FM 101-5-1
Operational Terms and Graphics

Chapter 1


tactical air control party (TACP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft.

tactical air liaison officer (TALO) - An Air Force officer who works at the division or higher rear command post G4 section and facilitates the coordination of cargo aircraft. He maintains information on runway availability, cargo handling capability, and the location of brigade medical treatment facilities and landing areas. See FMs 71-100-1/2/3 and 100-15.

tactical air operation (JP 1-02) - An air operation involving the employment of air power in coordination with ground or naval forces to: a. gain and maintain air superiority; b. prevent movement of enemy forces into and within the objective area and to seek out and destroy these forces and their supporting installations; and c. join with ground or naval forces in operations within the objective area, in order to assist directly in attainment of their immediate objective. (See also air interdiction (AI), allocation, apportionment, close air support (CAS), and counterair.)

tactical air reconnaissance - See air reconnaissance.

tactical ballistic missile (TBM) predicted ground impact point (PGIP) - An elliptical area that indicates where a TBM most likely will strike the ground. This area varies in size based on the known or suspected accuracy of the TBM if it functions normally. (See also theater missile defense (TMD).) See FM 44-100.

tactical combat force (TCF) (JP 1-02) - A combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat service support assets, that is assigned the mission of defeating Level III threats. (See also rear area response forces.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

tactical command post (TAC CP) - The forward echelon of a headquarters. The TAC CP consists of representatives from G/S2, G/S3, fire support, tactical air control party, air defense artillery engineers, and combat service support liaison (G/S1, G/S4) elements. It is located well forward on the battlefield so that the commander is near subordinate commanders and can directly influence operations. At division level, the TAC CP is normally located within FM radio range of the committed brigades. (See also command post (CP).) See FM 101-5.

tactical control (TACON) (JP 1-02) - The detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. (Army) - Tactical control allows commanders below combatant command level to apply force and direct the tactical use of logistics assets but does not provide authority to change organizational structure or direct administrative and logistical support. See FMs 1-111, 31-20, 71-100, 100-15, and 101-5.

tactical intelligence (JP 1-02) - Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting tactical operations. (See also intelligence and combat intelligence.) See FM 34-1, 34-2, 34-3, and 34-130.

tactical level of war (JP 1-02) - The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces. Activities at this level focus on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives.

tactical minefield (JP 1-02, NATO) - A minefield which is part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to delay, channel, or break up an enemy advance (Army) - Minefield employed to directly attack enemy maneuver and to give the defending element a positional advantage over the attacker. See FM 20-32.

tactical movement - A movement or maneuver to contact with the enemy or during which contact is anticipated. In a tactical movement, elements are organized to facilitate combat. (See also administrative movement.) See FM 100-15.

tactical obstacles (JP 1-02) - Those obstacles employed to disrupt enemy formations, to turn them into a desired area, to fix them in position under direct and indirect fires, and to block enemy penetrations. (See also obstacle.)

tactical operations center (TOC) (JP 1-02) - A physical groupment of those elements of an Army general and special staff concerned with the current tactical operations and the tactical support thereof. (See also command post (CP).)

tactical road march - A rapid movement used to relocate units within a combat zone in order to prepare for combat operations. Although contact with enemy ground forces is not anticipated, security against air attack, enemy special forces, and sympathizers is maintained and the unit is prepared to take immediate action against an enemy threat. (See also march column, march serial, and march unit.) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 55-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

tactical task - The specific activity to be performed by the unit while conducting a form of tactical operation or a choice of maneuver. It is also the action verb within the mission statement. (See also mission statement and operation order (OPORD).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

tactics (JP 1-02) - 1. The employment of units in combat. 2. The ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other and/or to the enemy in order to use their full potentialities. (Army) - tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) - 1. Tactics - the art and science of employing available means to win battles and engagements. 2. Techniques - the methods used by troops and/or commanders to perform assigned missions and functions, specifically, the method of employing equipment and personnel. 3. Procedures - the standard and detailed courses of action that describe how to perform a task. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

tailor - To task-organize forces for the accomplishment of a specific mission.

tanker airlift control element (TALCE) - A composite organization tailored to support tanker and airlift missions at the aerial port of embarkation, en route, and at the aerial port of debarkation (APOD). It assumes control of all resources at the loading ramp area ready line and relinquishes control at the APOD. (See also aerial port of debarkation (APOD), aerial port of embarkation (APOE), and airborne operation.) See FMs 55-12, 71-100, 71-100-2, 71-100-3, 90-26, and 100-15.

