SUSTAINING SOLDIERS AND THEIR SYSTEMS
Section I. Personnel Service Support
Sustaining soldiers and their systems includes personnel service support (PSS), health services, field services, quality of life, and general supply support. This chapter will describe the activities belonging to those logistics functions and their impact on the health, morale, and welfare of Army soldiers, civilians, and families.
9-2. PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT
PSS is defined in FM 100-5, Operations, chapter 12, as the management and execution of six personnel-related functions: personnel services, resource management, finance services, chaplaincy activities, command information services, and legal service support. PSS provides essential services to sustain the force's human dimension. These services affect the force from the human perspective,soldiers are reassured by concerned, positive leadership and a personnel system that ensures care for them while they perform their missions. These functions are usually within the purview (coordinating staff responsibility,not execution) of the tactical unit's G1/S1, although at different echelons, they may be represented by different staff officers and unit commanders. The six PSS functions are described below.
a. Personnel services. Personnel services are the products of the personnel system that provide essential services to sustain the highest possible level of readiness and essential services to soldiers, civilians, and family members to sustain the force's human dimension. The challenge of the personnel service function is to provide the postal; morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR); and essential services to sustain soldiers and civilians. FM 12-6, Personnel Doctrine, outlines the personnel system and how it fits into the Army today. Personnel functions form an integrated support system that sustains the fighting force and contributes to both national will and the soldier's will to fight.
Refer back to figure 8-1 to see the relationship of personnel services to the other tactical logistics functions. The figure also depicts the interrelationships among those personnel services that sustain soldiers and their systems.
(1) The postal operations management system operates a network to process mail and provide postal services within the AO. Processing mail involves receiving, separating, sorting, dispatching, and redirecting ordinary and accountable mail. Postal services involve selling stamps; cashing and selling money orders; providing registered, insured, and certified mail services; and handling casualty and contaminated mail. Priorities for processing mail on the battlefield are (in order): inbound official mail (accountable, then ordinary); inbound personal and "any soldier" mail (first class); outbound official mail (accountable, then ordinary), outbound first class mail, including first class casualty mail redirect; and other mail (inbound and outbound), including "any soldier" mail (other than first class).
(2) The MWR and community support system enables commanders to provide soldiers and Army civilians with recreational activities and goods and services not available through appropriated funds. For contingency operations, the MWR network provides services to the theater of operations. These are in the form of unit recreation and sports programs, mobile rest areas for brigade/division-sized units, and fixed rest areas at theater/corps level. American Red Cross representatives are available at division and higher levels to handle family emergencies. The Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) will provide mobile field exchange service in forward corps and division areas whenever the tactical situation allows. AAFES also establishes warehousing and retail operations in secure areas within the theater and corps. Contracted vendors provide goods and services wherever and whenever feasible.
(3) The essential personnel services are awards and decorations, noncommissioned officer (NCO) and officer evaluations, enlisted promotions and reductions, officer promotions, enlisted and officer transfers and discharges, identification documents, leaves and passes, line-of-duty investigations, officer procurement, and band operations. Other personnel services include general services such as voting, safety, and heraldry.
b. Personnel information management provides essential personnel information to commanders, soldiers, and families. This system integrates and distributes the information products necessary to man and sustain soldiers and their systems on the battlefield.
The Army maintains personnel information in two forms: manual and electronic. The manual personnel record consists of the official military personnel file (OMPF) and the Military Personnel Records Jacket, US Army (MPRJ). Commanders maintain individual electronic personnel records in command data bases and the MPRJ in the field. USTA PERSCOM maintains the OMPF and a larger version of the individual record within the TAPDB for Active component soldiers. The US Army Personnel Center (USARPERCEN) maintains the OMPF and the personnel data base for US Army Reserve (USAR) soldiers. The Army National Guard (ARNG) Personnel Services Division maintains the OMPF and personnel data base for ARNG soldiers.
c. Resource management (doctrinal reference: FM 14-6, Comptroller/Finance Services in Theaters of Operations). Future conflicts may vary greatly in size, intensity, and duration; therefore, resource management operations must be flexible in responding to support requirements. The resource management organization in a theater of operations should be tailored to meet rapidly changing requirements. The theater commander and HQDA will collectively tailor the resource management organization. The initial assumption in providing resource management support for an emergency operation or conflict should always be that maximum financial controls, accounting, and reporting will be required. Resource managers must prepare to deploy to the theater of operations and to provide support from the onset of hostilities.
The intensity of an operation or conflict may require that there be only minimal financial controls, accounting, or reporting. HQDA will notify MACOMs and field operating agencies when any changes occur. FM 14-6 summarizes budgeting and funding actions that may occur in emergency situations. Such actions will depend on the size, intensity, and duration of the emergency or conflict.
Two major scenarios are envisioned. The first involves committing US forces to a theater where the United States has no forward-deployed forces or a support base. This scenario requires resource managers and their staffs to deploy to the theater of operations. The second scenario involves a conflict occurring in an area where the United States maintains a forward presence and a large support base. FM 14-6 also outlines the actions involved in transferring finance and accounting functions from the theater of operations under this scenario.
d. Finance services (doctrinal reference: FM 14-7, Finance Operations). The US Army may fight in a variety of places and situations ranging from developed countries where it may oppose highly mechanized forces to remote parts of the world where it may oppose light, irregular units. Regardless of the situation, the battlefield's fluid nature requires an equally flexible finance support capability. The Finance Corps mission on the battlefield is to sustain Army, joint, and combined operations by providing timely commercial vendor and contractual payments, various pay and disbursing services, and limited accounting on an area basis. Finance units also have the implied mission to protect and defend themselves, to continue to sustain the force, and to maintain battle freedom for combat units to engage the enemy.
Finance units will support logistic and intelligence operations, soldiers, families, Department of Defense (DOD) civilians, DOD-credentialed civilians [e.g., press, United Service Organizations (USO), Red Cross, contractors], and local national employees during transition to war and during war. Further, organizations and nations will receive finance services after battle ceases and during psychological operations (PSYOP) and civil affairs missions. Finance missions can be divided into two general areas: service provided to individuals and service provided to organizations. Individual support deals with soldiers' personal entitlements. Input to the finance systems will most often come from the soldiers' battalion S1 section via the Tactical Army CSS Computer System (TACCS) and the Standard Installation/Division Personnel System (SIDPERS) or through the medical system. The Staff Judge Advocate (SJA), MP, civil affairs, and logistic units provide organizational support. Organizational support encompasses locally procuring supplies and services, paying legal claims, and paying enemy prisoners of war (EPWs).
Finance units disburse currency (cash/money) to battlefield commanders. Currency is like another class of supply, a commodity required to execute the battle. This commodity can alleviate shortages and timing problems related to procuring various classes of supply and services within the AO. Because of this, finance units can be a significant force multiplier. Therefore, finance unit commanders must be prepared to meet the twin challenges of providing support and surviving on the battlefield. Finance units,
(1) Provide support for the procurement process. The finance commander's most critical mission is to support the procurement process. While other areas (e.g., military pay, travel) often receive considerable attention, support to the logistic system is considered critical to success in battle. A large percentage of the finance units' wartime efforts may be directed toward satisfying this responsibility. This principle is divided into two areas: contract operations and commercial vendor services (CVS) operations (i.e., local purchases and imprest fund operations).
(a) Finance groups (FGs) and finance commands (FCs) conduct contract accounting operations. This includes paying for goods and services such as laundry operations, bath operations, transportation, maintenance, supply parts, class I supplements, and construction materials that have been obtained through formal contracting procedures.
(b) The finance battalion (FB) is primarily responsible for CVS operations. CVS operations are for the force's direct daily needs the standard logistic support systems cannot reasonably satisfy. CVS will be paid in cash by imprest fund cashiers, finance support teams (FSTs), and class A agents. Cash payments are usually for such items as pay for day laborers, solatium payments, class I supplements (not otherwise on contract), and purchasing construction materials not available through the contract or supply system. Such will be the case particularly for operations in immature theaters and at remote sites.
(2) Provide banking and currency support. Currency support includes supplying US currency, foreign currencies, US Treasury checks, foreign military scrip, military payment certificates, and in some operations, precious metals (gold, silver) to US forces and allies in the theater. Because of the US and allied forces' operating requirements, limited banking support may be needed. Liaison with the HN banking industry is essential due to the dependence on foreign currency.
(3) Control currency on the battlefield. Stringent controls are enforced on the amounts of US currency, military payment certificates, and foreign currencies available and used on the battlefield. This is necessary to reduce black market activities, to secure individual soldiers' money, and to help control problems related to either US or HN currency inflation.
(4) Provide essential finance service support. As hostilities commence, some of the support structure deployed abroad to support field forces will begin to change dramatically. One of these changes will be the soldier's access to "banked" personal funds. With direct deposit, this responsibility becomes even more important to the command and the soldier. When the contractor-operated banking system leaves, finance units fulfill this responsibility. Additional mission responsibilities under this principle may include assisting the soldier in family support and providing noncombatant evacuation order (NEO) advance payments. While none of these responsibilities is critical to the battle's immediate success, any one may be critical to troop morale and esprit de corps.
(5) Provide non-US pay support. Finance units provide pay support for HN employees, day labor, EPWs, and civilian internees. HN employee and day labor pay are provided through negotiated agreements with the host nation or by the FG's or FC's foreign national pay section. The local nation's civilians will receive payment in theater. Depending on the theater finance support available, accounting for this function may be transferred to a designated finance support activity (DFSA) located outside of the theater. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for (Financial Management and Comptroller) [ASA (FM&C)] must approve establishment of a DFSA.
Finance support during various levels of conflict may require task-organizing to meet requirements generated by a particular situation. Mature theaters normally consist of three echelons,theater, corps, and division. Figure 9-1 depicts typical finance units and operations within a theater. Each finance organization within the theater is explained in the following paragraphs.
!The FC commander is the theater staff finance officer. He advises the theater commander and his staff on all financial matters, commands the FC, and provides a technical communications channel for all finance and accounting activities in the theater of operations. The FC provides financial policies and procedures for the theater and will ensure quality finance support throughout the theater. The FC does not command and control FGs but does command and control assigned FBs and separate finance detachments (FDs).
