FM 101-5-1
Operational Terms and Graphics

Chapter 1


rad - See absorbed dose, centigray(cGy), radiation dose (RAD), and roentgen.

radar beacon (JP 1-02) - A receiver-transmitter combination which sends out a coded signal when triggered by the proper type of pulse, enabling determination of range and bearing information by the interrogating station or aircraft.

radiac (JP 1-02, NATO) - An acronym derived from the words "radioactivity, detection, indication, and computation." It is used as an all-encompassing term to designate various types of radiological measuring instruments or equipment. (This word is normally used as an adjective.) See FM 3-4.

radiation dose (JP 1-02, NATO) - The total amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by material or tissues, expressed in centigray. (DOD) The term radiation dose is often used in the sense of the exposure dose expressed in roentgens, which is a measure of the total amount of ionization that the quantity of radiation could produce in air. This could be distinguished from the absorbed dose, also given in rads, which represents the energy absorbed from the radiation per gram of specified body tissue. Further, the biological dose, in rems, is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation exposure. (See also absorbed dose, exposure dose, and radiation dose rate.) See FMs 3-4, 8-9, 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

radiation dose rate (JP 1-02, NATO) - The radiation dose (dosage) absorbed per unit of time. (DOD) A radiation dose rate can be set at some particular unit of time (that is, H+1 hour) and would be called H+1 radiation dose rate. (See also radiation dose.)

radiation exposure state (RES) (JP 1-02, NATO) - The condition of a unit, or exceptionally an individual, deduced from the cumulative whole body radiation doses(s) received. It is expressed as a symbol which indicates the potential for future operations and the degree of risk if exposed to additional nuclear radiation.

radiation status (RS) - Criteria to assist the commander in measuring unit exposure to radiation based on total past cumulative dose in centigray (cGy). (See also dose rate, operation exposure guide (OEG), and radiation dose.) See FM 3-1-1.) Categories are as follows: a. radiation exposure status-0 (RES-0) - No previous exposure history. b. radiation exposure status-l (RES-1) - Negligible radiation exposure history (greater than 0, but less than 70 cGy).c. radiation exposure status-2 (RES-2) - Significant but not a dangerous dose of radiation (greater than 70, but less than 150 cGy).d. radiation exposure status-3 (RES-3) - Unit has already received a dose of radiation which makes further exposure dangerous (greater than 150 cGy).

radio fix (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The locating of a radio transmitter by bearings taken from two or more direction finding stations, the site of the transmitter being at the point of intersection. 2. The location of a ship or aircraft by determining the direction of radio signals coming to the ship or aircraft from two or more sending stations, the locations of which are known.

radio listening silence - The situation where radios are on and continuously monitored with strict criteria when a station on the radio network is allowed to break silence. For example, "maintain radio listening silence until physical contact with the enemy is made." (See also radio silence.)

radiological survey (JP 1-02, NATO) - The directed effort to determine the distribution and dose rates of radiation in an area. (See also NBC survey.) See FMs 3-3-1 and 3-19.

radio silence (JP 1-02, NATO) - A condition in which all or certain radio equipment capable of radiation is kept inoperative. (DOD) (Note: In combined or United States Joint or intraservice communications, the frequency bands and/or types of equipment affected will be specified.)

radius of action (JP 1-02, NATO) - The maximum distance a ship, an aircraft, or a vehicle can travel away from its base along a given course with normal combat load and return without refueling, allowing for all safety and operating factors.

radius of damage (RD) (JP 1-02) - The distance from ground zero at which there is a 0.50 probability of achieving the desired damage. (See also collateral damage.) See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.1, 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

radius of vulnerability (RV) (nuclear) - The radius of a circle about ground zero within which friendly personnel will be exposed to a risk equal to, or greater than, the emergency risk criterion, or within which materiel will be subjected to a 5 percent probability of the specified degree of damage. (See also troop safety (nuclear).) See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.1, 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

raid (JP 1-02, NATO) - An operation, usually small scale, involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or destroy his installations. It ends with a planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

railhead (JP 1-02, NATO) - A point on a railway where loads are transferred between trains and other means of transport. (See also aerial port and seaport.)

rally point - An easily identifiable point on the ground at which units can reassemble and reorganize if they become dispersed, or aircrews and passengers can assemble and reorganize following an incident requiring a forced landing. See FM 1-111.