target (JP 1-02) - 1. A geographical area, complex, or installation planned for capture or destruction by military forces. 2. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed. 3. An area designated and numbered for future firing. 4. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst which hits the target. (NATO) In radar, any discrete object which reflects or retransmits energy back to the radar equipment, or the object of a radar search or surveillance. See FM 44-100. (Army) - An object, vehicle, individual, and so forth, which is the aiming point of any weapon or weapon system. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

target acquisition (JP 1-02, NATO) - The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. (See also target analysis.) See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

target analysis (JP 1-02, NATO) - An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. (See also target acquisition.)

target array (JP 1-02) - A graphic representation of enemy forces, personnel, and facilities in a specific situation, accompanied by a target analysis.

target box - Areas designated on identifiable terrain in which enemy targets are expected to appear and against which air support will be employed. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

target concentration (JP 1-02, NATO) - A grouping of geographically proximate targets. (See also target and group of targets.)

targeted area of interest (TAI) - The geographical area or point along a mobility corridor where successful interdiction will cause the enemy to either abandon a particular course of action or require him to use specialized engineer support to continue, where he can be acquired and engaged by friendly forces. Not all TAIs will form part of the friendly course of action; only TAIs associated with high-payoff targets are of interest to the staff. These are identified during staff planning and wargaming. TAIs differ from engagement areas in degree. Engagement areas plan for the use of all available weapons; TAIs might be engaged by a single weapon.

targeting (JP 1-02) - 1. The process of selecting targets and matching the appropriate response to them, taking account of operational requirements and capabilities. 2. The analysis of enemy situations relative to the commander's mission, objectives, and capabilities at the commander's disposal, to identify and nominate specific vulnerabilities that, if exploited, will accomplish the commander's purpose through delaying, disrupting, disabling, or destroying enemy forces or resources critical to the enemy.

target list (JP 1-02) - The listing of targets maintained and promulgated by the senior echelon of command; it contains those targets that are to be engaged by supporting arms, as distinguished from a "list of targets" that may be maintained by any echelon as confirmed, suspected, or possible targets for informational and planning purposes. See FM 6-series and 7-90.

target of opportunity (JP 1-02) - 1. A target visible to a surface or an air sensor or observer which is within range of available weapons and against which fire has not been scheduled or requested. 2. nuclear - A nuclear target observed or detected after an operation begins that has not been previously considered, analyzed, or planned for a nuclear strike. Generally fleeting in nature, it should be attacked as soon as possible within the time limitations imposed for coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

target-oriented method - A method of nuclear analysis used when detailed target information is available. It gives the best estimate of the effects that the weapon will probably have on the target. See JPs 3-12.2 and 3-12.3.

target overlay (JP 1-02, NATO) - A transparent sheet which, when superimposed on a particular chart, map, drawing, tracing or other representation, depicts target locations and designations. The target overlay may also show boundaries between maneuver elements, objectives, and friendly forward dispositions. See FMs 6-series and 101-5.

target reference point (TRP) - An easily recognizable point on the ground (either natural or man-made) used to initiate, distribute, and control fires. TRPs are designated by maneuver leaders from platoon through battalion to define battalion, company, platoon, section, squad, or individual sectors of fire and observation usually within an engagement area. TRPs can also designate the center of an area where the commander plans to distribute or converge the fires of all his weapons rapidly. TRPs are designated using the standard target symbol and numbers issued by maneuver commanders. Once approved by the battalion fire support officer, TRPs can be designated as indirect fire targets using the standard target symbol with letters and numbers issued by the fire support officer. (See also engagement area (EA), principal direction of fire (PDF), and sector of fire.) See FMs 6-series, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, 17-15, 17-9 and 23-1.

target signature (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The characteristic pattern of a target displayed by detection and identification equipment. 2. In naval mine warfare, the variation in the influence field produced by the passage of a ship or sweep.

task force (TF) (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A temporary grouping of units, under one commander, formed to carry out a specific operation or mission. 2. Semipermanent organization of units, under one commander, formed to carry out a continuing specific task. 3. (Army) - A battalion-sized unit of the combat arms consisting of a battalion control headquarters, with at least one of its major organic subordinate elements (a company), and the attachment of at least one company-sized element of another combat or combat support arm. (See also task organization.) A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a task fleet or higher authority for the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

task organization (JP 1-02) - 1. In the Navy, an organization which assigns to responsible commanders the means with which to accomplish their assigned tasks in any planned action. 2. An organization table pertaining to a specific naval directive. (Army) - A temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a particular mission. It is the process of allocating available assets to subordinate commanders and (establishing) determining their command and support relationships. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

technical control (TECHCON) - The authority a controlling element has to control all technical aspects of other unit operations.