!The FG is the center of finance support operations in a corps. It provides funding, commercial accounting, travel settlement, disbursing, and non-US pay services. The corps FG commander is also the corps staff finance officer. The FG commander maintains command and operational control of all finance organizations in the corps. Each FG has a number of subordinate FBs and separate FDs that provide support in the corps area. The FG coordinates with supported commands to ensure soldiers receive essential finance support.
!The FB is a corps unit under the FG's C2. The FB's primary mission is to provide finance support to the commands, units, and soldiers within a geographic area the FG commander determines. The FB is a modular TOE unit. Its size depends on the population supported. Two to six subordinate TOE units, called FDs, can be assigned to support populations from 12,000 to 36,000. A network of FBs provides finance support to all units in the corps area. FBs will typically support an area assigned to a division, separate brigade, COSCOM, or CSG. The FB may fall under C2 of the COSCOM during limited contingency operations. Once the FG deploys to the contingency theater, the FB reverts to the FG's C2.
!The FD is the basic TOE finance unit and is a C2 unit within an FB. It provides military support, CVS, disbursing/funding support, and finance database maintenance for units and personnel in the specific geographic AOR the FB commander designates. The FD can support up to 6,000 soldiers.
!FSTs are organic to an FD. FSTs provide onsite support for small populations at a distant location from the FB. To perform this onsite support, an FST will use the transportation and communication assets organic to its parent FB whenever possible. FSTs can move on the battlefield to provide finance support to units within the FB's AOR. An FST normally consists of two to five finance soldiers led by a deputy finance officer [officer or NCO, sergeant first class (SFC) or above]. An FST can perform any of the FD functions for short durations.
!The battalion S1 section and the unit clerk, in those organizations not serviced by a battalion S1 section, are the focal points where soldiers interact with the military pay system. Battalion S1 sections are the primary originators of information about soldier status and support. They are the key links among soldiers, commanders, and finance organizations. Soldier pay problems the battalion S1 section cannot solve will be handled by deploy-ing FSTs to the battalion S1 section or through communications with the FD/FB.
!As a result of hostilities, some finance and accounting functions may be retrograded to a higher echelon or performed at a DFSA. The DFSA is the primary financial support organization for the theater of operations. The DFSA's location will depend on the tactical situation and requirements in the geographic area. The TA, FC, and FG commanders will recommend where and which finance and accounting functions to transfer within a theater. The ASA(FM&C), in conjunction with the TA commander, will decide which finance functions to transfer out of the theater. There are three alternatives in locating DFSAs. They may be located,
,In the theater of operations.
,At a designated location outside of the theater AO.
,At the Defense Finance and Accounting Service,Indianapolis (DFAS-IN).
The DFAS-IN may perform retrograde finance and accounting functions in the same manner as a DFSA for a theater of operations located OCONUS when the theater's noncombatant work force is evacuated.
e. Chaplaincy activities (doctrinal reference: FM 16-5, Chaplain and Chaplain Assistant in Combat Operations). The chaplaincy's general mission is religious support that focuses on nurturing the living, caring for casualties, and honoring the dead.
(1) The chaplain. The chaplain is dual-hatted as a staff officer and a clergyman. The chaplain represents the Army as an officer and is a representative of a religious body outside of the military structure. The chaplain is a noncombatant and will not bear arms on the battlefield. One of the chaplain's main functions is to protect each soldier's right to freely exercise his religious beliefs. The chaplain advises the commander on issues of morale, morals, and ethics.
(2) The chaplain assistant. The chaplain assistant is a combatant who assists the chaplain in conducting his mission on the battlefield.
(3) The unit ministry team (UMT). The chaplain and chaplain's assistant comprise the UMT. The UMT advises the commander on soldier and unit problem areas, religious support (battle fatigue ministry, pastoral counseling, spiritual support), and key information on indigenous religious concerns in the AO. The UMT must know and understand the commander's intent (who, what, when, where) and the various phases of the operation, and have the survivability skills to support the soldiers on the battlefield.
The UMT has a general and direct religious support coverage mission. General religious support (GRS) is the religious support the UMT provides to soldiers, their families, and other authorized personnel belonging to units other than the one to which the UMT is assigned or attached. GRS is provided laterally (brigade to brigade) or from higher- to lower-echelon (division to brigade) UMTs. GRS includes denominational support for specific faith groups. Additionally, GRS UMTs can perform direct religious support missions. Direct religious support is the comprehensive religious support a UMT provides to the soldiers, their families, and other authorized personnel in its unit of assignment.
The UMT's religious support priorities vary during hostilities. The UMT must assess priority of support and the best time to perform its services without hindering the overall mission. The UMT must consider its mission before, during, and after the engagement:
(a) Before engagement, the UMT nurtures the living through site or unit visitation, pastoral counseling, and individual and group worship.
(b) During engagement, the UMT cares for casualties by collocating with the combat trains (unit aid station). During this phase, the UMT shifts its priorities to rites, sacraments, ordinances, and pastoral care for wounded soldiers.
(c) After engagement, the UMT honors those soldiers who lost their lives during battle. It conducts memorial services, denominational or patriotic, upon the commander's/soldier's request. Finally, the UMT must assist battle-weary survivors in dealing with their remorse, guilt, and grief.
f. Command information (CI) services (doctrinal reference: FM 46-1, Public Affairs). Public affairs' three principal functions are to provide CI, public information, and community relations. FM 100-5 and this ST will only discuss the CI program.
CI is the commander's responsibility. It is communication about, between, and for a commander and the members of his command. It is also acquiring, analyzing, producing, and disseminating information to soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian personnel.
The CI program's primary purpose is to motivate soldiers by helping them understand the Army, their own organization, the country in which they are assigned (if overseas), and their role. An effective CI program pays additional dividends because well-informed soldiers frequently become ambassadors of goodwill for the Army. Well-planned CI programs can be extremely effective, strengthening soldier morale and public confidence in the Army.
g. Legal services support (doctrinal reference: FM 27-1, Legal Guide for Commanders). The SJA provides legal services. Its mission on the battlefield includes,
(1) Providing legal assistance to commanders, staffs, and soldiers.
(2) Proactively assisting, guiding, and advising the leaders drafting the rules of engagement.
(3) Reviewing OPLANs, policies, and directives to ensure compliance with the DOD Law of War Program.
(4) Conducting law of war training.
(5) Advising commanders on control and regulation of war trophies, requisitioning property, combat contracting, and claims issues.
(6) Advising commanders on military justice issues, jurisdictional arrangements with the country in which US forces are being deployed, adverse administrative actions, and requests for conscientious objector status.
Section II. Health Services
9-3. COMBAT HEALTH SUPPORT
The Army Medical Department (AMEDD) plays a key role in developing and maintaining combat power. Its mission is to maintain the health of the Army to conserve its fighting strength (trained manpower). Commanders need to retain acclimated and experienced personnel to perform their particular mission. In retaining such personnel, the load on the replacement system is diminished, and the requirements for patient evacuation are decreased. On the other hand, accumulating patients within any combat unit restricts its movements. It may also reduce the soldier's willingness to take necessary risks because of a perceived lack of CHS.
9-4. CHS SYSTEM
a. Single integrated system. The CHS system is a single integrated system. It begins at the FLOT and ends in CONUS. This system entails the effective medical regulation of sick, injured, and wounded patients in the shortest possible time to the medical treatment facilities (MTFs) that can provide the required treatment. All sick, injured, and wounded patients are regulated and evacuated without regard to lateral or rear boundaries. CHS involves delineating support responsibility by geographic area. The system's effectiveness is measured by its ability to return soldiers to duty.
b. Organization of the CHS system.
The Army's CHS system in a theater of operations is organized into unit, division, corps, and EAC levels of care that extend throughout the theater. "Echelon of care" is a term used in NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2068 that can be used interchangeably with the term "level of care."
Each higher echelon of care has the same treatment capabilities as those echelons forward of it. Each echelon adds a new increment of treatment capability that distinguishes it from the lower echelons of care. The echelons of care are referred to as echelons (or levels) I through IV. Zone of interior (ZI) is level V.
The organization for all aspects of CHS is designed to be flexible. It is influenced principally by METT-T.
CHS includes providing support to organizations that do not have an organic medical capability. The CHS units required for this support are allocated based on troop strength and anticipated work load. The units are established where and when requirements indicate.
9-5. ECHELONS OF MEDICAL TREATMENT
a. Echelon I (level I) (see figures 9-2 and 9-3). The first medical care a soldier receives is provided at this echelon. This echelon of care includes,
(1) Immediate lifesaving measures.
(2) Disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) prevention.
(3) Combat stress control preventive measures.
Figure 9-2. Levels (echelons) of care/treatment.
Figure 9-3. Patient flow model.
(4) Casualty collection.
(5) Evacuation from supported units.
(6) Treatment provided by designated individuals or a medical platoon treatment squad (which operates a BAS).
Major emphasis is placed on those measures necessary to stabilize the patient and allow for evacuation to the next echelon of care. These measures include maintaining the airway, stopping bleeding, preventing shock, protecting wounds, immobilizing fractures, and other emergency measures as indicated.
Those patients who do not require a higher level of care are RTD. Either an individual (self-aid, buddy aid, combat lifesaver, or combat medic) or personnel in a treatment squad provide medical care. Immediate far forward care consists of those lifesaving steps that do not require a physician's knowledge and skill. The following different skill levels of personnel provide the care required in the forward area:
!Self-aid/buddy aid. Each soldier is trained to be proficient in a variety of specific first aid procedures. These procedures include aid for chemical casualties, with particular emphasis on lifesaving tasks. This training enables the soldier or a buddy to apply immediate care to alleviate a life-threatening situation.
!Combat lifesaver. The combat lifesaver is a member of a nonmedical unit the unit commander selects for additional training beyond basic first aid procedures. A minimum of one individual per squad, crew, team, or equivalent-sized unit should be trained. This individual's primary duty does not change. He performs the additional duties of the combat lifesaver when the situation permits. The combat lifesaver assists the combat medic by providing immediate care for injuries. Normally, medical personnel assigned to, attached to, or supporting the unit provide the training. The commander designates a senior medical person to manage the training program.
!Combat medic (aidman). This is the first individual in the CHS chain who makes medically substantiated decisions based on medical MOS-specific training. The combat medic is trained to emergency medical technician (EMT) level. The combat medic is assigned to the medical platoon or section of the HHC, the HQ and support company, or the troop of the appropriate combat or combat support battalion.