range (JP 1-02) - 1. The distance between any given point and an object or target. 2. The extent or distance limiting the operation or action of something, such as the range of an aircraft, ship, or gun. 3. The distance which can be covered over a hard surface by a ground vehicle with its rated payload, using the fuel in its tank, and in cans normally carried as part of the ground vehicle equipment. 4. An area reserved for practice in shooting at targets.

range of military operations - The armed forces conduct operations in three states of environment: peace, conflict, and war. Stability and support operations are conducted normally during peace and conflict. (See also conflict, military operations other than war (MOOTW), peace operations, and stability and support operations (SASO.) See FMs 100-5, 100-19, 100-20, and 100-23.

range probable error - The range error caused by dispersion that will be exceeded as often as not in an infinite number of rounds fired at the same elevation and is one-eighth of the length of the dispersion pattern at its greatest length. The value is given in the firing tables. See FM 6-40.

range spread (JP 1-02) - The technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units 100 meters apart on the gun-target line. See FM 6-40.

rate of fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - The number of rounds fired per weapon per minute.

rate of march (JP 1-02, NATO) - The average number of miles or kilometers to be traveled in a given period of time, including all ordered halts. It is expressed in miles or kilometers per hour.

ready (JP 1-02, NATO) - The term used to indicate that a weapon(s) is loaded, aimed, and prepared to fire.

real time (JP 1-02, NATO) - Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed only by the time required for electronic communication. This implies that there are no noticeable delays. (See also near real time.)

rear area (JP 1-02, NATO) - For any particular command, the area extending forward from its rear boundary to the rear of the area of responsibility of the next lower level of command. This area is provided primarily for the performance of combat service support functions. (See also brigade support area (BSA) and division support area (DSA).) See FMs 100-5, 101-5, 100-15, and 100-40.

rear area operations center (RAOC)/rear tactical operations center (JP 1-02) - A command and control facility that serves as an area/subarea commander's planning, coordinating, monitoring, advising, and directing agency for area security operations.

rear area response forces - Forces responsible for rear area threats beyond the capability of base defenses. (See also security operations.)

rear area threat levels - Levels of response to threat activities. (See rear area response forces.) a. level I - Threats that can be defeated by base or base cluster self-defense measures. b. level II - Threats that are beyond base or base cluster self-defense capabilities but can be defeated by response forces, normally military police, with supporting fires. c. level III - Threats that necessitate the command decision to commit a combined arms tactical combat force to defeat them.

rear assembly area (RAA) - An assembly area occupied by a unit farthest to the unit's rear that normally is within 10 to 15 kilometers of the division forward assembly area and is controlled by the rear command post. Fire support may be provided to the RAA by either division artillery or the aviation brigade. Units within the RAA secure all routes through their assigned areas. See FMs 1-115 and 71-100-3.

rear boundary - Line that defines the rear of a sector or zone of action assigned to a particular unit. The area behind the rear boundary belongs to the next higher commander and positioning of elements behind it must be coordinated with that commander. (See also boundary.)

rear command post (Army) - Those staff activities concerned primarily with combat service support (CSS) of the force, administrative support of the headquarters, and other activities not immediately concerned with current operations. Typical representatives within the rear echelon are elements of the G1 and G4 sections, G5, adjutant general, staff judge advocate, inspector general, surgeon, provost marshal, supporting military intelligence elements concerned with counterintelligence and prisoner of war interrogation activities, and the tactical airlift representative of the tactical air control party. Normally rear CPs are near or collocated with CSS units (for example, the COSCOM). (See also command post (CP).)

rear detachment command post - See command post (CP).

rear echelon (JP 1-02, NATO) - Elements of a force which are not required in the objective area. (Army) - Generic term used to describe all elements normally located in the rear area.

rear guard (JP 1-02) - Security detachment that protects the rear of a column from hostile forces. During a withdrawal, it delays the enemy by armed resistance, destroying bridges, and blocking roads. (Army) - 1. The rearmost elements of an advancing or a withdrawing force. It has the following functions: to protect the rear of a column from hostile forces; during the withdrawal, to delay the enemy; during the advance, to keep supply routes open. 2. Security detachment which a moving ground force details to the rear to keep it informed and covered. (See also guard and security operations.)

rearming (JP 1-02) - 1. An operation that replenishes the prescribed stores of ammunition, bombs, and other armament items for an aircraft, naval ship, tank, or armored vehicles, including replacement of defective ordnance equipment, in order to make it ready for combat service. 2. Resetting the fuze on a bomb, or on an artillery, mortar, or rocket projectile, so that it will detonate at the desired time.

