· General staff supervisor of ASCC mode operations, and water terminal and cargo transfer opera-tions.

 

The TAMCA, an ASCC functional command, is the theater movement manager. The TAMCA carries out ASCC-level movement management responsibilities and manages theaterwide transportation assets. When dictated by geographic dispersion or span of control, transportation battalions may be assigned to regions in the COMMZ. Each region's number and size are determined by the number of customers served and the number of modes and nodes that are in place. Transportation battalions are responsible to the TAMCA for controlling and managing movement matters that take place in their respective regions. MCTs are assigned to the battalions to decentralize the execution of movement matters on an area basis or at key transportation nodes. MCTs provide transportation users the point of entry into the transportation system. FM 55-10, Movement Control in a Theater of Operations, discusses the TAMCA in detail. Figure 7-4 shows a typical TAMCA organization.

 

The TAMCA's highway traffic division regulates highway traffic. Movement regulating teams serve as its enforcement and information arm. The teams operate at locations such as critical highway

 

 

 

Figure 7-4.

points, APODs/SPODs, trailer transfer points, terminal transfer locations, first destination reporting points, and railheads. Their express purpose is to divert cargo, troubleshoot movement problems, and act as the commander's eyes and ears. Movement regulating teams enable the commander to extend his movement control capability into remote locations that may require a stand-alone operation.

 

Highway regulation must be synchronized with maneuver and battlefield circulation control plan-ning. This requires close and continuous coordination between the TAMCA, the DCSOPS, and the ASCC provost marshal. Military police (MPs), when available to support battlefield circulation control, ensure that combat personnel, equipment, and supplies move smoothly, quickly, and with little inter-ference on MSRs. The host nation, if HNS is available, may also perform traffic control to support the highway regulation plan.

 

In a multinational environment, movement control functions are performed IAW procedures agreed upon between the HN and allied forces. Maximum coordination and preplanning in peacetime for HN or allied support are required to ensure responsive wartime movement.

 

The TAMCA, in coordination with the TAMMC, establishes distribution patterns so GS activity resources and the transportation system can best be used. In determining these distribution patterns, consideration is also given to the consignor and consignee's ability to ship and receive by various modes, their total capability, their respective geographic locations, and their locations with respect to the available transportation system and the local population's safety. The corps MCC has corps highway regulating responsibilities and coordinates logistic movements into, within, and out of the corps area of responsibility. The TAMCA, however, has technical supervision over corps MCC operations to ensure overall maximum effectiveness of available transportation assets.

 

The special movement division allocates the use of scarce special purpose equipment and coordi-nates large-unit personnel and equipment movements. Consignees may be located in the COMMZ or corps areas.

 

The senior transportation mode operating HQ in the theater may be a TA TRANSCOM or composite group. It provides transportation support in the areas of mode operations, including inland waterways, rail, motor, and air; terminal services; and cargo transfer operations. The TA TRANSCOM includes those organizational elements necessary to move personnel and materiel, except bulk petroleum, from points of arrival in the theater to the CZ and intermediate destinations. The TA TRANSCOM organization is structured to permit growth as requirements increase and the theater matures. It may include transportation composite groups, motor battalions, railway operating battalions, and terminal battalions. FM 55-1, Army Transportation Services in a Theater of Operations, provides a detailed discussion of the TA TRANSCOM organization and functions. Figure 7-5 shows those elements that may be in a typical TA TRANSCOM. The TA TRANSCOM's mission is to¾

 

· Command and control transportation units and other assigned and attached units required to operate the ASCC transportation service.

· Provide staff assistance for ASCC-level transportation plans, policies, and procedures.

· Coordinate transportation service support matters with the TAMCA, ASCC major commands, and the host nation.

· Control HN transportation resources allocated to the ASCC transportation service.

 

 

 

Figure 7-5. TA TRANSCOM.

