The preferred means for closing the gap in CSS requirements is to get appropriate goods and services locally. This acquisition is accomplished through foreign nation support (FNS). FNS refers to identifying, coordinating, and acquiring foreign nation (FN) resources such as supplies, materiel, and labor to support US forces and operations. In some theaters, specific terms describe categories of FNS. HNS refers to support a friendly country provides for US military operations conducted within its borders based on mutually concluded agreements. HNS includes planning, negotiating, and acquiring such support. FNS may include support from countries that have no mutual agreements.




In sustained warfare, CSS capabilities seldom meet S&S requirements. CA personnel identify and help acquire FN goods and services to support US forces and operations OCONUS. FNS helps the commander fulfill his wartime mission. It also adds to the local populace's trade and employment opportunities. Some FNS methods may not be universally applicable. FNS will also differ based on the political and military situation. Factors that influence this situation include the type and intensity of conflict, agreements to provide support, ability and willingness to provide support, and the foreign nation's degree of control over the civilian populace.


When CA personnel and CSS elements deploy early, FNS will shorten the logistics tail. Acquiring FNS requires logistics planners to identify projected shortfalls, CA planners to determine available goods and services within the theater, and negotiations for such support.


In many countries, CA elements contact businesses and government agencies directly to establish working relationships for obtaining support. In countries with territorial forces structured to support allied troops on their sovereign territory, CA elements will work through the territorial forces. Goods and services are procured through¾


· Civilian or military channels in a country that requests US troops (a host nation).

· Civilian sources in an occupied area (with proper compensation).

· Capture of enemy government-owned materiel.

· A third country that can provide such support more readily than through LOC back to CONUS.




A host nation is a nation in which representatives or organizations of another state are present because of government invitation or international agreement. The term particularly refers to a nation receiving assistance relevant to its national security. The United States views a host nation as a friendly nation that has invited US forces to its territory. HNS includes all civil and military support a nation provides to allied forces located on its sovereign territory whether during peace or war. HNS is based on agreements that commit the host nation to provide specific support according to prescribed conditions. HNS may be provided at various levels, including from nation to nation, between component com-manders, and between major commands as well as at lower command levels.


Support arrangements during peace are viable sources of HNS when authorized by formal agreement. Although preferred, a formal agreement is not necessary for obtaining HNS. The United States negotiates bilateral agreements with host nations to procure these services to support stationing and combined exercises during peace and to prepare for CSS in time of conflict. The host nation provides the types and volume of support IAW these bilateral agreements and the laws of the host nation based on its capability to provide such support. The United States and the host nation agree on reimbursement for support during the negotiation process.




The warfighting commander's priority is combat forces. Sustaining combat operations on foreign soil most likely will require additional resources. To reduce the tail of the logistics system and to better meet the need for US personnel and materiel, senior Army commanders must¾


· Determine specific CS, CSS, and rear operations needs that can be met using foreign resources.

· Assess and identify available assets to use during operations.

· Integrate this support into the overall C2 systems.

· Designate POCs at each required command level to coordinate acquiring resources during peace, during mobilization stages (transition to war), and during war.


For all levels of conflict, the commander's logistics staff determines whether there is a shortfall in CSS capabilities. The CA staff analyzes the local environment and recommends suitable FNS functions and tasks for local sources. In a developed theater, CA elements may follow regional guidance and established HNS agreements to devise a set of preplanned HNS requests. In such high-troop density environments, CA operators routinely coordinate with proper HN agencies to acquire and deliver HNS. HNS arrangements may range from an absence of any agreement to preplanned requests for specific services and supply quantities. The less developed the agreement, the more the CA element must assess and identify the resources.


For contingency operations, the commanders have limited prior information to determine suitable and desirable FNS. Since there is rarely a total lack of usable local resources, imaginative use of available FNS assets increases the commander's logistic support without unduly depriving the local populace. Airlift constraints and the local infrastructure influence the degree of reliance that can be placed on local support. Similarly, if US force projection proceeds in stages, the demands on CA acquisition of FNS will also differ. The role of the G5, S5, or civil-military officer is to identify and coordinate support acquisition from foreign resources. CA personnel in a friendly country aid the FNS process by providing liaison with local authorities or military forces.


In a developed theater, CA elements provide the single POC between US forces and the foreign source of goods and services or a government representative responsible for such support. In less-developed theaters, CA elements identify FN resources. They act as an intermediary to introduce logistics personnel to providers of goods and services. For areas in which there is no CA presence, CA area studies include assessing the availability of personnel and resources to support US operations. Without a bilateral agreement by which a foreign nation provides support to US forces, the area assess-ment becomes the primary source of information on available foreign support.


Using FNS in contingencies requires broad planning. Various situations may arise, and several countries may become involved either as coalition partners or as sources of support. Some nations will consider support agreements not in their best interests or will be incapable of administering them. In such instances, peacetime planning for local resources may still be required to accomplish missions assigned to US forces. The risk that FNS will not be available is a big factor in planning for such support.




Once resource shortfalls and requirements have been identified, CMO staff officers search out sources to fill those requirements. HN sources include government agencies and private citizens in the theater of operations. These sources may include¾


a. Government agency support. Local government agencies build, operate, and maintain facilities and systems that can support US requirements. Examples include utility and telephone networks, police, fire companies, and border patrols.


b. Civilian contractors. Local national, third-country, or US contractors employing indigenous or third-country personnel may provide supplies and services such as laundry, bath, transportation, labor, and construction.


c. Local civilians. US manpower needs range from laborers, stevedores, truck drivers, and supply handlers to more highly skilled equipment operators, mechanics, computer operators, and managers. The foreign national labor pool may provide personnel with those skills.


d. Type B US units. These units may be assigned to help perform FNS-type functions. They are configured to conserve US manpower by substituting non-US personnel in specified positions of selected units. The Korean Augmentation to the US Army Program is part of an FNS agreement in Korea and an example of a type B US unit.


e. Indigenous military units. Local military or paramilitary units can support US needs in war in functions such as traffic control, convoy escort, installation security, cargo and troop transport, and logistics area operations.


f. Local facilities. US forces may use local buildings or facilities for such things as hospitals, HQ, billets, maintenance shops, or supply. These facilities may be nationalized, come under local govern-ment control, or be provided by contractual agreement.




FNS cannot perform some activities. For security reasons and the need for US national control, only US assets will perform the following services and functions:


· Medical supply, service, maintenance, replacement, and communications C2.

· Triage casualties for evacuation.

· Veterinary subsistence inspection.

· Law and order operations (US forces).

· Control and maintain US nuclear and chemical ammunition.

· US military prisoner confinement operations.

· Account for and secure enemy prisoners of war (EPWs) retained in US custody.

· Account for medical supplies.

· Identify and bury US dead.

· Repair US nuclear weapon delivery sites.

· Patient administration.