rearm, refuel, and resupply point (R3P) - A designated point through which a unit passes where it receives fuel, ammunition, and other necessary supplies to continue combat operations. See FM 6-50.

rear operations (Army) - Those actions, including area damage control, taken by all units (combat, combat support, combat service support, and host nation), singly or in a combined effort, to secure the force, neutralize or defeat enemy operations in the rear area, and ensure freedom of action in the deep and close-in operations. Rear operations are part of operations in depth.

rebuild (JP 1-02) - The restoration of an item to a standard as nearly as possible to its original condition in appearance, performance, and life expectancy. See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.

reception (JP 1-02) - 1. All ground arrangements connected with the delivery and disposition of air or sea drops. Includes selection and preparation of site, signals for warning and approach, facilitation of secure departure of agents, speedy collection of delivered articles, and their prompt removal to storage places having maximum security. When a group is involved, it may be called a reception committee. 2. Arrangements to welcome and provide secure quarters or transportation for defectors, escapees, evaders, or incoming agents.

recoilless rifle (heavy) (JP 1-02) - A weapon capable of being fired from either a ground mount or from a vehicle, and capable of destroying tanks. (Army) - A weapon which expels the gases produced by the combustion of the projectile propellant to the rear in order to cause the weapon system and operator to remain relatively stationary. This creates a hazard to the rear of the weapon which must be planned for when the weapon is positioned.

reconnaissance (recon) (recce) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or a potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological and hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. (Army) - 1. An operation designed to obtain information on the enemy, potential enemy, or the characteristics of a particular area. The precursor to all operations, which may be accomplished through passive surveillance, technical means, or human interaction (spies or human intelligence (HUMINT)), or through fighting for information. Forms of reconnaissance include route reconnaissance, zone reconnaissance, area reconnaissance, and reconnaissance in force. 2. NBC reconnaissance may operate with other reconnaissance forces. The NBC reconnaissance uses special equipment to determine the absence or presence and extent of nuclear, chemical, or biological contamination. 3. Engineer reconnaissance may operate with other reconnaissance forces. Engineer reconnaissance focuses on the requirements to clear obstacles or improve routes, fords, bridges, and so forth, to assist in the uninterrupted movement of the main body force. In military operations other than war (MOOTW), the information is used to task assets to improve the state of services, such as to prepare for rubble removal, erect temporary shelter, and provide improved sanitation. See FMs 1-111, 3-19, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-123, 71-100, 100-5, 101-5, and 5-101.

reconnaissance by fire (JP 1-02, NATO)- A method of reconnaissance in which fire is placed on a suspected enemy position to cause the enemy to disclose a presence by movement or return of fire. See FMs 5-36, 71-100-2, 100-5, and 101-5.

reconnaissance in force (JP 1-02, NATO) - An offensive operation designed to discover and/or test the enemy's strength or to obtain other information. (Army) - A form of reconnaissance operation designed to discover or test the enemy's strength or to obtain other information. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

reconnaissance-pull - Reconnaissance determines which routes are suitable for maneuver, where the enemy is strong and weak, and where gaps exist. Thus, reconnaissance should pull the main body toward and along the path of least resistance. This facilitates the division's initiative and agility. Reconnaissance-pull is also valid in defensive operations. Reconnaissance determines which routes the enemy is using, where the enemy is strong and weak, and where gaps exist. Thus, reconnaissance enhances agility by identifying opportunities and pulling the division along the path of least resistance to mass the division's combat power at the critical time and place. See FM 71-100-2.

reconnaissance and surveillance plan - A plan prepared by the G2 or S2, in close coordination with the G3 or S3, that assigns tasks to subordinates to develop information which satisfies the intelligence requirements the commander has established. It will focus assets on the targeted areas of interest and named areas of interest. See FMs 34-130 and 101-5.

reconstitution - Those actions that commanders plan and implement to restore units to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and available resources. Reconstitution operations include regeneration and reorganization. See FMs 63-2, 71-100, 71-100-1/2/3, 100-9, 100-10, and 100-15.

reconstitution site (JP 1-02) - A location selected by the surviving command authority as the site at which a damaged or destroyed headquarters can be reformed from survivors of the attack and/or personnel from other sources, predesignated as replacements.

