FM 101-5-1
Operational Terms and Graphics

Chapter 1


named area of interest (NAI) - A point or area along a particular avenue of approach through which enemy activity is expected to occur. Activity or lack of activity within an NAI will help to confirm or deny a particular enemy course of action.

nap-of-the-earth flight - See terrain flight.

national command (NATO) - A command that is organized by, and functions under the authority of, a specific nation. It may or may not be placed under a NATO commander.

national intelligence support team (NIST) (JP 1-02) - A nationally sourced team composed of intelligence and communications experts from either Defense Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, or any combination of these agencies.

nation assistance (JP 1-02) - Civil and/or military assistance rendered to a nation by foreign forces within that nation's territory during peacetime, crises or emergencies, or war based on agreements mutually concluded between nations. Nation assistance programs include, but are not limited to, security assistance, foreign internal defense, other US Code Title 10 (DOD) programs, and activities performed on a reimbursable basis by Federal agencies or international organizations. See FMs 8-42 and 100-20.

natural disaster - See domestic emergencies.

natural environment (Army) - The human ecosystem, including both the physical and biological systems that provide resources (clean air, clean water, healthy surroundings, sufficient food) necessary to sustain productive human life. Included in the natural environment are man-made structures, such as water and wastewater treatment facilities and natural cultural resources.

natural resource - the natural wealth of a country or area, including land, wildlife, plant life, air, water, mineral deposits and so forth.

naval gunfire support (NGFS) (JP 1-02) - Fire provided by Navy surface gun systems in support of a unit or units tasked with achieving the commander's objectives. A subset of naval surface fire support. (See also amphibious operation and air/naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO).) See FMs 6-series and 71-100-3.

NBC defense (JP 1-02) - Nuclear defense, biological defense, and chemical defense, collectively. The term may not be used in the context of US offensive operations.

NBC monitoring - A protective measure performed by units to ensure advanced early warning for contamination hazards from the use of weapons of mass destruction. It primarily includes sensor warning of the presence of primarily nuclear or chemical materials. Monitoring may be either periodic or continuous. See FM 3-19.

NBC reconnaissance - A mission undertaken to obtain information (of military significance) about unknown NBC contamination pertaining to routes, areas, and zones. This information confirms or denies the presence or absence of NBC attacks or NBC hazards through the use of detection and identification equipment or visual observation, or by the collection of samples in any specified location or region by using NBC detection, identification, and sampling equipment. See FM 3-19.

NBC surveillance - The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things by visual, electronic, mechanical, or other means for NBC attacks or hazards. See FM 3-19.

NBC survey - The collection of detailed information (of military significance) pertaining to specific contaminated areas to determine the type of contaminant and degree (extent or intensity) of the NBC hazard. This survey typically determines the outer boundaries of the hazard area. (See also reconnaissance (recon, recce) .) See FM 3-19.

near real time (JP 1-02, NATO) - Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed by the time required for electronic communication and automatic data processing. This implies that there are no significant delays. (See also real time.)

negligible risk (nuclear) (JP 1-02) - A degree of risk where personnel are reasonably safe, with the exceptions of dazzle or temporary loss of night vision. (Army) - Expressed in terms of risk to unwarned, exposed personnel; warned, exposed personnel; and warned, protected personnel. (See also degree of risk (nuclear), emergency risk (nuclear) , and moderate risk (nuclear).) See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

negligible risk levels - Level of contamination that will cause mild incapacitation among no more than 5 percent of unprotected soldiers who operate for 12 continuous hours within 1 meter of contaminated surfaces. See FM 3-5.

nerve agent (JP 1-02, NATO) - A potentially lethal chemical agent which interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. See FMs 3-9 and 8-10-7.

nested concept (Army) - The means to achieve unity of purpose whereby each succeeding concept is nested in the other.

net control station (NCS) (JP 1-02) - A communications station designated to control traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net.

neutral - 1.When the temperature of the ground is approximately the same as the temperature of the lower air up to 4 meters above it. This condition has light to moderate winds and slight turbulence, and is considered average for the release of chemical agents. (See also inversion and lapse.) See FM 3-6. 2. An individual, a group of individuals, an organization, or a nation which is not hostile or in any way supportive of only one belligerent force in a hostile environment.

neutrality (JP 1-02) - In international law, the attitude of impartiality, during periods of war, adopted by third states toward belligerent and recognized by the belligerent, which creates rights and duties between the impartial states and the belligerent. In a United Nations enforcement action, the rules of neutrality apply to impartial members of the United Nations except so far as they are excluded by the obligation of such members under the United Nations Charter.