The physician and the physician's assistant (PA) in a medical platoon treatment squad are trained and equipped to perform advanced trauma management on battlefield casualties. This element also conducts routine sick call when the situation permits. Similar elements provide this echelon of care in division, corps, and COMMZ units. The medical platoons/sections of combat and combat support battalions, division medical companies, corps area support medical companies, and other corps medical units provide echelon I CHS.
b. Echelon II (level II). This echelon of care includes,
(1) Evacuating patients from echelon I medical units.
(2) Providing CHS on an area basis to units without organic medical capability.
(3) Providing care at the clearing station operated by the treatment platoon of a forward, main, or area support medical company. At this echelon of care, the casualty is examined, his wounds and general status are evaluated, and he is treated and RTD, or his priority for continued evacuation is determined. The clearing station provides CHS on an area basis to all forces within that geographic area. The clearing station normally operates in the BSA, DSA, and areas of high troop concentration in the corps rear area and COMMZ.
This echelon of support duplicates echelon I and expands available services by adding dental, laboratory, X-ray, and patient holding capabilities. Emergency care, including beginning resuscitation procedures, is continued. No general anesthesia is available. If necessary, additional emergency measures are instituted; however, they do not go beyond the measures dictated by the immediate need. Those patients who can RTD within 24 to 72 hours are held for treatment. The functions at this level are performed by medical companies organic to,
!Separate brigade support battalions.
!ACR support squadrons.
!DISCOM (heavy division) MSBs and FSBs.
!Nondivisional area support medical battalions (corps and COMMZ).
c. Echelon III (level III). This echelon of care includes,
(1) Evacuating patients from echelon I and II medical units.
(2) Providing care for all categories of casualties in an MTF with the proper staff and equipment.
(3) Providing CHS on an area basis to units without organic medical capability.
This echelon of care expands the support provided at echelon II (division level). Casualties who are unable to tolerate and survive movement over long distances will receive surgical care in a hospital as close to the division rear boundary as the tactical situation will allow. Echelon III characterizes the care provided by the mobile army surgical hospital (MASH) and combat support hospital (CSH). Tactical situations or lack of suitable terrain availability may require these echelon III units to locate in offshore support facilities, third-country support bases, or in the COMMZ. Casualties whose injuries permit additional evacuation without detriment are stabilized and evacuated to a hospital farther to the rear. Those casualties who are expected to RTD within the corps evacuation policy are retrained.
d. Echelon IV (level IV). This echelon of care includes,
(1) Evacuating patients from echelon I, II, and III medical units.
(2) Treating the casualty in a general or field hospital staffed and equipped for general and specialized medical and surgical care. This echelon of care provides further treatment to stabilize those patients requiring evacuation to CONUS.
(3) Providing CHS on an area basis to units without organic medical capability.
e. ZI (level V).
In ZI CHS, the casualty is treated in ZI hospitals staffed and equipped for the most definitive care available within the AMEDD CHS system. These hospitals include DOD MTFs, Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals, and civilian hospitals. Hospitals in the CONUS base represent the final level of CHS.
9-6. MODULAR MEDICAL SUPPORT
The modular support system facilitates common medical functions performed throughout the CZ and incorporates subunit designs (modules of personnel and equipment) to accomplish those functions. It enables the medical resource manager to rapidly tailor, augment, regenerate, or reconstitute the battlefield in areas of
critical need. The modular medical support system is built around six modules. The modules are oriented to casualty assessment/collection, treatment, and RTD or evacuation.
a. Combat medic. The combat medic module consists of one combat medical specialist and his prescribed load of medical supplies and equipment.
b. Ambulance squad. An ambulance squad is comprised of four medical specialists and two ambulances, either tracked or wheeled. The squad evacuates casualties throughout the division and ensures continuity of care en route.
c. Treatment squad. This squad consists of a primary care physician, a PA, and six medical specialists. The squad is trained and equipped to provide advanced trauma life support (ATLS) to battlefield casualties.
d. Area support squad. This squad includes one dentist trained in ATLS, a dental specialist, an X-ray specialist, and a medical laboratory specialist.
e. Patient-holding squad. This squad consists of two practical nurses and two medical specialists. It can hold and provide minimal care for up to 40 patients who will RTD. When a treatment squad, an area support squad, and a patient-holding squad are collocated, they form a treatment platoon. This platoon provides CHS on an area basis to all forces within a geographic AOR by operating a clearing station. The treatment platoon normally operates in the BSA, DSA, corps, and EAC areas.
f. Surgical squad/detachment. This module is composed of two surgeons, two nurse anesthetists, two operating room specialists, one medical/surgical nurse, and two practical nurses. It provides early resuscitative surgery for seriously wounded or injured casualties to save life and to preserve physical function. Surgical squads are organic to airborne and air assault divisions.
9-7. UNIT-LEVEL CHS (ECHELON I/LEVEL I)
a. General. In combat, acquiring and treating sick, injured, and wounded soldiers from forward locations are unit-level functions. Unit-level CHS is closely reinforced by the other levels of CHS, each providing increased medical capabilities to the patient. During noncombat periods, unit-level medical personnel operate a sick call facility; conduct MOS training; and provide instruction to nonmedical personnel in first aid, field sanitation, patient evacuation, and personal hygiene procedures.
b. Medical platoon. In maneuver battalions, the medical platoon is organic to each battalion and provides unit-level CHS to it and other units on an area basis. As an organic part of the battalion HHC, the medical platoon operates under the command of the HQ company commander.
Like the HQ's other subordinate elements, the medical platoon receives (other than class VIII) supply, trans-portation, and food service support from the battalion support platoon and maintenance support from the battalion maintenance platoon. Medical supplies (class VIII) are requested and received from the supporting forward support medical company organic to the FSB. Requests are transmitted by the fastest means available, and supplies are moved forward by requesting unit vehicles or by supporting ground or air ambulances. Medical platoon functions include,
!Establishing and operating a BAS.
!Providing aidmen to the unit's maneuver elements as required.
!Providing ground evacuation from the point of injury or illness or from predetermined collection points to the BAS.
!Supervising and directing medical operations conducted in the unit area.
The medical platoon's size varies depending on the structure of the combat or combat support unit it supports. It is composed of a medical platoon HQ, a combat medic section, an ambulance section, and a treatment squad.
9-8. DIVISION MEDICAL SUPPORT (ECHELON II/LEVEL II)
a. The division surgeon serves as a special staff officer to the division commander and normally functions under the general staff supervision of the division chief of staff. (Brigade and battalion surgeons operate under the general staff supervision of brigade or battalion XOs.) The division surgeon has primary coordinating staff responsibility with the G1.
Generally, his duties are administrative. The division commander normally charges him with full responsibility for staff supervision, including technical supervision of all unit-level medical activities in the command. He has direct access to the division commander and staff in performing his duties and advises the division commander on all medical matters.
b. The division medical operations center (DMOC) staff is responsible to the DISCOM commander for staff supervision of CHS within the DISCOM. The division surgeon exercises technical control of all medical activities within the division. The DMOC coordinates CHS according to the technical parameters the division surgeon establishes. All CHS issues and requirements are coordinated with the DISCOM units, division staff, and division surgeon before committing any CHS resources. The DMOC staff assists the division surgeon in planning and accomplishing division CHS operations. The DMOC consists of a medical operations branch, medical materiel management branch, a patient disposition and reports branch, and a medical communications branch.
c. The division medical supply office (DMSO), a section of the main support medical company organic to the MSB, operates under the control of a health service materiel officer who provides division-level medical supply support to the division's organic and attached units and supervises the biomedical maintenance specialists assigned to each medical company. He also establishes stock levels and maintains demand data on stock record systems separate from the DMMC. Requirements and replenishment may be transmitted and received using communication assets in the DMMC. The line of medical supply flow generally follows patient-evacuation channels to the maximum extent possible and practical.
d. Division MTFs.
(1) The main support medical company operates in the DSA. This company provides unit- and division-level CHS to units operating in the division rear area. The main support medical company's and the forward support medical company's treatment platoons are identical in capabilities. In addition, the main support medical company provides specialized medical services in support of the division. These services include aviation medicine, consultation, PM, mental health services, and optometry services. This company also evacuates patients from units operating in the division rear to the clearing station.
(2) One forward support medical company operates in each BSA. The treatment platoons organic to these companies provide division-level CHS to units operating in the brigade area. Patients are either treated and RTD immediately or held for treatment in a 40-cot holding facility if they are expected to RTD within 72 hours. Patients who cannot RTD within this time are evacuated to a CZ hospital for echelon III/level III treatment. The medical company's ambulance platoon evacuates patients from BASs and from units that do not have organic medical support to the clearing station operated by the medical company's treatment platoon. The ambulance platoon normally positions evacuation assets forward at BASs and evacuates patients back to the clearing station located in the BSA. Patients requiring treatment beyond the capabilities of division-level CHS may be evacuated directly from the aid station to corps-level medical facilities by aeromedical evacuation assets if the weather, tactical situation, and aircraft availability permit.
9-9. CORPS MEDICAL SUPPORT (ECHELON III/LEVEL III)
The COSCOM, unlike the DISCOM, is not a fixed organization. It is tailored to support the varying combat, combat support, and CSS elements of the force. The medical organization, whether it be a medical brigade or a medical group subordinate to the COSCOM, is tailored to provide the necessary medical evacuation, hospitalization, medical regulation, medical supply and maintenance, dental care, veterinary services, PM, and other health services required to support the corps.