technical intelligence (TECHINT) (JP 1-02) - Intelligence derived from exploitation of foreign materiel, produced for strategic, operational, and tactical level commanders. Technical intelligence begins when an individual service member finds something new on the battlefield and takes the proper steps to report it. The item is then exploited at succeedingly higher levels until a countermeasure is produced to neutralize the adversary's technological advantage. (See also intelligence, and scientific and technical intelligence.)

tempo - The rate of military action; controlling or altering that rate is a necessary means to initiative. All military operations alternate between action and pauses as opposing forces battle one another and fight friction to mount and execute operations at the time and place of their choosing. See FM 100-5.

terrain analysis (JP 1-02, NATO) - The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of geographic information on the natural and man-made features of the terrain, combined with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of terrain on military operations. See FMs 34-3 and 34-130.

terrain flight (JP 1-02, NATO) - Flight close to the Earth's surface during which airspeed, height, and/or altitude are adapted to the contours and cover of the ground in order to avoid enemy detection and fire. See FM 1-111.

terrain following - Terrain flying that includes low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth flight techniques. See FMs 1-111 and 100-103.

terrain management - 1. The process of allocating terrain by establishing areas of operation, designating assembly areas, and specifying locations for units and activities to deconflict activities that might interfere with each other, for example, ensuring artillery firing units are not placed within air corridors. 2. In rear operations, the process includes grouping units together to form bases, and designating a base cluster as necessary. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-3, 7-30, 71-100, and 100-15.

terrain reinforcement - The development of terrain using obstacles to degrade enemy mobility or to enhance friendly survivability through the construction of fighting positions and cover. (See also countermobility operations and survivability operations.)

terrorism (JP 1-02) - The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. (See also antiterrorism (AT) and counterterrorism (CT).) See FM 100-20.

terrorist (JP 1-02) - An individual who uses violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve a result. See FM 100-20.

terrorist threat condition (THREATCON) (JP 1-02) - A Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-approved program standardizing the Military Services' identification of and recommended responses to terrorist threats against US personnel and facilities. This program facilitates inter-Service coordination and support for antiterrorism activities. There are four THREATCONs above normal: a. THREATCON ALPHA - This condition applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities, the nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of THREATCON BRAVO measures. However, it may be necessary to implement certain measures from higher THREATCONs resulting from intelligence received or as a deterrent. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained indefinitely. b. THREATCON BRAVO - This condition applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities. c. THREATCON CHARLIE - This condition applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel and facilities is imminent. Implementation of measures in this THREATCON for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peacetime activities of the unit and its personnel. d. THREATCON DELTA - This condition applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely. Normally, this THREATCON is declared as a localized condition. (See also antiterrorism (AT).) See FM 100-20.

theater (JP 1-02) - The geographical area outside the continental United States for which a commander of a combatant command has been assigned responsibility. See FMs 100-5 and 100-7.

theater airlift (intratheater airlift) - The movement of personnel and materiel by aircraft within a theater of operations that provides air movement and delivery of combat troops and supplies directly into objective areas through airlanding, extraction, airdrop, or other delivery techniques; the use of air transport in direct support of airborne assault, carriage of air transported forces, tactical air supply, evacuation of casualties from forward airfields, and special operations. See FMs 8-10-6, 100-5, and 100-17.

theater missile (TM) (JP 1-02) - A missile, which may be a ballistic missile, a cruise missile, or an air-to-surface missile (not including short-range, non-nuclear, direct-fire missiles, bombs, or rockets such as Maverick or wire-guided missiles), whose target is within a given theater of operation. See FM 44-100 and JP 3-01.5.

theater missile defense (TMD) - Applies to the identification, integration, and employment of forces supported by other theater and national capabilities, to detect, identify, locate, track, minimize the effects of, or destroy enemy theater missiles (TMs). This includes the destruction of TMs on the ground and in flight, their ground-based launchers and supporting infrastructure; TM-capable ships and vessels in port or at sea; and enemy aircraft armed with air-to surface missiles. TMD comprises four pillars necessary for a complete TM defense: passive defense, active defense, attack operations, and C4I measures. See FM 44-100 and JP 3-01.5.