neutralization (JP 1-02, NATO) - In mine warfare, a mine is said to be neutralized when it has been rendered, by external means, incapable of firing on passage of a target, although it may remain dangerous to handle. See FMs 5-34 and 5-101.

neutralization fire (JP 1-02) - Fire which is delivered to render the target ineffective or unusable. (NATO) - Fire that is delivered to hamper and interrupt movement and/or the firing of weapons. (Army) - Fires which are intended to render a target out of the battle temporarily by causing a minimum of 10 percent casualties. See FM 6-20-10.

neutralize (JP 1-02) - As pertains to military operations, to render ineffective or unusable. (Army) - 1. To render enemy personnel or material incapable of interfering with a particular operation. 2.To render safe mines, bombs, missiles, and boobytraps. 3. To make harmless anything contaminated with a chemical agent.

N-hour/N-hour sequence - The unspecified time that commences unit notification and outload for rapid, no-notice deployment on a contingency operation. N-hour initiates a predetermined sequence of events that enables the unit to recall personnel, complete crisis action planning, conduct final personnel readiness procedures, draw and prepare equipment for deployment, and move to a point of embarkation for immediate deployment.

no-fire area (NFA) - An area in which no fires or effects of fires are allowed. Two exceptions are (1) when establishing headquarters approves fires temporarily within the NFA on a mission basis, and (2) when the enemy force within the NFA engages a friendly force, the commander may engage the enemy to defend his force.

no-fire line (NFL) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A line short of which artillery or ships do not fire except on request or approval of the supported commander, but beyond which they may fire at any time without danger to friendly troops.

nonaligned state (JP 1-02) - A state which pursues a policy of nonalignment.

nonalignment (JP 1-02) - The political attitude of a state which does not associate or identify itself with the political ideology or objective espoused by other states, groups of states, or international causes, or with the foreign policies stemming therefrom. It does not preclude involvement, but expresses the attitude of no precommitment to a particular state (or block) or policy before a situation arises.

nonbattle injury - A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Casualties due to the elements, self-inflicted wounds, and combat fatigue are nonhostile casualties.

noncombatant - 1. An individual, in an area of combat operations, who is not armed and is not participating in any activity in support of any of the factions or forces involved in combat. 2. An individual, such as a chaplain or medical personnel, whose duties do not involve combat.

noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO) (JP 1-02) - Operations conducted to relocate threatened noncombatants from locations in a foreign country. These operations normally involve US citizens whose lives are in danger, and may also include selected foreign nationals. See FMs 90-29, 100-5, and JP 3-07.

nongovernmental organization (NGO) (JP 1-02) - Transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. NGOs may be professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief). NGO is a term normally used by non-US organizations. (Army) - NGO is the equivalent of the term private voluntary organization (PVO) used in the United States. (See also military operations other than war (MOOTW) and support and stability operations (SASO).) See FM 100-20 and JP 3-07.

nonhostile casualty (JP 1-02) - A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Casualties due to the elements, self-inflicted wounds, and combat fatigue are nonhostile casualties. See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-4, 8-10-14, and 8-10-24.

nonlethal fires - Any fires that do not directly seek destruction of the intended target and are designed to impair, disrupt, or delay the performance of enemy operational forces, functions, and facilities. Psychological operations, special operations forces, electronic warfare (jamming), and other command and control countermeasures are all nonlethal fire options.

nonpersistent agent - A chemical agent that, when released, dissipates or loses its ability to cause casualties from within minutes to several hours. See FM 3-9.

nonproliferation - Efforts focusing on preventing the spread of missiles and weapons of mass destruction via such mechanisms as arms, technology, and export controls. See FM 100-30.

nonunit-related cargo - All equipment and supplies requiring transportation to an area of operations other than that identified as the equipment or accompanying supplies of a specific unit. See FM 701-58.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - An organization of nations in North America and Western Europe that have common political goals.

notice to airmen (NOTAM) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedures, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. See FMs 1-103 and 1-111.

not mission capable, maintenance (NMCM) (JP 1-02) - Material condition indicating that systems and equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance requirements. See FM 63-2.

not mission capable, supply (NMCS) (JP 1-02) - Material condition indicating that systems and equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance work stoppage due to a supply shortage. See FM 63-2.