The corps senior medical organization commands and controls all medical units in the corps except those organic to corps MSCs (less the COSCOM). This medical organization may be a medical brigade supporting a large corps consisting of three to five divisions or a medical group supporting a small corps consisting of only two divisions. The decision as to whether the organization is a brigade or a group depends on many factors (e.g., the mission, number of medical units in the command, or number of troops supported). The senior corps medical organization commander is also the COSCOM surgeon.
a. The medical brigade's mission is to provide command, control, administrative assistance, and technical supervision of assigned and attached medical units. Medical brigade commanders task organize medical assets to meet the patient work load. The medical assets are modularly designed by duty functions and are replicated throughout the theater of operations to meet these requirements. Medical brigades also regulate patient movements to and between assigned and attached MTFs and coordinate with the medical command (MEDCOM) and/or Joint Medical Regulating Office (JMRO) for all medical regulating for evacuation from the medical brigade MTFs to supporting MTFs in the COMMZ and CONUS.
b. The medical group's mission is to provide command, control, and administrative supervision of assigned and attached corps medical units, including area support medical battalions (ASMBs), hospitals, evacuation battalions, combat stress control companies, dental battalions, and PM detachments. The command of the assigned medical units includes coordination for employment, patient evacuation, supply and equipment management, and various other HQ requirements. This command coordination is between its units and other medical elements operating in the medical group's AOR. Medical group units may be task organized to support close, deep, and rear operations.
c. The mission of the 30-bed MASH is to provide hospitalization for patients who require far forward surgery and medical treatment to stabilize them for further evacuation. Although the MASH is an echelon III unit, it is designed to primarily function within the division rear area or in the corps rear area near the division rear boundary. The MASH provides lifesaving initial wound surgery for patients requiring stabilization before further evacuation, and preoperative and postoperative acute nursing care. A hospital unit surgical forward (HUSF) with 1 operating room and 10 beds may operate detached in a BSA or DSA for up to 48 hours.
d. The mission of the 296-bed CSH is to stabilize patients before further evacuation and to RTD those soldiers within the corps evacuation policy. This hospital can handle all types of patients and will normally be employed in the corps rear area. The CSH provides hospitalization for up to 296 patients; surgical capacity with 8 operating room tables; consultation services for patients referred from other MTFs; pharmacy, clinical laboratory, blood banking, radiology, and nutrition care services; and physical therapy support to patients.
e. The evacuation battalion commands and controls air and ground medical evacuation units within the corps. An evacuation battalion normally commands and controls three to seven ground and air ambulance companies.
f. The mission of the medical company [air ambulance (UH-1V or UH-60A aircraft)] is to provide air evacuation and support within the theater of operations. This unit provides helicopter ambulances to evacuate patients consistent with evacuation priorities and operational considerations from points as far forward as possible to division MTFs and corps-level hospitals. The air ambulance company also expeditiously delivers whole blood and biological and medical supplies to meet critical requirements; rapidly moves medical personnel; and accompanies equipment and supplies to meet the requirements for mass casualty reinforcement, reconstitution, or emergency situations. This unit also moves patients between hospitals (land-based or afloat), aeromedical staging facilities (ASFs), mobile ASFs (MASFs), seaports, or railheads in both the corps and COMMZ.
g. The mission of the medical company (ground ambulance) is to provide ground evacuation of patients within the theater of operations. This unit evacuates patients from division medical companies to corps hospitals; evacuates patients from area support medical companies to corps and EAC supporting hospitals; and moves patients between hospitals and ASFs, MASFs, seaports, or railheads in both the corps and COMMZ. The ground ambulance company also provides area evacuation support beyond the ASMB's capability and emergency movement of medical supplies.
h. The mission of the medical battalion (logistics) (forward) is to provide class VIII supplies, optical fabrication, medical equipment maintenance support, and blood storage and distribution to divisional and nondivisional units operating in the supported corps. This unit provides class VIII supply based on 10 DOS for the supported corps; DS medical equipment maintenance on an area basis; and blood processing, storage, and distribution within the corps and division medical units. Routine distribution of class VIII other than blood is via corps transportation units.
i. The ASMB provides routine health services (dispensary care), emergency care, and patient evacuation on an area basis to all corps elements that do not have organic medical resources. The ASMB provides echelon I and II CHS and medical staff advice and assistance, as required, for all assigned and attached corps and COMMZ elements. The ASMB incorporates the same modular medical support system found in the division medical structure. This battalion's secondary mission is to rapidly augment/replace standardized like modules to divisional units. The ASMB commands and controls four organic area support medical companies.
9-10. PATIENT EVACUATION
Patient evacuation is quickly and efficiently moving wounded, injured, or ill persons from the battlefield and other locations to MTFs. Medical personnel provide en route medical care during patient evacuation. Precisely planned evacuation plays an important role in the carefully designed treatment sequence from the FLOT rearward. As the echelons of care become more sophisticated from front to rear, so do the means of patient evacuation. The evacuation process continues for each person until he can be RTD or discharged from service. In keeping with the AMEDD mission, every effort is made, consistent with the evacuation policy, to rehabilitate patients and return them to duty at the lowest practicable echelon of care. Patient evacuation is the responsibility of the echelon of care to which patients are evacuated (higher evacuates from lower).
a. Medical platoons/sections conduct casualty collection and evacuation from the point of injury or illness to the BAS.
b. Forward and main support medical companies evacuate from a BAS or AOR to a clearing station located in the BSA or DSA, respectively.
c. Evacuation battalions assigned or attached to corps medical brigades/groups evacuate from clearing stations to MASHs and CSHs and move casualties between MTFs within the corps.
d. The TA MEDCOM, in conjunction with the TA TRANSCOM, evacuates from the CZ to a field or general hospital in the COMMZ or between MTFs within the COMMZ.
e. The USTRANSCOM evacuates from the COMMZ to the ZI.
9-11. EVACUATION POLICIES
The following factors affect the evacuation policy:
a. Theater evacuation policy definition. The Secretary of Defense, with the advice of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and upon the theater commander's recommendation, establishes this policy. The policy gives, in number of days, the maximum period of noneffectiveness (hospitalization and convalescence) patients may be held within the theater for treatment. The evacuation period starts when the patient is admitted to the first hospital in the corps or COMMZ hospital. This policy does not mean a patient will be held in the theater for the entire period of noneffectiveness. A patient who is not expected to RTD within the time established in the theater evacuation policy is evacuated to CONUS or some other safe haven as soon as practical. This is done when the treating physicians determine that such evacuation will not aggravate the patient's disabilities or medical condition. For example, a theater evacuation policy of 60 days does not mean a patient is held in the theater for 59 days and then evacuated. Instead, it means that a patient will be evacuated as soon as possible after it is determined he is not projected to RTD within 60 days following admission. The theater evacuation policy is based on,
(1) Nature of tactical operations,duration, magnitude, NBC, and the environment.
(2) Number and types of patients,admission rates versus geographic areas and different types of combat operations.
(3) Evacuation means. What means are available?
(4) Availability of replacements. Can CONUS replace personnel? Small-scale is different from the large-scale conflict.
(5) Availability of in-theater resources. Limiting medical resources greatly impacts the evacuation policy. The greater the limitation, the shorter the evacuation policy.
b. Corps evacuation policy definition. The corps evacuation policy establishes the maximum duration (expressed in days) of hospitalization authorized in corps medical facilities. The projected hospitalization period for a patient is computed from the date of admission to the first hospital in the medical evacuation chain. The policy does not imply that all patients are held for the maximum time. Patients who are not expected to RTD within the specified period will be evacuated out of the corps as soon as the appropriate medical authority determines that further evacuation will not aggravate the patient's injuries. Because of the impact of the corps evacuation policy on all aspects of support, both in the corps and the theater, the theater commander establishes the corps evacuation policy based on the theater surgeon's advice and the corps commander's recommendation.
c. Theater evacuation policy analysis. The theater evacuation policy impacts CHS requirements.
Short Evacuation Policy
More evacuation assets
Fewer hospital beds
Fewer RTD patients
More strain at next higher level
Decreased logistic support
Long Evacuation Policy
Fewer evacuation assets
More hospital beds
More RTD patients
Less strain on next higher level
Increased logistic support (blood, etc.)
(1) Length of the theater evacuation policy affects the number and types of MTFs in the CZ, COMMZ, and in CONUS.
(a) Short corps (intratheater) and long theater evacuation policies mean fewer CZ hospitals and more COMMZ hospitals.
(b) Short theater evacuation policy means fewer theater beds and more CONUS beds.
(c) Long theater evacuation policy means greater accumulation of patients in the theater and, therefore, demands a larger medical force structure.
(2) Medical material and maintenance requirements are affected. The longer the policy, the greater the consumption of medical material and maintenance.
(3) Hospital construction, engineer support requirements, and all aspects of base development for CHS are affected.
(a) Longer evacuation policy demands establishing a larger number of COMMZ hospitals.
(b) Regardless of the numbers, man-hours and material for construction must be considered.
(4) Evacuation requirements will be affected.
(a) Short policy places a greater demand on the US Air Force (USAF) for tactical and strategic evacuation.
(b) Longer policy places greater demand on intratheater (Army) resources.
(5) Replacements for the combat soldiers will vary.
(a) Shorter policy would increase the requirement for replacements for the rapid turnover expected, especially for combat units.
(b) Transportation for inter- and intratheater requirements must be considered.
9-12. MEDICAL LOGISTICS
a. Medical supply and maintenance. The division main support medical company provides medical supply and medical equipment maintenance for the division and any directed nondivisional units in the division area. The corps medical battalion (logistics) (forward) provides backup support to the division medical companies and provides medical supply and maintenance support to nondivisional units located in the corps rear area. Professional medical officers and trained medical logisticians conduct medical material management because of the unique medical management procedures used in handling class VIII (medical) supplies.
b. Medical resupply. The BAS resupplies the combat medic. Medical personnel handle and supervise this mission. The combat medic requests his supplies from the BAS. This action is not a formal request so it can be oral or written. The requests are delivered to the BAS by whatever means are available. Usually this is accomplished by the driver or the medic in the ambulance evacuating casualties to the BAS. The ambulance will then transport the requester's supplies forward from the BAS to the combat medic. This system is referred to as backhaul. Commonality of supplies between the combat medic and the ambulance equipment set may allow the ambulance crew to fill the combat medic's request from onboard stock. The ambulance crew can then replenish its stock upon arrival at the BAS. The BAS resupplies the combat lifesaver with class VIII material. Combat lifesavers in nondivisional units will obtain resupply support from the nearest medical unit capable of supporting them.
The forward support medical company resupplies forward-deployed BASs in a heavy division. Medical supply personnel operate a resupply point for maneuver battalion BASs based on supply point distribution. When normal transportation is not available, backhaul transportation of medical supplies using returning ambulances, both air and ground, is an alternative method of moving medical supplies to the maneuver battalions. The maneuver battalion medical platoon leader coordinates forward movement.