theater missile defense system - Applies to a system or systems with applicable capabilities that may be used to support passive defense measures, active defense measures, attack operations capabilities, and the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence and countermeasures required to counter the missile threat. See FM 44-100.

thermal crossover (JP 1-02) - The natural phenomenon which normally occurs twice daily when temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of contrast between two adjacent objects on infrared imagery. See FMs 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

thermal radiation (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The heat and light produced by nuclear explosion. (DOD) 2. Electromagnetic radiations emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence of its temperature; it consists essentially of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiations. See JPs 3-12.2 and 3-12.3.

thorough decontamination (JP 1-02, NATO) - Decontamination carried out by a unit, with or without external support, to reduce contamination on personnel, equipment, materiel and/or working areas to the lowest possible levels, to permit the partial or total removal of individual protective equipment, and to maintain operations with minimum degradation. This may include terrain decontamination beyond the scope of operational decontamination. (See also decontamination, immediate decontamination, and operational decontamination.) See FM 3-5.

throughput (JP 1-02) - The average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a ship or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port complex. Throughput is usually expressed in measurement tons, short tons, or passengers. Reception and storage limitation may affect final throughput. See FM 100-10.

throughput distribution - The bypassing of one or more intermediate supply echelons in the supply system to avoid multiple handling. See FM 100-10.

time of attack (JP 1-02) - The hour at which the attack is to be launched. If a line of departure is prescribed, it is the hour at which the line is to be crossed by the leading elements of the attack. (See also H-hour.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

time of flight (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, the time in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or weapons system to the instant it strikes or detonates. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) (JP 1-02) - The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System data base portion of an operation plan; it contains time-phased force data, nonunit-related cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the operation plan, including: a. In-place units. b. Units to be deployed to support the operation plan with a priority indicating the desired sequence for their arrival at the port of debarkation. c. Routing of forces to be deployed. d. Movement data associated with deploying forces. e. Estimates of nonunit-related cargo and personnel movements to be conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces. f. Estimate of transportation requirements that must be fulfilled by common-user lift resources, as well as those requirements that can be fulfilled by assigned or attached transportation resources. See JP 5-0.

time-phased force and deployment list (TPFDL) (JP 1-02) - Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan. It identifies types and/or actual units required to support the operation plan and indicates origin and ports of debarkation or ocean area. It may also be generated as a computer listing from the time-phased force and deployment data.

time on target (TOT) (JP 1-02) - 1. Time at which aircraft are scheduled to attack/photograph the target. 2. The actual time at which aircraft attack/photograph the target. 3. The time at which a nuclear detonation is planned at a specified desired ground zero. See FM 6-series.

time zone - A geographical area having the exact same time (clockwise). These areas are designated from east to west from ZULU time or Greenwich Mean Time and expressed by a letter of the alphabet.

tolerance dose (JP 1-02) - The amount of radiation which may be received by an individual within a specified period with negligible results.

topographical crest - Highest point of a hill, ridge, or mountain. (See also military crest.) See FM 21-26.

topographic map (JP 1-02) - A map which presents the vertical position of features in measurable form as well as their horizontal position. See FM 21-26.

total asset visibility (TAV) - The ability to identify the location of equipment, supplies, or personnel during in-processing and while in transit or in storage. See FM 55-12.

total mobilization. See mobilization.

toxinagent (JP 1-02) - A poison formed as a specific secretion product in the metabolism of a vegetable or animal organism as distinguished from inorganic poisons. Such poisons can also be manufactured by synthetic processes. See FM 3-9 and 3-100.

track (JP 1-02) - 1. A series of related contacts displayed on a plotting board. 2. To display or record the successive positions of a moving object. 3. To lock onto a point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom. 4. To keep a gun properly aimed, or to point continuously a target-locating instrument at a moving target. 5. The actual path of an aircraft above, or a ship on, the surface of the Earth. The course is the path that is planned; the track is the path that is actually taken. 6. One of the two endless belts on which a full-track vehicle runs. 7. A metal part forming a path for a moving object, e.g., the track around the inside of a vehicle for moving a mounted machine gun.

tracking (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. Precise and continuous position-finding of targets by radar, optical, or other means. (DOD) 2. In air intercept, a code meaning, "By my evaluation, target is steering true course indicated."