nuclear, biological, and chemical warning and reporting system (NBCWRS) - The primary means of warning units of an actual or a predicted NBC hazard. The report formats are standardized by ATP 45/STANAG 2103 Ch 4 (Jan 89) and the US Message Text Format (USMTF). See FM 3-3. It consists of six standardized reports:

NBC 1 - Initial report.
NBC 2 - Evaluated data.
NBC 3 - Predicted contamination/hazard areas.
NBC 4 - Monitoring/survey results.
NBC 5 - Actual contamination areas.
NBC 6 - Detailed information.

nuclear collateral damage (JP 1-02, NATO) - Undesired damage or casualties produced by the effects from friendly nuclear weapons. See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

nuclear damage assessment (JP 1-02, NATO) - The determination of the damage effect to the population, forces, and resources resulting from actual nuclear attack. It is performed during and after an attack. The operational significance of the damage is not evaluated in this assessment. See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

nuclear strike warning (JP 1-02, NATO) - A warning of impending friendly or suspected enemy nuclear attack. See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

nuclear weapon option - A discrete grouping of a specific number of nuclear weapons by specific yield planned for employment in a specific area for a designated time frame. See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

nuclear yields (JP 1-02) - The energy released in the detonation of a nuclear weapon measured in terms of the kilotons or megatons of trinitrotoluene (TNT) required to produce the same energy release. See FM 100-30, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3. Yields are categorized as:

Very low - less than 1 kiloton.
Low - 1 kiloton to 10 kilotons.
Medium - over 10 kilotons to 50 kilotons.
High - over 50 kilotons to 500 kilotons.
Very high - over 500 kilotons.


objective (JP 1-02, NATO) - The physical object of the action taken, e.g., a definite tactical feature, the seizure and/or holding of which is essential to the commander's plan. (Army) - 1. The physical object of the action taken (for example, a definite terrain feature, the seizure or holding of which is essential to the commander's plan, or, the destruction of an enemy force without regard to terrain features). 2. The clearly defined, decisive, and attainable aims which every military operation should be directed towards. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

objective area (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A defined geographical area within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces. This area is defined by competent authority for purposes of command and control. (DOD) 2. The city or other geographical location where a civil disturbance is occurring or is anticipated, and where Federal Armed Forces are, or may be, employed. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-20, and 101-5.

obscurant - A gas, liquid, solid particle, or combination of these, either man-made (such as smoke) or natural (such as dust), suspended in the atmosphere, that may attenuate or block any portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This can affect such things as visual observation, laser rangefinders or designators, radars, and thermal sites.

obscuration - The effects of weather, battlefield dust, and debris, or the use of smoke munitions to hamper observation and target-acquisition capability or to conceal activities or movement.

obscuring smoke - Smoke placed between enemy forces and friendly forces or directly on enemy positions to confuse and disorient enemy direct-fire gunners and artillery forward observers. See FM 3-100.

observation post (OP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A position from which military observations are made, or fire directed and adjusted, and which possesses appropriate communications; it may be airborne. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

observed fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - Fire for which the point of impact or burst can be seen by an observer. The fire can be controlled and adjusted on the basis of observation. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

observer-target line (JP 1-02, NATO) - An imaginary straight line from the observer/spotter to the target. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

obstacle (JP 1-02) - Any obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Obstacles can exist naturally or can be man-made, or can be a combination of both. (Army) - Obstacles can be used to protect friendly forces from close assault. (See also reinforcing obstacles.) See FM 90-7.

obstacle belt (JP 1-02) - A brigade-level command and control measure, normally given graphically, to show where within an obstacle zone the ground tactical commander plans to limit friendly obstacle employment and focus the defense. It assigns an intent to the obstacle plan and provides the necessary guidance on the overall effect of obstacles within a belt. (Army) - It also supports the intent of the higher headquarters obstacle zone. (See also obstacle.) See FM 90-7.

obstacle group - Normally, a task force-level obstacle control measure that specifies the location of one or more obstacles grouped to provide a specific obstacle effect. Obstacle groups are shown using the obstacle effect graphics. See FM 90-7.

obstacle line - A conceptual control measure used at battalion or brigade level to show placement intent without specifying a particular type of linear obstacle.

obstacle plan - That part of an operation plan (OPLAN) (or order) which is concerned with the use of obstacles to enhance friendly fires or to affect the movement of an enemy. Obstacle plans are used at corps level and below. (See also countermobility operations and obstacle.) See FM 90-7.