recovery operations - Extricating damaged or disabled equipment and moving it to locations where repairs can be made. Recovery is the primary responsibility of the using unit.

recovery site (JP 1-02) - In evasion and escape usage, an area from which an evader or an escaper can be evacuated.

redeployment (JP 1-02) - The transfer of a unit, an individual, or supplies deployed in one area to another area, or to another location within the area, or to the zone of interior for the purpose of further employment.

reduce - 1. A tactical task to gain control over an enemy position or objective. 2. A task to create lanes through or over an obstacle sufficient to allow the attacking force to accomplish its mission.

refuel on the move (ROM) - An operation to ensure fuel tanks on combat and fuel-servicing vehicles are full before they arrive in the unit's tactical assembly area. See FM 71-123.

refugee (JP 1-02) - A civilian who, by reason of real or imagined danger, has left home to seek safety elsewhere. See FM 100-20.

regeneration - Rebuilding of a unit through large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies, including the reestablishment or replacement of essential command and control and the conduct of mission essential training for the newly rebuilt unit. See FM 100-9.

regimental landing team (JP 1-02) - A task organization for landing comprised of an infantry regiment reinforced by those elements which are required for initiation of its combat function ashore.

registration fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - Fire delivered to obtain accurate data for subsequent effective engagement of targets. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

registration point (JP 1-02, NATO) - Terrain feature or other designated point on which fire is adjusted for the purpose of obtaining corrections to firing data.

regulated item (JP 1-02, NATO) - Any item whose issue to a user is subject to control by an appropriate authority for reasons that may include cost, scarcity, technical or hazardous nature, or operational significance.

rehearsal - The process of practicing a plan before actual execution. Rehearsals assist units in clarifying the scheme of maneuver, synchronizing the battlefield operating systems, orienting subordinates to the positions and actions of other units, and practicing any possible branches and sequels from the decision support matrix. The rehearsal should not be allowed to digress into a war game. If the commander identifies problems with the synchronization, he should direct a rehearsal after the issues are resolved to ensure all participants clearly understand the required actions. (See also backbrief, confirmation brief, and war game.) See FM 101-5

reinforce (R) (+) - A mission in which one unit augments the capability of another similar-type unit. (See also direct support (DS), general support (GS), and general support-reinforcing (GS-R).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

reinforcing (R) (+) (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery usage, tactical mission in which one artillery unit augments the fire of another artillery unit. (See also direct support (DS), general support (GS), and general support-reinforcing (GS-R).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

reinforcing obstacles (JP 1-02) - Those obstacles specifically constructed, emplaced, or detonated through military effort and designed to strengthen existing terrain to disrupt, fix, turn, or block enemy movement. (See also obstacle.) See FM 90-7.

release line (RL) - Phase line used in river-crossing operations that delineates a change in the headquarters controlling movement.

release point (road) (RP) (JP 1-02) - A well-defined point on a route at which the elements composing a column return under the authority of their respective commanders, each one of these elements continuing its movement toward its own appropriate destination. (See also lane, march column, march serial, march unit, route, or start point (SP).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 55-10, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

relief in place (RIP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - An operation in which, by direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit. The responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the incoming unit. The incoming unit continues the operation as ordered.

religious ministry support (JP 1-02) - The entire spectrum of professional duties to include providing for or facilitating essential religious needs and practices, pastoral care, family support programs, religious education, volunteer and community activities, and programs performed to enhance morale and moral, ethical, and personal well-being. Enlisted religious support personnel assist the chaplain in providing religious ministry support.

reorganization - Action taken to shift internal resources within a degraded unit to increase its level of combat effectiveness. See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-20 and 100-9.

repair (JP 1-02) - The restoration of an item to serviceable condition through correction of a specific failure or unserviceable condition.

repeat (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order or a request to fire again the same number of rounds with the same method of fire. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

required supply rate (RSR) (ammunition) (JP 1-02) - In Army usage, the amount of ammunition expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons, and in terms of other units of measure per day for bulk allotment and other items, estimated to be required to sustain operations of any designated force without restriction for a specified period. Tactical commanders use this rate to state their requirements for ammunition to support planned tactical operations at specified intervals. The required supply rate is submitted through command channels. It is consolidated at each echelon and is considered by each commander in subsequently determining the controlled supply rate within the command. (See also controlled supply rate (CSR).) See FMs 9-6 and 100-10.