trafficability (JP 1-02, NATO) - Capability of terrain to bear traffic. It refers to the extent to which the terrain will permit continued movement of any and/or all types of traffic. See FMs 5-36, 34-3, and 34-130.

traffic control post (TCP) - A place at which traffic is controlled either by military police or by mechanical means. See FMs 17-95, 19-1, 55-10, 55-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 100-40.

trailer transfer point - A location where trailers are transferred from one carrier to another while en route. (See also logistics release point (LRP).) See FM 55-30.

trail party - The last march unit in a march serial, usually consisting of priority maintenance and recovery vehicles. See also unit maintenance collection point (UMCP). See FM 63-2.

train - 1. A service force or group of service elements which provides logistic support, that is, the vehicles and operating personnel which furnish supply, evacuation, and maintenance services to a land unit. 2. Bombs dropped in short intervals or sequence. (See also unit trains, combat trains, and field trains.) See FMs 17-95 and 71-123.

traveling - A movement technique used when speed is necessary and contact with enemy forces is not likely. All elements of the unit move simultaneously with the unit leader located where he can best control his unit. (See also movement technique.) See FM 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 17-95, 17-98, and 71-1.

traveling overwatch - A movement technique used when contact with enemy forces is possible. The lead element and trailing element are separated by a short distance which varies with the terrain. The trailing element moves at variable speeds and may pause for short periods to overwatch the lead element. It keys its movement to terrain and the lead element. The trailing element overwatches at such a distance that should the enemy engage the lead element, it will not prevent the trailing element from firing or moving to support the lead element. (See also movement technique.) See FM 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 17-95, 17-98, and 71-1.

traverse (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. To turn a weapon to the right or left on its mount. 2. A method of surveying in which lengths and directions of lines between points on the earth are obtained by or from field measurements, and used in determining positions of the points. (Army) - To move across terrain. See FMs 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

triage (JP 1-02, NATO) - The evaluation and classification of casualties for purposes of treatment and evacuation. It consists of the immediate sorting of patients according to type and seriousness of injury, and likelihood of survival, and the establishment of priority for treatment and evacuation to assure medical care of the greatest benefit to the largest number. See FM 8-series.

trigger - 1. Event or time-oriented criteria used to initiate planned actions directed toward achieving surprise and inflicting maximum destruction on the enemy. 2. A designated point or points (selected along identifiable terrain) in an engagement area used to mass fires at a predetermined range.

troop safety (nuclear) (JP 1-02) - An element which defines a distance from the proposed burst location beyond which personnel meeting the criteria described under degree of risk will be safe to the degree prescribed. (Army) - It is expressed as a combination of a degree of risk and vulnerability category. (See also emergency risk (nuclear), negligible risk (nuclear), unwarned exposed, and warned protected.) See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

true azimuth - Direction measured as an angle to the east of the north star (Polaris). (See also azimuth.) See FM 21-26.

true north (JP 1-02, NATO) - The direction from an observer's position to the geographic North Pole. The north direction of any geographic meridian. See FM 21-26.

turn - A tactical obstacle effect that integrates fire planning and obstacle effort to divert an enemy formation off one avenue of approach to an adjacent avenue of approach, or into an engagement area. See FM 90-7.

turnaround (JP 1-02, NATO) - The length of time between arriving at a point and being ready to depart from that point. It is used in this sense for the loading, unloading, refueling and rearming, where appropriate, of vehicles, aircraft, and ships. See FMs 1-111 and 55-30.

turning movement (JP 1-02, NATO) - A variation of the envelopment in which the attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemy's rear to force the enemy to abandon his position to divert major forces to meet the threat. (See choices of maneuver.)

turret-down - Fighting position in which the entire vehicle is behind cover, but the commander can still observe to the front from the turret hatch or cupola. (See also hide and hull down.) See FMs 7-8, 7-91, 17-12, 23-1, and 71-1.

twilight - The period of incomplete darkness following sunset and preceding sunrise. Twilight is designated as civil, nautical, or astronomical, as the darker limit occurs when the center of the sun is 6, 12, or 18 degrees, respectively, below the celestial horizon. (See also begin morning nautical twilight (BMNT).) See FM 34-130.

type of operation - A broad category of tactical activities, each with specific doctrinal tenets. Reconnaissance, security, entry operations, offensive operations, defensive operations, retrograde operations, troop movement, and specialized operations are specific types of operations. (See also form of tactical operations, choices of maneuver, and tactical task.) See FM 100-40.

Updated 27 July 1997.

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