The DMSO resupplies heavy or light division forward and main support medical companies. The DMSO also provides medical supply support to all units within the division area as required. Requests may come by message with returning ambulances (ground or air), by land line, or through existing FM command nets within the division. Requests for medical supplies from BASs and medical companies are filled or forwarded to the supporting corps MEDLOG Bn [Forward (Fwd)]. Whenever possible, the DMSO should anticipate demands and push supplies forward based on known operational requirements. The corps MEDLOG Bn (Fwd) resupplies the DMSO.
The medical brigade HQ normally commands and controls the MEDLOG Bn (Fwd). The MEDLOG Bn (Fwd) provides medical supply, medical equipment maintenance, and optical fabrication services for units in the CZ area. It establishes class VIII supply point(s) in the corps area. The MEDLOG Bn (Fwd) coordinates with the CMCC (MCT) for shipping medical supplies forward. Air and ground ambulances can conduct emergency resupply. The MEDLOG Bn (Fwd) receives its resupply from the COMMZ MEDLOG Bn (Rear) or by direct shipments from CONUS.
9-13. OTHER CHS
a. Veterinary services. The US Army is DOD's executive agent for providing veterinary support to all services and other DOD/Federal agencies worldwide. These services include inspecting foods for wholesomeness and quality assurance, sanitary inspection of those facilities supplying foods to DOD components, comprehensive veterinary medical care for Government-owned animals, and preventing and controlling those animal diseases communicable to man. These services are in DS of logistic subsistence organizations, MP units, or civic action programs. Modular veterinary units provide the needed flexibility to meet such broad-based requirements. Other veterinary service personnel in support of battlefield operations may be assigned to civil affairs units, area medical laboratories, units employing military working dogs, or as a veterinary staff officer.
b. PM services. PM services enhance a unit's effectiveness by reducing the individual soldier's exposure to disease and environmental hazards on the integrated battlefield. These services are provided at all levels of CHS in the CZ. PM services include preventing and controlling disease vectors or pests; controlling waterborne disease, including water quality surveillance of water purification facilities; controlling foodborne disease, including surveillance of ice and dining facility supplies; and technical consultation concerning selecting and developing bivouac sites, cantonment areas, refugee camps, and EPW compounds.
c. Dental services. Providing dental services as far forward as feasible minimizes the time a soldier is away from his primary duties. Dental service is divided into three categories of care,emergency, sustaining, and maintaining. Emergency care is intended to relieve pain. Examples are using medications and simple procedures such as temporary fillings. Sustaining care provides the level of treatment necessary to keep the soldier functioning in the division area. It consists of procedures such as simple restorations and denture repairs. Maintaining care is more involved and more resource dependent and, therefore, will normally be provided at corps or TA level. Four dental officers are assigned to each division, and one dentist is assigned to each ACR, separate brigade, and special forces group.
d. Combat stress control. Sustained operations, weapons of mass destruction, and the potential for forces to become intermingled in intense conflict make temporary battle fatigue casualties inevitable. Guerrilla threats count on psychological stress to disable the defender. Mental health sections organic to division medical units are augmented by squads and sections (modules) of a combat stress control company to manage and treat battle fatigue casualties as far forward as the operational situation permits.
Section III. General Supply Support
Supplying the force is one of the major elements in logistically supporting the battle. It is the process of providing all items necessary to equip, maintain, and operate a unit. Supply operations involve storing, distribut-ing, maintaining, and salvaging supplies. Its primary purpose is to sustain soldiers and weapon systems in strategic, operational, and tactical environments on the modern battlefield.
Distribution is moving supplies from one location to another or from one unit to another. The Army uses three methods of distribution: supply point, unit, and throughput.
a. Supply point distribution. Supply point distribution is the normal distribution method for units that receive direct support from DS supply and maintenance units. Supported units use their organic transportation assets to pick up supplies at supporting supply points or maintenance units.
b. Unit distribution. Corps or theater transportation assets deliver supplies to customer units. The receiving unit is responsible for timely downloading of transportation assets. Unit distribution is the preferred method of distribution to using units and should be used whenever resources permit. It is also the standard method of distribution from GS to DS supply units.
c. Throughput. Throughput is a method of supply distribution wherein an intermediate supply source is bypassed to provide more efficient support. For example, EAC trucks bypass GS supply points to deliver directly to DS supply points. Engineer barrier material may be shipped directly from corps or theater class IV GS points to the emplacing unit or engineer supply point. The receiving unit provides timely downloading of transportation assets. This method is not automatic. It must be specified in appropriate plans and coordinated through MMC/MCC channels.
9-16. REQUISITION AND SUPPLY RESPONSIBILITIES
The supply system begins with a user submitting a request for supplies or forecast of supply requirements through supply channels until it reaches an activity capable of satisfying it. Regardless of the point at which the requisition is satisfied, the need for an item starts a chain reaction in the supply system that reaches all the way to a manufacturer in CONUS. Depots in CONUS receive items from the manufacturer and ship supplies to requesting activities as directed from NICPs.
In the theater of operations, ordering and shipping times from CONUS are major factors in determining the amount and location of supplies. Items shipped by air require less stockage in the theater than those shipped by sea because of the significant difference in travel times. Since such vital commodities as POL, ammunition, and combat rations are normally shipped by sea, these items require large stockage levels and may be held in reserve storage either in CONUS, in the theater, or afloat. Repair parts can be effectively supplied by air and require less stockage in the theater of operations.
DSUs receive, store, and issue to using units classes I, II, III(p), IV, VI, and VII and unclassified maps. DSUs are located throughout the battlefield, from the BSA to the rear of the TAACOM. Every unit on the battlefield will receive supply support from a supporting DSU on an area basis.
GSUs provide supplies to replenish DSUs and to fill nonstockage supply requests. These units are normally located in the COSCOM rear and TAACOM. Simply stated, theater GSUs are the source of supply for heavier items to the theater DSUs and the corps GSUs. The corps GSUs are the source of supply for the corps DSUs and the divisions. However, items eligible for shipment by air are shipped from the CONUS support base directly to the GSUs and/or DSUs.
9-17. MATERIEL MANAGEMENT
MMCs are the materiel managers for the units they support. They manage materiel for weapon systems, control maintenance priorities, and coordinate and control supply functions to meet supported units' operational needs. Following are the different types of MMCs found in a theater of operations:
a. DMMC, regimental MMC (RMMC), and separate BMMC. These centers manage all materiel for which their support commands (i.e., DISCOM, regimental support squadron, or FSB) are responsible except class VIII, COMSEC material, and classified maps. These centers receive and process requests for issue from the supported units' supply activities.
b. CMMC. This MMC is the central manager for the corps-level GS supply system (not to be confused with GSM which is not found in the corps). The philosophy of management is based on decentralized stockage locations with a centralized management process. The CMMC performs the functions of integrated materiel management for all corps classes of supply except class VIII, COMSEC material, and classified maps. Integrated materiel management involves requirements computation, establishing stockage levels, procurement direction and distribution, disposal, and developing guidance for maintenance priorities. It also manages all of the COSCOM maintenance activities. The CMMC accepts requisitions from the DMMC and from nondivisional DSUs. The CMMC can cross-level assets within the corps AOR. If items are not available for issue within the corps, the CMMC transfers the requisition to the TAMMC or to the CONUS NICP (also an MMC) that manages the requested item.
c. TAACOM MMC. The TAACOM MMC provides support and performs functions similar to those of the CMMC. This support is provided to units at the operational level.
d. TAMMC. The TAMMC provides inventory management functions for the entire theater. The TAMMC's focus is on distributing war reserves and managing command-controlled items. Requisitions for noncommand-controlled items are transmitted directly to an NICP with information going to the TAMMC.
9-18. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS
a. General. To be successful, supply support must be both effective and efficient. Limited resources require that supply operations be efficient. However, efficiency cannot handicap effectiveness. Five logistics characteristics facilitate effective, efficient supply operations. Foremost among these is anticipation. Command-ers and logisticians must anticipate requirements, and so must the supply system. They integrate supply concepts and operations with strategic, operational, and tactical plans. Supply operations and systems must be responsive to the commander and provide continuous support to forward-deployed forces. Finally, logisticians must improvise to expedite actions when required.
b. The strategic level of supply. At the strategic level, supply is largely the purview of the CONUS industrial and civilian sectors. National political and military leaders, as well as civilian and military suppliers and contractors, effectively combine their efforts to provision the force. This deals with mobilization, acquisition, force projection, mobility, and concentrating supply support in the theater base and the COMMZ. Strategic-level supply is the link between the nation's economic base and the military supply operations in a theater. Strategic and operational levels interface in a theater of operations.
c. The operational level of supply. Operational-level supply focuses on sustainment, supply unit deployment, and distributing and managing supplies and materiel. Contractors and civilians provide support from within as well as outside the theater of operations. In theater, contractors and DOD civilians perform specified supply support functions. Deployment and integration of forces in the theater are based on the combat commander's campaign plan. The operational level of supply encompasses that support required to sustain campaigns and major operations. It enables success at the tactical level of war.
d. The tactical level of supply. Tactical-level supply focuses on readiness and supports the tactical commander's ability to fight battles and engagements. Successful support is anticipatory and provides the right supplies at the right time and place to supported units. Major emphasis is placed on fueling the force and supporting soldiers and their systems. Mobile, responsive capabilities are essential for accomplishing the supply mission.
e. Sources of supply. The unit maintains a sustaining level of supply that is formed from the unit basic load (UBL) and PLL. This sustaining level is continually replenished by the next higher source of supply which may be the parent battalion or a DSU. The DSU converts the unit's request into a requisition and either satisfies the demand or forwards it to the supporting MMC. Each intermediate MMC is a potential source of supply, and the TAMMC overviews all of the command-controlled items throughout the theater of operations. Requisitions passed out of the theater are directed to the appropriate NICP for satisfaction.
f. Mobility of supplies. Supplies (UBL and PLL) maintained in a unit should be 100-percent mobile. DSU forward elements supporting a brigade or regiment must be able to move 90 percent of their cube within 30 minutes. The remaining 10 percent should be moved within 4 hours. All DSU rear units supporting divisions or larger combat units must be 50-percent mobile, and they must be able to move their remaining ASL cube by shuttle. GSU activities have limited capability to move their ASLs. The preferred method of relocating GSU stocks is to establish a satellite operation at the new location, have replenishment stocks redirected to the new location, and draw down stocks from the existing location.
g. Transition to war. This begins with the advanced warning of an impending war. During transition, supply support activities (SSAs) will selectively cancel requisitions that are not essential for the impending combat operation. Initially, deployed or deploying forces must rely on accompanying basic loads, war reserve stocks, and air delivery of class IX and maintenance-related class II. General supply items and routine follow-on supplies will generally be shipped by sea lines of communication (SEALOC). The future force-projection Army dictates an increased requirement for detailed preplanning due to the lessening of our reliance on forward-deployed units and pre-positioned war reserve stocks.