obstacle restricted areas (JP 1-02) - A command and control measure used to limit the type or number of obstacles within an area. (Army) - A commander may use restricted areas to prevent subordinates from emplacing obstacles in certain areas. The restricted area is labeled "NO OBSTACLES." (See also obstacle.) See FM 90-7. 3-29

obstacle zone (JP 1-02) - A division-level command and control measure, normally done graphically, to designate specific land areas where lower echelons are allowed to employ tactical obstacles. (See also countermobility operations and obstacle.) See FM 90-7.

occupy - 1. A tactical task in which a force moves onto an objective, key terrain, or other man-made or natural terrain area without opposition, and controls that entire area. 2. To remain in an area and retain control of that area.

offensive - A principle of war by which a military force achieves decisive results by acting with initiative, employing fire and movement, and sustaining freedom of maneuver and action while causing an enemy to be reactive.

offensive counterair (OCA) - Combat operations that take the initiative to destroy the enemy's ability to operate in the aerospace environment by attacking systems (or their support systems) designed to operate in the atmosphere (for example: a directed-energy system operating in space used to destroy or degrade enemy airfields.).

offensive counterspace (OCS) - Combat operations conducted against enemy systems (or their support systems) designed to operate in space (for example: a directed-energy weapon operating from an aircraft or ground location that is used to destroy enemy satellites.).

offensive operations - Combat operations designed primarily to destroy the enemy. Offensive operations may be undertaken to secure key or decisive terrain, to deprive the enemy of resources or decisive terrain, to deceive or divert the enemy, to develop intelligence, and to hold the enemy in position. Forms of offensive operations include movement to contact, attack, exploitation, and pursuit. The offensive is undertaken to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. (See also attack, movement to contact, and reconnaissance in force.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

on-call (JP 1-02) - 1. A term used to signify that a prearranged concentration, air strike, or final protective fire may be called for. 2. Preplanned, identified force or materiel requirements without designated time-phase and destination information. Such requirements will be called forward upon order of competent authority. ( See also call for fire.) See FMs 6-series, 7-90.

on-call resupply (JP 1-02) - A resupply mission planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area but not executed until requested by the operating team.

on-call target (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a planned target other than a scheduled target on which fire is delivered when requested. (See also scheduled target.) See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

on-order mission - A mission to be executed at an unspecified time in the future. A unit with an on-order mission is a committed force. The commander envisions task execution in the concept of operations; however, he may not know the exact time or place of execution. Subordinate commanders develop plans or orders and allocate resources, task-organize, and position forces for execution. (See also be-prepared mission.) See FM 101-5.

one day's supply (JP 1-02, NATO) - A unit or quantity of supplies adopted as a standard of measurement, used in estimating the average daily expenditure under stated conditions. It may also be expressed in terms of a factor, e.g., rounds of ammunition per weapon per day.

operating level of supply (JP 1-02) - The quantities of material required to sustain operations in the interval between requisitions or the arrival of successive shipments. These quantities should be based on the established replenishment period (monthly, quarterly, etc).

operation (JP 1-02, NATO) - A military action or the carrying out of a strategic, tactical, service, training, or administrative military mission; the process of carrying on combat, including movement, supply, attack, defense, and maneuvers needed to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign. (Army) - A broad category of related tactical activities; for example, offense, defense, and retrograde. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

operational art (JP 1-02) - The employment of military forces to attain strategic and/or operational objectives through the design, organization, integration, and conduct of campaigns, major operations, and battles. Operational art translates the joint force commander's strategy into operational design, and, ultimately, tactical action, by integrating the key activities at all levels of war. See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.

operational command (OPCOM) (NATO only) - 1. The term is synonymous with operational control and is uniquely applied to the operational control exercised by the commanders of combatant, unified, and specified commands over assigned forces. 2. The authority granted to a commander to assign missions or tasks to subordinate commanders, to deploy units, to reassign forces, and to retain or delegate operational or tactical control as may be deemed necessary. It does not include responsibility for administration or logistics. OPCOM may also be used to denote the forces assigned to a commander. (See also operational control (OPCON).)

operational control (OPCON) (JP 1-02) - Transferable command authority that may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Operational control may be delegated and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Operational control includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Operational control should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders. Operational control normally provides full authority to organize commands and forces and to employ those forces as the commander in operational control considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control does not, in and of itself, include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training. (See also assign, attach, detachment, and operational command (OPCOM).) See JP 0-2.