reserve (JP 1-02) - 1. Portion of a body of troops which is kept to the rear, or withheld from action at the beginning of an engagement, available for a decisive movement. 2. Members of the military services who are not in active service but who are subject to call to active duty. 3. Portion of an appropriation or contract authorization held or set aside for future operations or contingencies and in respect to which administrative authorization to incur commitments or obligations has been withheld. (Army) - That portion of a force withheld from action or uncommitted to a specific course of action, so as to be available for commitment at the decisive moment. Its primary purpose is to retain flexibility through offensive action. (See also committed force and uncommitted force.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

reserved demolition target (JP 1-02, NATO) - A target for demolition, the destruction of which must be controlled at a specific level of command because it plays a vital part in the tactical or strategic plan, or because of the importance of the structure itself, or because the demolition may be executed in the face of the enemy. (See also reserved obstacles.) See FM 90-7.

reserved obstacles (JP 1-02) - Those demolition obstacles that are deemed critical to the plan for which the authority to detonate is reserved by the designating commander. (Army) - Obstacles, of any type, for which the commander restricts execution authority. See FM 90-7.

reserved route (JP 1-02, NATO) - In road traffic, a specific route allocated exclusively to an authority or formation. See FM 55-10.

residual radioactivity (JP 1-02) - Nuclear radiation that results from radioactive sources and which persist for longer than one minute. Sources of residual radioactivity created by nuclear explosions include fission fragments and radioactive matter created primarily by neutron activation, but also by gamma and other radiation activation. Other possible sources of residual radioactivity include radioactive material created and dispersed by means other than nuclear explosion. (See also contamination, induced radiation (nuclear), and initial nuclear effects.) See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.3, and 3-12.2.

residual risk - The level of risk remaining after controls have been identified and selected for hazards that may result in loss of combat power. Controls are identified and selected until residual risk is at an acceptable level or until it cannot be practically reduced further.

response force (JP 1-02) - A mobile force with appropriate fire support designated, usually by the area commander, to deal with Level II threats in the rear area. (Army) - Normally a military police function. See FMs 19-1, 71-100, and 100-15.

restoration - The systematic removal of pollution or contaminants from the environment, especially from the soil or ground water, by physical, chemical, or biological means. Restoration is also known as remediation or environmental cleanup.

restricted operations zone (ROZ) (Army) - A volume of airspace of defined dimensions designated for a specific operational mission. Entry into that zone is authorized only by the originating headquarters. See FM 100-103.

restrictive fire area (RFA) - An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions may not be delivered without prior coordination with the establishing headquarters. See FM 6-series.

restrictive fire line (RFL) - A line established between converging friendly forces (one or both may be moving) that prohibits fires or effects from fires across the line without coordination with the affected force. It is established by the next higher common commander of the converging forces. See FMs 7-20, 17-95, 71-100, and 100-15.

resupply (JP 1-02, NATO) - The act of replenishing stocks in order to maintain required levels of supply. See FM 100-10.

retain (JP 1-02) - When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will keep the referenced operation plan, operation plan in concept format, or concept summary and any associated Joint Operation Planning System or Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing files in an inactive library or status. The plan and its associated files will not be maintained unless directed by follow-on guidance. (Army) - A tactical task to occupy and hold a terrain feature to ensure it is free of enemy occupation or use. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

retirement (JP 1-02, NATO) - An operation in which a force out of contact moves away from the enemy. (Army) - A form of retrograde operations; a directed, rearward movement by a force that is not in contact with the enemy and does not anticipate significant contact with the enemy. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

retrograde - A type of operation in which a unit conducts a directed, organized movement to the rear or away from the enemy. Forms of retrograde include delay, withdrawal, and retirement. (See also delaying operation.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

retrograde movement (JP 1-02) - Any movement of a command to the rear, or away from the enemy. It may be forced by the enemy or may be made voluntarily. Such movements may be classified as withdrawal, retirement, or delaying action. (See alsodelaying operation.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

reverse slope - Any slope which descends away from the enemy.

revolutionary (JP 1-02) - An individual attempting to effect a social or political change through the use of extreme measures. (See also antiterrorism (AT).) See FM 100-20.

riot control agent (RCA) (JP 1-02) - A substance that produces temporary irritating or disabling physical effects that disappear within minutes of removal from exposure. There is no significant risk of permanent injury, and medical treatment is rarely required. (Army) - A compound that produces temporary irritating or incapacitating effects when used in field concentrations. Such compounds include tearing (crying), sneezing, and vomiting agents. See FM 3-9.