 

 

7-10. RELATIONSHIPS OF TRANSPORTATION ELEMENTS

 

The ASCC staff is involved in planning, supervising, and coordinating the theater's mission. There-fore, authority for CSS operations is normally delegated to the subordinate functional commands. The TA TRANSCOM is the functional command that plans and directs the ASCC transportation operational support requirements.

 

The TA TRANSCOM, as the principal operational transportation HQ in the theater, provides theater-wide mode operations. It may also operate terminals and transfer points. However, while the TA TRANSCOM and its subordinate units provide the mode operating equipment in the COMMZ, transportation effort planning, use, and tasking are vested in the TAMCA and its associated regional movement control battalions and MCTs. The TAMCA is the ASCC commander's primary information source for planning and controlling the transportation system's operation. It coordinates with theater transport activities and those of supply, maintenance, and personnel that are the shipping and receiving activities. The TAMCA further provides the interface of ASCC movement actions with¾

· CONUS transportation activities, particularly the MTMC, the Military Sealift Command, and the Air Mobility Command.

· TAMMC.

· USTA PERSCOM and TA TRANSCOM for moving personnel replacements.

· COSCOM transportation activities.

· HN or allied movement agencies.

· CONUS wholesale supply system agencies (AMC, DLA, and GSA).

 

7-11. OTHER TRANSPORTATION CONSIDERATIONS

 

The TAMCA must be supported by computer and communications systems that enable it to interface and communicate with activities worldwide that support moving forces and sustainment into the theater. In-theater requirements also depend on reliable communications capabilities for both voice and data transmissions. The DA Movement Management System-Revised (DAMMS-R) is the Army's transpor-tation standard system for planning, programming, coordinating, and controlling movements and trans-portation resources in the theater. The operational concept for DAMMS-R emphasizes standardized integrated transportation application modules. These modules operate in a distributed mode on multiple hardware platforms over a variety of communications interfaces to internal and external information systems.

 

The composition of the commercial maritime fleet, the national container inventory, and the large percentage of supplies capable of being containerized will result in a substantial percentage of the supplies for the TAACOM and COSCOM supply support activity being delivered in containers. Con-tainerization requires that transportation planners ensure that adequate terminal facilities, tractor power, MHE, container handling equipment, and container chassis are available. Controlling and managing containers will be at an echelon that permits theaterwide surveillance of the container inventory and centralized management of all container assets. Containerized cargo should be moved as far forward as the situation allows. Selected items of containerized class V may be throughput as far forward as the ammunition supply points in the corps rear area. Consideration in planning must be given toward unit handling capabilities for moving and storing as well as loading and unloading containers.

 

A portion of the Air Mobility Command and other theater airlift is normally allocated to the Army. The ASCC normally delegates airlift validation for using that airlift to the TAMCA that controls and allocates sorties among the several competing Army users based on priorities the theater commander establishes. The TAMCA, in coordination with the JMC, manages the allocated airlift. A portion of the Army allocation will be dedicated to CSS missions. Additionally, a portion of the Army air resources (principally medium-lift helicopter companies) may be prioritized and allocated to CSS missions. The TAMCA will also control these allocations. Airlift missions are categorized as preplanned and immediate. Preplanned missions are based on known requirements normally programmed in advance to provide sufficient time for necessary coordination and planning. Preplanned airlift is available to each component of a joint force IAW the joint force commander's priorities.

 

Airlift requirements that develop on short notice or that cannot be met by preplanned airlift are fulfilled through immediate request procedures. These immediate airlift requests most frequently result from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements that range from delivering high-priority items by individual aircraft to massive airlift support that requires maximum effort. Most frequently, immediate airlift requests are met by diverting or canceling preplanned missions. Such requests are facilitated by early notification and coordination through command channels to the joint forces commander and concurrently through ground force logistic channels. Commanders at each echelon will normally estab-lish priorities for their own units. On the joint force commander's approval or validation, the mission request is passed to the airlift control center for immediate execution. FM 100-27, US Army/US Air Force Doctrine for Joint Airborne and Tactical Airlift Operations, contains an indepth discussion of doctrine for theater airlift and joint airborne operations.