operational decontamination (JP 1-02, NATO) - Decontamination carried out by an individual and/or a unit, restricted to specific parts of operationally essential equipment, material and/or working areas, in order to minimize contact and transfer hazards and to sustain operations. This may include decontamination of the individual beyond the scope of immediate decontamination, as well as decontamination of mission-essential spares and limited terrain decontamination. See FM 3-5.

operational decontamination operations - A decontamination operation that consists of two techniques, the mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) gear exchange and the vehicle washdown. See FM 3-5.

operational environment (JP 1-02) - A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences which affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander. Some examples are: a. permissive environment - operational environment in which host country military and law enforcement agencies have control and the intent and capability to assist operations that a unit intends to conduct. b. uncertain environment - operational environment in which host government forces, whether opposed to or receptive to operations that a unit intends to conduct, do not have totally effective control of the territory and population in the intended area of operations. c. hostile environment - operational environment in which hostile forces have control and the intent and capability to effectively oppose or react to the operations a unit intends to conduct.

operational intelligence (JP 1-02) - Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations. (See also intelligence, strategic intelligence, and tactical intelligence.) See FM 34-1.

operational level of war (JP 1-02) - The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations. Activities at this level link tactics and strategy by establishing operational objectives needed to accomplish the strategic objectives, sequencing events to achieve the operational objectives, initiating actions, and applying resources to bring about and sustain these events. These activities imply a broader dimension of time or space than do tactics; they ensure the logistic and administrative support of tactical forces, and provide the means by which tactical successes are exploited to achieve strategic objectives. See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.

operationally ready (JP 1-02) - 1. As applied to a unit, ship, or weapon system - Capable of performing the missions or functions for which organized or designed. Incorporates both equipment readiness and personnel readiness. 2. As applied to personnel - Available and qualified to perform assigned missions or functions. See FM 63-2.

operational operating systems - The major functions performed by joint and combined operational forces for successfully executing campaigns and major operations in a theater or area of operations. The operating systems are operational movement and maneuver, operational fires, operational protection, operational command and control, operational intelligence, and operational support. See FM 100-15.

operational readiness float - A quantity of selected class II and VII items authorized for use by direct support maintenance units in exchange with supported units if a like item cannot be repaired in a timely manner. See FM 63-2-1.

operational reserve (JP 1-02, NATO) - An emergency reserve of men and/or material established for the support of a specific operation. See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.

operational tempo (OPTEMPO) - 1. The pace of an operation or operations. The OPTEMPO includes all of the activities the unit is conducting. OPTEMPO can be a single activity or a series of operations. 2. The mileage allowed to be put on a vehicle or aircraft during a fiscal year based on budgetary guidance. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

operation annexes (JP 1-02) - Those amplifying instructions which are of such a nature, or are so voluminous or technical, as to make their inclusion in the body of the plan or order undesirable. See FM 101-5.

operation exposure guide (OEG) (JP 1-02) - The maximum amount of nuclear radiation which the commander considers a unit may be permitted to receive while performing a particular mission or missions. (Army) - Within the Army it is known as operational exposure guidance (OEG). (See also radiation status (RS).) See FMs 3-3-1 and100-30.

operation map (JP 1-02) - A map showing the location and strength of friendly forces involved in an operation. It may indicate predicted movement and location of enemy forces. (See also map.) See FM 101-5.

operation order (OPORD) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation. (Army) - Also called the five paragraph field order, it contains as a minimum a description of the task organization, situation, mission, execution, administrative and logistics support, and command and signal for the specified operation. (See also operation plan (OPLAN).) See FM 101-5.

operation overlay - Overlay showing the location, size, and scheme of maneuver and fires of friendly forces involved in an operation. As an exception, it may indicate predicted movements and locations of enemy forces.

operation plan (OPLAN) (JP 1-02) - Any plan, except for the Single Integrated Operation Plan, for the conduct of military operations. Plans are prepared by combatant commanders in response to requirements established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and by commanders of subordinate commands in response to requirements tasked by the establishing unified commander. Operation plans (OPLANs) are prepared in either a complete format of an OPLAN or as a concept plan (CONPLAN). a. OPLAN. An operation plan for the conduct of joint operations that can be used as a basis for development of an operation order (OPORD). An OPLAN identifies the forces and supplies required to execute the CINC's Strategic Concept and a movement schedule of these resources to the theater of operations. The forces and supplies are identified in time-phased force deployment data (TPFDD) files. OPLANs will include all phases of the tasked operation. The plan is prepared with the appropriate annexes, appendixes, and TPFDD files as described in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System manuals containing planning policies, procedures, and formats. b. CONPLAN. An operation plan in an abbreviated format that would require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains the CINC's Strategic Concept and those annexes and appendixes deemed necessary by the combatant commander to complete planning. Generally, detailed support requirements are not calculated and TPFDD files are not prepared. (See also operation order (OPORD).) See FM 101-5.