risk - Chance of hazard or bad consequences; exposure to chance of injury or loss. Risk level is expressed in terms of hazard probability or severity.

risk assessment - The identification and assessment of hazards (first two steps of risk management process).

risk decision - The decision to accept or not accept the risk(s) associated with an action; made by the commander, leader, or individual responsible for performing that action.

risk management - The process of detecting, assessing, and controlling risk arising from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk costs with mission benefits. The five steps of risk management are identify the hazards, assess the hazards, develop controls and make risk decision, implement controls, and supervise and evaluate. (See controls, exposure, hazard, probablity, residual risk, risk, risk assessment, risk decision, and severity) See FM 1-100.

river crossing - An operation required before ground combat power can be projected and sustained across a water obstacle. It is a centrally planned and controlled offensive operation that requires the allocation of external crossing means and a force dedicated to the security of the bridgehead. (See also deliberate crossing and hasty crossing.) See FM 90-13.

riverine area (JP 1-02) - An inland or coastal area comprising both land and water, characterized by limited land lines of communication, with extensive water surface and/or inland waterways that provide natural routes for surface transportation and communications. See FM 100-40.

riverine operations (JP 1-02) - Operations conducted by forces organized to cope with and exploit the unique characteristics of a riverine area, to locate and destroy hostile forces, and/or to achieve, or maintain control of the riverine area. Joint riverine operations combine land, naval, and air operations, as appropriate, and are suited to the nature of the specific riverine area in which operations are to be conducted. See FM 100-40.

roadblock (JP 1-02, NATO) - A barrier or obstacle (usually covered by fire) used to block, or limit the movement of, hostile vehicles along a route. See FM 5-102.

road clearance time (JP 1-02, NATO) - The total time a column requires to travel over and clear a section of the road. See FMs 55-10 and 55-30.

roentgen (JP 1-02, NATO) - A unit of exposure dose of gamma (or X-) radiation. In field dosimetry, one roentgen is essentially equal to one rad. (Army) - An obsolete term for a unit of radiation dosage equal to the quantity of ionizing radiation that will produce one electrostatic unit of electricity in one cubic centimeter of dry air at zero degrees Celcius and standard atmospheric pressure. (See also centigray (cGy) and dose rate.) See FM 3-9.

rounds complete (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, the term used to report that the number of rounds specified in fire for effect have been fired. (See also shot.) See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

route (JP 1-02, NATO) - The prescribed course to be traveled from a specific point of origin to a specific destination. See FMs 55-10, 55-30, and 100-103.

route capacity (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The maximum traffic flow of vehicles in one direction at the most restricted point on the route. 2. The maximum number of metric tons which can be moved in one direction over a particular route in one hour. It is the product of the maximum traffic flow and the average payload of the vehicles using the route. See FM 55-10.

route classification (JP 1-02, NATO) - Classification assigned to a route using factors of minimum width and worst route type; least bridge, raft, or culvert military load classification; and obstructions to traffic flow. (See also military load classification (MLC).) See FMs 5-36 and 17-95.

route reconnaissance - A form of reconnaissance focused along a specific line of communications, such as a road, railway, or waterway, to provide new or updated information on route conditions and activities along the route. See FMs 5-36 and 17-95.

rules of engagement (ROE) (JP 1-02) - Directives issued by competent military authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which US forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. See FM 100-20.

rules of interaction (ROI) (Army) - Rules that guide those human dimension skills required to successfully interface with the myriad of players often present in stability and support operations. These guidelines govern interpersonal communications skills, extent and form of soldier's persuasion, negotiation, and communication techniques. Their purpose is to reduce hostile confrontation. Rules of interaction are founded on firm rules of engagement. Together they provide the soldier a tool to deal with nontraditional threats such as political friction, ideologies, cultural idiosyncrasies, and religious beliefs and rituals. See FM 100-20.

rupture - A task to create a gap in enemy defensive positions quickly. (See also breach and reduce.)

ruse (Army) - A technique of deception operations designed to deceive the enemy, characterized by deliberately exposing false information to the collection means of the enemy, thereby obtaining an advantage. This can be done by any means, including electronic signals and signatures, dummy positions, dummy vehicles and facilities, or misleading troop and force movements. (See also deception operation.)

Updated 27 July 1997.

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