9-19. FLOW OF SUPPLIES AND SUPPLY REQUESTS
Requests for supplies generally flow from the user to the higher supply sources. Where possible, echelons are skipped to accelerate the rate of the request. As reporting procedures become faster and more reliable, it will be possible to better anticipate units' requirements and push the supplies to the units without the formality of requisitions and processing by intermediate management activities.
The CMMC receives requisitions from DMMCs, separate BMMCs, RMMCs, nondivision DSUs, and DSM units that issue their stockage items to customers to fill requests from supported units and to replace stockage items issued to customers. For line items available in corps GSUs, the CMMC prepares a materiel release order (MRO) directing the COSCOM GSU to issue the items. If the items are not available or not stocked in COSCOM GSUs, the CMMC transmits the requisition to the appropriate CONUS NICP for fill. The CONUS NICP ships the items directly to the GS/DS supply unit or to the ALOC-designated DSM unit specified on the requisition. For theater command-controlled items, the CMMC transmits the requisition to the TAMMC. The TAMMC will either fill requisitions or transmit them to the appropriate CONUS NICP for fill.
Supply distribution is through surface and ALOC shipment:
a. Surface shipment. Items in supply classes I, nonmissile component V, and VII and class II, III(p), and IV items that are not eligible for shipment by air are normally shipped by surface. However, depending on urgency of need and aircraft availability, some items may be shipped to an overseas theater by air. As shown by figure 9-4, surface supplies flow primarily to TA GSUs. They are issued to the corps when the TAMMC directs. Throughput of supplies to DSUs from seaports is normally restricted to nonstockage list (NSL) items. However, throughput of ASL items should occur whenever the tactical situation permits.
b. Air shipment. Classes VIII and IX, and maintenance-related class II items eligible for shipment by air that are requisitioned by ALOC-designated units are trucked from NICP storage depots to a consolidation and containerization point. From there, they are flown to ALOC-designated units. If applicable, these units break down the containerized shipments for ASL replenishment or distribution to their forward elements (see figure 9-5).
9-20. GENERAL SUPPLY SUPPORT
a. Class I. The CMMC directs subordinate GS supply companies to "push" class I supplies forward to division DS supply company class I points based on personnel strength data, task organization, unit location, type of operation, and the wartime feeding policy. Once actual strength figures are reported in personnel status reports, supported units may begin to "pull" rations forward by submitting requests for rations and ration supplement sundries packs to their supporting DS supply company class I point. Bread items are contracted from HNS or commercial contractors.
Figure 9-4. Other classes of supply,supplied by surface.
The theater is a source of supply for heavy items.
Based upon priority, items may be released from a corps GSU to a corps DSU.
If an item is not available in the corps, the request is transmitted either to the TAMMC where the item will be released from a TA GSU or to a CONUS NICP where the item will be released from a CONUS depot.
A TAMMC replenishes TA GSUs with supplies from the CONUS support base.
(1) At the corps, the supply company (GS) provides class I to the division using unit distribution. Some class I may also be provided to the division via throughput distribution from theater GS supply companies. The class I is normally shipped to the MSB S&S company in the DSA and the FSB supply company in the BSA. For nondivisional support, the GS supply company distributes class I to the supply company (DS). The supply company (DS) provides class I to area customers using supply point distribution.
Figure 9-5. Other classes of supply,supplied by ALOC.
The CONUS support base is the base of supply ALOC items.
If requirements are filled from corps, GSU replenishes requests are transmitted directly from the corps MMC to CONUS. The items are brought from CONUS to the corps GSU or DSU.
Most class IX repair parts (except high-tonnage items) and some class II items (those related to maintenance functions) are scheduled for resupply via ALOC.
(2) At the division, the MSB S&S company and the FSB supply companies operate class I distribution points in the DSA and BSA. The rations are distributed to units using supply point distribution.
b. Water. The COSCOM provides potable water supply throughout the corps by demand. Water supply to nondivision units in the corps area occurs on an area basis. Where circumstances permit, engineer utilities teams arrange for water to support units operating in fixed facilities. PM personnel must approve water sources. The COSCOM staff plans water support for operations in arid environments. The CMMC provides centralized supply management, supply data, and information on COSCOM water supply support operations.
(1) Water support requirements. The type of warfare, type of battlefield, and type of environment affect water requirements. FM 10-52 provides water consumption planning factors. Factors that will also affect water support requirements include,
!Troop density and personal hygiene requirements.
!Command policy on types of rations provided.
!Command policy on frequency of showers and laundry support.
!Requirements for chemical decontamination.
!Engineer construction requirements.
!Mortuary affairs mission duties.
(2) Engineer support. Engineer organizations identify surface water sources, drill wells, and perform water point construction support. Construction and maintenance include rigid water storage tanks, pipelines, and water utilities at fixed installations.
(3) Medical support. PM organizations approve water sources and provide routine surveillance to ensure that water quality meets appropriate standards. Water purification equipment operators analyze both untreated and treated water to ensure that purification equipment is operating properly and to verify that water is being adequately treated.
c. Classes II, III (p), and IV and maps.
(1) General. Classes II, III(p), and IV and maps represent a broad range of general supplies that are less visible than other commodities. Nevertheless, they contribute significantly to mission support. While the individual item cost is low, the total required/consumed dollar value is high. Soldiers require clothing and mission-oriented protection posture (MOPP) gear as well as individual equipment and tentage for shelter. Organizational clothing and individual equipment (OCIE) items will also be required for RTD personnel, medical patients, contractors, reporters, essential civilians, NEO family members, local nationals, and EPWs. The COSCOM staff develops policies and procedures for clothing and issue facilities, and analyzes personnel supply support operations for needed changes in the personnel supply support system.
(2) Concept of operation. While these commodities are grouped as general supplies, the ways they are authorized, managed, and obtained vary. Many items, such as clothing, tents, and office furniture, are authorized by CTA. As an example, requirements for clothing and individual equipment are based on seven climatic zones. These wide variances require the commander and the supporting supply activities to be aware of the unit's mission profiles and to ensure the right stocks are issued or on order.
(a) At the strategic level of supply, other services and the civilian sector jointly use many of the class II, III(p), and IV items. Normally, this will provide a broad base for acquisition and a capability to increase the production base. This allows the commodity commands to rely on readily available supply sources to satisfy normal and surge requirements. On the other hand, there are items, such as clothing and maps, that are unique to the military and perhaps to the Army. Managing these items is much different, and maintaining the production base is much more critical. Generally, these commodities are moved to the theater by SEALOC. This requires the extended shipping times to be incorporated into the stockage requirements. Additionally, using pre-positioned war reserves and operational project stocks must be considered for the same reasons as for major items.
(b) At the operational level of supply, the supply companies (GS) store and maintain the reserve stocks within the theater. Initially, this would encompass any allocated war reserves and operational project stocks. If the items are designated as command-controlled, the TAMMC would perform inventory management. Noncommand-controlled items would be handled using normal requisitioning procedures. Requisitions from the corps DSUs and DMMCs will be passed to the CMMCs and TAACOM MMCs. Requisitions that cannot be satisfied from GS stocks will be passed directly to CONUS. Many of the items may also be available from other in-theater sources such as HNS and the local economy. Those items must be identified to the lowest levels and full advantage taken of the resources that are readily available without placing the requirement on the Army supply and distribution system.
Many items are repairable at the operational level. Foremost is clothing and other textiles such as tents and air-delivery items. The repair capability must be considered in establishing stockage levels. Any requirements that are satisfied in the theater can offset the requirement for transportation lift from CONUS.
(c) At the tactical level of supply, the supply company (GS) is the major GS supplier for classes II, III(p), and IV and maps. It also maintains a portion of the reserve stocks. The division, brigade, and regiment supply companies/troops support forward units. The supply company (DS) supports nondivisional troops located throughout the theater. Supplies are distributed by either the supply point or unit distribution method. Although the unit distribution method is preferred, a combination is usually used to ensure the required stocks are received as expeditiously as possible. Items that are returned to the supply system must be classified and turned in for repair or disposed of. The requisition and materiel flow of classes I, II, III(p), IV, and VII is shown in figure 9-6.
(3) Planning considerations. Supply planners track the tactical situation, troop buildup, and equipment readiness. This allows them to request critical supplies without waiting on unit requests. It enables them to reorganize supply elements and request backup support for the most critical requirements. Planners must coordinate with their supporting MMC to ensure supply of items that are used sparingly or not at all in peacetime. They must also establish procedures for managing items designated as command-controlled.
Figure 9-6. Class I, II, III(p), IV, and VII requisition and materiel flow.
(4) Unclassified map supply. The Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) provides standard maps. Requisitions for maps are handled manually, both in the theater and at the DMA NICP. Corps transportation assets deliver maps to the DS supply company class II, IV, and VII points where they are distributed to using units by supply point distribution. Maps are issued to fill established map allowances or special S2/S3 requirements.
The COSCOM MMC determines map stockage policies and reserve stockage requirements. Map stockage should cover requirements for initial operational force deployment/employment and sustained operations for a defined period of time during war, mobilization, or other crisis situations. S2 intelligence staff officers in all unit HQ determine or verify map requirements in coordination with S3 operations staff officers. The S2/G2 staff officers validate requirements for small-quantity, quick-response overprinting; special maps; map supplements; photomaps; terrain-related products; or printing to support a planned operation. They forward the request to the engineer topographic production and control detachment.
These special products do not normally enter the supply system. FSBs request unclassified maps from the MSB's S&S company. The DMMC consolidates requests and transmits unclassified map requirements to the CMMC. If maps are not available at the GS general supply company's map storage site, the CMMC requisitions maps through the TAMMC from the theater map depot operated by a TAACOM map supply detachment or from DMA map storage sites in theater or in CONUS.