operations security (OPSEC) (JP 1-02) - A process of identifying critical information and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to: a. Identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems. b. Determine indicators hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information in time to be useful to adversaries. c. Select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation. (Army) - All measures taken to maintain security and achieve tactical surprise. It includes countersurveillance, physical security, signal security, and information security. It also involves the identification and elimination or control of indicators which can be exploited by hostile intelligence organizations. (See also command and control warfare (C2W) .) See FMs 34-40 and 101-5.

operator's spraydown - Process of applying decontaminant onto unit equipment control surfaces to stop contamination from spreading, transferring, or soaking into surfaces. See FM 3-5.

opposed entry - A military operation to enter an area against opposition. (See also air assault, airborne, amphibious operation, and assault echelon.) See FMs 1-111, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100-2, 71-100-3, 90-4, and 90-26.

order (JP 1-02, NATO) - A communication, written, oral, or by signal, that conveys instructions from a superior to a subordinate. (DOD) In a broad sense, the terms "order" and "command" are synonymous. However, an order implies discretion as to the details of execution whereas a command does not. (Army) - Also synonymous with requisition as used in "back order." (See also fragmentary order (FRAGO), movement order, operation order (OPORD), overlay order, and warning order (WARNO).) See FMs 100-34 and 101-5.

order of battle (JP 1-02, NATO) - The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units, and equipment of any military force.

orders group - A standing group of key personnel requested to be present when a commander at any level issues his concept of operations and his order. See FM 101-5.

order and shipping time (JP 1-02) - The time elapsing between the initiation of stock replenishment action for a specific activity and the receipt by that activity of the materiel resulting from such action. Order and shipping time is applicable only to materiel within the supply system, and it is composed of the distinct elements, order time, and shipping time.

organic (JP 1-02) - Assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization. Organic parts of a unit are those listed in its table of organization for the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and are assigned to the administrative organizations of the operating forces for the Navy. (See also assign, attach, and operational control (OPCON).) See FM 101-5.

organization - 1. Any military unit or larger command comprised of two or more smaller units. In this meaning, a military element of a command is an organization in relation to its components and a unit in relation to higher commands. 2. The definite structure of a military element prescribed by a component authority such as a table of organization. (See also unit.)

organization of the ground (JP 1-02, NATO) - The development of a defensive position by strengthening the natural defenses of the terrain and by assignment of the occupying troops to specific localities. (See also defend.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

organophosphate - A phosphate-containing organic compound which inhibits cholinesterase enzymes that control the transmission of nerve impulses. G-series and V-series nerve agents are organophosphates. See FM 3-9.

over (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, used by a spotter or an observer, to indicate that a burst(s) occurred beyond the target in relation to the observer target line. (Army) - 1. A communications proword meaning "I have finished speaking, do/does the other party(ies) have anything to say." 2. In direct fire, a sensing that a round or burst of rounds went above the intended target and landed beyond the target. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

overlay (JP 1-02, NATO) - A printing or drawing on a transparent or semitransparent medium at the same scale as a map, chart, etc., to show details not appearing or requiring special emphasis on the original. (Army) - On digital displays, a set of graphical data which can be placed or removed from another set of graphical data without causing the distortion of or damage to either set of graphical data. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

overlay order - A technique used to issue an order (normally a fragmentary order) that has abbreviated instructions written on the overlay itself. On digital systems, it may have hypertext attached to a digital overlay which allows a subordinate to "click on" a key word or graphic and a text display of specific information will appear in a "window" which can be moved or closed by the user so that the graphic is fully visible. (See also operation order (OPORD), overlay, and fragmentary order (FRAGO).) See FM 101-5.

overt operation (JP 1-02) - An operation conducted openly, without concealment.

overwatch - A tactical technique in which one element is positioned to support by fire the movement of another element by observing known or suspected enemy locations and engaging the enemy if he is visible or tries to fire on the friendly element. The overwatching element must be told if it is to destroy, suppress, or fix the enemy. (See also movement technique and support by fire.)

Updated 27 July 1997.

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