(5) Classified map products. Classified map products are requisitioned through command channels by exception. Operations security (OPSEC) SOPs specify classified map product requisitioning procedures. S2/G2 staff officers validate requests submitted to the CMMC for classified map products maintained at the GS-level map storage site.
Section IV. Field Services
Field services include:
!The Army field feeding system.
!Airdrop (to include parachute packing, air item maintenance, and airdrop rigging for both initial insertion and resupply operations).
!Laundry and shower support.
!Clothing and light textile repair.
A variety of units found at the tactical and operational levels of logistics,division, corps, and EAC,provide field services. Military personnel will provide the preponderance of field services support at the tactical level, with HNS or contractors providing only a limited amount. Conversely, HNS or contractors will provide a great deal of field services support at the operational level.
a. Field feeding is a basic unit function QM food service personnel perform throughout the theater of operations. Virtually every type of unit in the force structure, divisional or nondivisional, has some organic food service personnel. These personnel administer the unit's food service program as the commander directs.
b. Mortuary affairs personnel are very limited. Each division will have a small mortuary affairs element (two or three personnel) organic to the DISCOM. These personnel will train divisional personnel for the additional duties of initial search, recovery, identification, and evacuation of human remains. During hostilities, the mortuary affairs personnel organic to the division will operate the initial mortuary affairs collection point,with collecting, identifying, and returning human remains being a basic unit function. This procedure will continue until such time as the division is augmented with additional mortuary affairs personnel or a mortuary affairs unit establishes collection points in the division AO. A mortuary affairs unit assigned to the COSCOM or TAACOM will support nondivisional units at the tactical and operational levels on an area basis.
c. Airdrop. The airborne division is the only division with an organic airdrop support capability. The airborne division capability is designed primarily for preparing the division for the initial insertion into an operational area. Following insertion, the airborne division can provide its own airdrop resupply support for 10 days. At that time, the airborne division, the same as the other divisions, will receive its airdrop resupply support from a light airdrop supply company assigned to the COSCOM or a heavy airdrop supply company assigned to the TAACOM.
d. DS laundry and shower support at the tactical level will be provided by a COSCOM field service company that is able to send small teams as far forward as the FLOT but normally only sends them to division, brigade, regimental, or corps logistic support areas. Normally, a laundry and renovation company assigned to a TAACOM provides GS laundry capability. HNS and commercial contracting will be used when available to allow critical military assets to support forward.
e. There is a limited capability for minor clothing repairs in the field service company, with a larger capability in the laundry and renovation company. In addition, QM fabric repair specialists are organic to selected DSM and GSM units to repair a variety of canvas and fabrics.
f. Water purification for the division is provided by elements organic to the DISCOM. The supply company (DS) provides water purification for nondivisional elements at the tactical and operational levels on an area basis. These DS capabilities are normally sufficient for providing the requisite water in temperate regions. However, a GS capability, in the form of QM water purification detachments, will be necessary when operating in arid regions.
9-22. AIRDROP OPERATIONS
This field service is required at the outbreak of hostilities. Airdrop responsibilities are spread throughout the theater. Following are some of the major responsibilities:
a. Division. The airdrop support company found only in the airborne division is primarily responsible for supporting an airborne insertion. It provides the necessary air delivery equipment in a ready-to-use configuration and prepares division equipment for airdrop. After the division is inserted, it prepares for a second insertion by supporting recovery of airdrop equipment.
b. Corps provides airdrop support to divisions and nondivisional units. Under unusual circumstances, units at EAD may require airdrop resupply. Requirements that are beyond the corps units' capabilities are passed to the supporting TAACOM. Support for the corps normally comes from a QM light airdrop supply company and a QM airdrop equipment repair and supply company.
c. EAC. In a fully developed theater of operations, airdrop support units are required in each TAACOM. These units provide airdrop resupply to corps elements and forward areas when corps airdrop support units are unable to furnish it. The QM heavy airdrop supply company and a QM equipment repair and supply company provide this EAC support.
d. All levels. At all levels, the units receiving the airdrop resupply are responsible for recovering and initially evacuating airdrop equipment. The equipment is collected and evacuated to the nearest salvage collection point or collection and classification point. The equipment will be destroyed or buried only when the tactical situation does not permit recovery and retrograde.
There are some advantages to airdrop. Airdrop permits throughput of supplies from the corps and TAACOM area directly to the using unit even if a unit is in an otherwise unreachable area. In contingency operations where stocks have been established and prerigged, supplies can be throughput directly from CONUS or OCONUS locations. Airdrop reduces the need for forward airfields or landing zones, permits greater dispersion of ground tactical forces, and reduces delivery times. It reduces congestion at forward airfields and the need for MHE. It also provides a shorter turnaround time for aircraft than air landing, thus it increases aircraft availability.
There are also disadvantages to airdrop. Airdrop is vulnerable to enemy aircraft and ground fire. Fewer supplies and equipment can be carried for airdrop, vice air-land, because of the need to carry special airdrop equipment. Airdrop requires specially trained rigging personnel and appropriate airlift with trained crews. Adverse weather has a significant impact on airdrop operations' delivery capability and accuracy.
There are two types of airdrop request procedures,preplanned and immediate.
a. Preplanned requests are based on known or projected requirements and can be programmed in advance. Figure 9-7 shows the channels for a preplanned request. The request normally flows through logistic channels to the appropriate support level (corps or TAACOM). The MMC and MCC direct Army actions. Army respon-sibilities include moving the supplies and equipment from the storage site to the rigging site. After they are
Figure 9-7. Channels for a preplanned airdrop request.
rigged, they are moved to the supporting airfield. They should then be loaded aboard the delivery aircraft. If not loaded immediately, they are temporarily stored in a location that supporting aerial port personnel choose. Loading on Air Force aircraft is an Air Force responsibility, although Army personnel may assist. The Army submits an airlift request to the joint force commander's (JFC's) designated agent. The JFC agent validates the request, assigns a priority, and then sends it to the Air Force airlift control center (ALCC) for execution. The ALCC directs the Air Force actions.
b. Immediate airdrop requests stem from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements. These require-ments are critical for a unit to survive or complete its tactical mission. An immediate request may be filled by an immediate mission or by diverting an aircraft from a preplanned mission. These requests flow through Army operational channels to the validating authority, which saves time. When possible, the request is passed at the same time through Air Force channels. This allows maximum time to identify support aircraft and coordinate with the JFC agent.
Planning considerations are found in FM 101-10-1/2. Planning factors help determine the required force structure and aircraft requirements, airdrop work load, air delivery equipment stockage levels, and equipment recovery rates. If the required force structure is not available in the COSCOM or TAACOM, the planner should examine the appropriate time-phased force deployment list (TPFDL) to determine when forces will be available, then determine if they are committed to more than one TPFDL. One alternative to nonavailable airdrop support units would be to pre-rig critical supplies and equipment for airdrop, then store them for later delivery.
9-23. MORTUARY AFFAIRS
This is one of the most important and vital field services. Americans expect the Army to take proper care of servicemembers' remains. Traditionally, the Army has accomplished this with a level of support and respect unmatched by any other nation's military force.
(1) The Mortuary Affairs Program is a broad-based program the military services use to provide the necessary care for deceased personnel. The Joint Staff provides general guidance and policy to unified commands and military departments within DOD. Within DA, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics implements the policy and recommends force structure. The unified command develops implementation plans based on joint staff policy, the force structure, and doctrine. The US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) develops the standardized training and doctrine for the military services.
(2) All unit commanders must initially search, recover, identify, and evacuate the dead from their AO. Remains are evacuated to a designated collection point, mortuary, or burial site. The battlefield dead will be buried only when the tactical or logistic situation precludes evacuation. The authority for burial in theater is the theater CINC. All burials are considered temporary. As soon as conditions permit, buried remains will be recovered and returned according to policy.
b. Concept of operation. The Mortuary Affairs Program supports both peacetime and wartime operations. It is designed to support the battlefield in a force-projection environment under all combined/joint contingency operations. Flexibility is built into the program so theater commanders can tailor proactive support for both tactical and logistic situations.
(1) There are three subprograms of mortuary affairs:
(a) Current death provides mortuary supplies and services to permanently dispose of remains and personal effects of persons for whom the Army is or becomes responsible. It operates around the world in peacetime and may continue in areas of conflict depending on logistic and tactical situations.
(b) Graves registration provides for search, recovery, initial identification, and evacuation of remains for temporary interment. It provides for care and maintenance of those burial sites and for handling and disposing of personal effects. When hostilities end, mortuary affairs personnel exhume remains from temporary burial sites for return to CONUS or other designated location and for permanent disposition under the return-of-remains program. Next of kin may request the remains be interred in a permanent US cemetery overseas or shipped to a cemetery of their choice.
(c) Concurrent return provides for search, recovery, and evacuation of remains to a mortuary. It provides for the positive identification, embalming, and disposition of remains as the next of kin directs. It also handles and disposes of personal effects. It is activated during emergencies or major military operations when conditions and capabilities permit.
(2) Each service must provide or arrange support for deceased personnel and their personal effects. The Army provides GS to other services when their requirements exceed their capabilities. At the theater level, the prime objectives are to maintain morale; provide field sanitation; and comply with the rules of land warfare, international law, and international agreements. Remains are evacuated to port of entry mortuaries in CONUS as logistics and transportation permit. Otherwise, temporary burials are performed within the theater. The theater commander determines which of the mortuary affairs subprograms to use to support the tactical and logistic situations.
(3) Collection points, located throughout the theater on an area support basis, receive and process remains (see figure 9-8). Then, depending on the subprogram in effect, the remains and personal effects are
Figure 9-8. Wartime concept of operation for theater mortuary affairs.
evacuated to CONUS or temporarily interred. Personal effects are processed along with the remains to the theater effects depot. Mass fatalities involving US and allied forces require emergency war burial procedures outlined in Quadripartite Standardization Agreement (QSTAG) 665 and STANAG 2070. Historically, insufficient mortuary personnel are available in the early stages of hostilities. This shortage usually requires field command-ers to use combat, combat support, and CSS personnel to handle remains.
(4) Either a mortuary affairs collection company or a graves registration company is normally attached to the S&S battalion of the rear CSG. The graves registration company can process and inter up to 204 remains per day, while the mortuary affairs collection company can process and evacuate up to 400 remains per day. The mortuary affairs units can also operate in DS of contingency operations and task forces.
(5) In the division, the DSA and BSA mortuary affairs facility is the mortuary affairs collection point. These collection points receive and evacuate remains with personal effects but have limited capability to search for and recover remains. They move to support the maneuver elements. Mortuary affairs collection points employed in the DSA can be attached to the DISCOM. Those employed in the BSA can be under the FSBs' operational control. Each collection point can process approximately 20 remains per day. Commanders will use any available means of transport to evacuate remains to the mortuary affairs activity in the rear. Evacuation responsibility is from lower to higher. For swift, successful evacuation, commanders must coordinate closely with the MCC for transportation.
(6) In the corps, area collection points and/or temporary burial sites are established as needed. Remains are evacuated from forward collection points to rearward, main collection points where they are further evacuated to the rear by air and surface transportation. Depending on the program in effect, the remains will be interred or further evacuated to CONUS or a forward-deployed mortuary in a third country. Personal effects are transported to the personal effects depot.
c. Planning considerations.
(1) During special operations and operations other than war, mortuary affairs support should be planned to begin on day 1. In a theater, the Joint Mortuary Affairs Office (JMAO) provides guidance, planning, coordination, and staff supervision of the overall theater Mortuary Affairs Program for all services.
(2) Due to its sensitivity, mortuary affairs requires intense command involvement. Logistic units operating the mortuary affairs facilities must handle deceased personnel from the collection point to the port of embarkation. Close communication and command involvement at all levels ensure the necessary controls are provided throughout the chain of command.
9-24. LAUNDRY, SHOWER, AND CLOTHING AND LIGHT TEXTILE REPAIR
These services are projected from the tactical and operational levels as far forward as the brigade area. The goal is to provide soldiers with two showers per week. However, the current force structure is only equipped and manned to provide one shower per soldier weekly. The second shower would be provided by field expediency, small-unit shower equipment, and HNS or contract operations. An additional goal is to provide soldiers up to 15 pounds of laundered clothing per week. In this process, the tactical laundry will return soldiers' laundry within 24 hours.
(1) The QM field service company (FSC) (DS) primarily provides tactical field services to division and nondivisional personnel from the corps area to the FLOT. This includes shower, laundry, limited clothing repair, and delousing. It is normally assigned to a CSB in the COSCOM.
(2) The CSH and MASH both have organic equipment to support their patient loads. Hospital staff personnel are supported by the FSC in their AO.
b. Concept of operations. The concept has been developed around the FSC (DS). The FSC normally operates at the tactical level of logistics in the corps forward or division area as far forward as METT-T allows. Maximum use of HNS will augment the FSC capability to provide support as required to support forces to the rear. The FSC is modular by design, with an HQ and five SLCR sections. The SLCR sections are 100-percent mobile, capable of supporting 500 soldiers per day, and may be deployed to support a brigade-sized element. Soldiers arrive at the shower point dirty, with their dirty clothing for turn in and clean clothing to change into. They can take their showers and turn in dirty laundry and clothing in need of minor repair. When medical personnel have determined that mass delousing is required, the operations are conducted in conjunction with shower operations.
c. Planning considerations. This is an extremely limited resource in the Army force structure so advance planning is important. Site selection should allow for plenty of clean water, proper drainage, gentle sloping terrain, good roads, and natural cover and concealment. The general planning factor for hot, cold, and temperate climates is 6.5 gallons per soldier per day for laundering clothing and 3 gallons per soldier per day for showers.
9-25. WATER PURIFICATION
Water operations were covered earlier as a supply item, but it is also a field service.
a. Responsibilities. The Army coordinates policy and procedures for joint plans and requirements for all DOD components that are responsible for water resources in support of land-based forces in contingency operations. The Army ensures that coordinated plans for technological research and development and equipment acquisitions meet DOD goals and that duplicative efforts are resolved. Each service provides its own water resource support. However, the Army or another service will provide support beyond a service's capability in a joint operation.
Within the theater, the TA commander controls water and distributes it to US Army forces, to other US services, and, as required, to allied support elements. The senior engineer HQ and its subordinate organizations must find subsurface water; drill wells; and construct, repair, maintain, and operate permanent and semipermanent water facilities. They also assist QM water units with site preparation when required. The command surgeon performs tests associated with water source approval, monitors potable water, and interprets the water testing results.
Medical command or corps PM personnel are primarily responsible for water quality monitoring. Water supply units perform routine testing.
b. Concept of operations. Water support in a theater of operations is provided at two levels,DS and GS. QM units normally provide water using supply point and limited unit distribution. In most regions of the world, surface water is readily available and normal DS capabilities are sufficient to meet requirements. In an arid environment, available water sources are limited and widely dispersed. Surface fresh water is almost nonexistent, and the availability of subsurfacd water varies within geographic regions. The lack of water sources mandates extensive storage and distribution. GSUs provide this capability.
(1) Strategic level. Because of the scarcity of potable water in Southwest Asia, water support equipment is pre-positioned afloat to provide initial support to a contingency force. Additional water equipment is available in CONUS depots to sustain operations. Most of the equipment is packaged for tactical transportability and configured to allow for throughput to the user with minimal handling in the theater of operations.
(2) Operational level. In an operation where surface water is abundant, the QM supply company (DS) provides water on demand. During the early stages of the operation, combat forces may be required to provide water until CSS units arrive. In arid regions where there is no sufficient water source, GS water systems are established. The petroleum group or area support group commands and controls all GS water assets. The water supply battalion commands two to six water supply companies, purification detachments, and transportation medium truck companies dedicated to water line-haul. Corps truck companies augmented with semitrailer-mounted fabric tanks (SMFT) line-haul potable water throughout the theater. GS purification detachments and teams and DS water elements produce all potable water required within the theater.
Water supply companies are assigned to the force to establish and operate bulk storage and distribution facilities. Arrival in theater is such that the water distribution system expands with growth of the theater and provides adequate support to tactical operations. Tactical water distribution teams are assigned to water supply companies, as required, to augment capabilities for hose line distribution. Potable water is distributed to terminals within the TA area and forward into the corps.
(3) Tactical level. DS water elements provide potable water by supply point and limited unit distribution. Water supply points are established as far forward as possible depending on the location of available water sources, consuming units, and the commander's tactical plan. The most forward location is normally the BSA. Supported units draw water from supply points using organic transportation. Water purification elements draw and purify water from ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wells, and local water systems. When water elements are unable to meet user requirements, they request assistance from higher HQ. See figure 9-9 for DS operations and figure 9-10 for GS operations.
Figure 9-9. DS water support in nonarid regions.
Figure 9-10. GS water support in arid regions.
Corps QM DS supply companies provide nondivisional water support on an area basis. The water supply section is structured to operate three water points. Each point can produce as much as 3,000 gallons of potable water per hour and store up to 30,000 gallons. The unit also delivers water to major users unable to support themselves and establishes mobile supply points. Water elements provide divisional water support on an area basis. The division or brigade/ACR establishes procedures and allocations for subordinate units. The division MSB water section establishes water points in the DSA and each BSA. The division, as well as the separate brigade and ACR, has enough water production and distribution capabilities to allow it to be self-supporting under normal conditions. Water element capabilities vary according to the modified tables of organization and equipment (MTOE). FM 10-52 has more detail on unit capabilities.
In arid regions, GS water units are allocated to the corps to supplement DS water elements. Because of the lack of sufficient water sources, treated water will most likely be transported from the TA area via hose line, pipeline, or tanker truck to terminals operated by GS water supply companies. Terminals range in capacity from 400,000 to 1,600,000 gallons and store a portion of the theater reserve. In GS operations, divisions are augmented with storage and distribution systems to provide for 1 DOS on the ground in both the DSA and BSA.
9-26. FIELD FEEDING
Class I has already been covered. The encompassing program that covers class I support is Army field feeding operations, a field service. The shift to a force-projection Army has imposed requirements for more mobility, responsiveness, and flexibility on Army field operations. The new Army Field Feeding System,Future (AFFS-F) is designed to meet these requirements for current and future Army operations. The AFFS-F improves Army field feeding operations; provides efficiency in labor, water, and fuel requirements; and increases mobility.
a. AFFS-F feeding standard. The standard is that soldiers will be fed three quality meals daily. When units deploy under combat conditions or in support of contingency plans, they will initially consume the MRE. As the theater matures and METT-T allows, soldiers will also consume a variety of group feeding rations. The commander should not authorize A-ration meals until static and mobile refrigeration is available to safely move them through the system until they are consumed.
b. Rations. Rations are packaged as individual or group meals. The MRE is the general individual operational ration. The individual meal is best suited for intense levels of combat when soldiers are in transit, in movement to contact, or in convoy. It is supplemented with an individual ration heating device and is issued for consumption in situations where it is not feasible to use a prepared group ration. The group meals (T-, B-, or A-rations) or the new unitized group meal are best used when units are located in more stable or uncontested regions on the battlefield or in the AO. Group meals can be prepared using either heat-and-serve (T-rations) or full-scale raw food preparation methods. Group rations require more time and resources (water, fuel, labor) to prepare and serve.
c. Bread. Bread or bread-like components are essential parts of Army field feeding. When using the MRE, pouch bread will be the primary source for bread. It will always be the initial source for bread on the battlefield. As the tactical and logistic situations permit, the HNS or commercial vendors may provide fresh bread. HNS and commercial contracting will be the primary source of bread.
d. Equipment. There are several items in the Army inventory used to support AFFS. They range from individual pieces of equipment, such as the canteen cup stand, to items designed to support entire units such as large field kitchens. The two primary systems remain the mobile kitchen trailer and the kitchen, company-level field-feeding.
Section V. Quality of Life
Ensuring quality of life is a command responsibility. Quality of life and family considerations affect every soldier's readiness and willingness to fight. Effective personnel services, health services, general supply support, and field services ease immediate soldier concerns. The soldier fights best who is reassured that his loved ones are adequately cared for at home station, especially when units deploy from forward-presence locations. The family supports the soldier best when it is assured that the soldier is appropriately cared for. Accurate and timely delivery of mail enhances the quality of life of the soldier in the field. CI provided to family members must be as timely and accurate, especially in an age of instant communications in which a soldier's friend may be sharing news about a loved one in almost real time. There is a direct relationship between adequate, well-thought-out soldier and family quality of life programs, soldier morale, and combat effectiveness.