FM 101-5-1
Operational Terms and Graphics

Chapter 1


call for fire (JP-1-02, NATO)- A request for fire containing data necessary for obtaining the required fire on a target. (See also adjustment of fire.) See FM 6-20 series and FM 7-90.

call forward area- 1. In river crossing operations, waiting areas within the crossing area where final preparations are made. 2. In air movement operations, the area at the departure airfield where plane loads are assembled in a ready condition prior to being directed to the loading ramp area. (See also aerial port of embarkation (APOE), airborne, chalk, staging area, and tanker airlift control element (TALCE).) See FMs 55-12 and 90-13.

camouflage (JP 1-02, NATO)- The use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or tactical positions with the aim of confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy. (See also concealment, cover, deception, and surveillance.) See FM 90-2.

campaign (JP 1-02)- A series of related military operations aimed at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a given time and space. (See also campaign plan.) See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.

campaign plan (JP 1-02)- A plan for a series of related military operations aimed to achieve strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space. (See also campaign.) See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.

canalize (JP 1-02)- To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing obstacles or by fire or bombing. (Army) A tactical task used to restrict operations to a narrow zone by the use of obstacles, fires, or unit maneuvering or positioning. (See also obstacle.) See FMs 5-100 and 5-102.

cannibalize (JP 1-02, NATO)- To remove serviceable parts from one item of equipment in order to install them on another item of equipment. (Army) The authorized removal of parts or components from economically unrepairable or disposable items or assemblies and making them available for reuse. (See also battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR).) See FMs 63-2, 63-2-1, 63-6, 63-20, and 63-21 and 71-123.

capture- The taking into custody of a hostile force, equipment, or personnel as a result of military operations. See FM 34-1.

captured - See missing.

casualty (JP 1-02)- Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty status-whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured. See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-6, 8-55, 12-6, and 16-1.

casualty collection point (CCP)- A specific location where casualties are assembled to be transported to a medical treatment facility (MTF), for example, a company aid post. See FM 8-55.

casualty transport - The movement of casualties by nonmedical transportation assets without the provisions of en route medical care.

C-day (JP1-02)- The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. The deployment may be movement of troops, cargo, weapon systems, or a combination of these elements using any or all types of transport. The letter "C" will be the only one used to denote the above. The highest command or headquarters responsible for coordinating the planning will specify the exact meaning of C-day within the aforementioned definition. The command or headquarters directly responsible for the execution of the operation, if other than the one coordinating the planning, will do so in light of the meaning specified by the highest command or headquarters coordinating the planning. See FMs 100-5, 100-15, and 100-17.

cease engagement (JP 1-02, NATO)- In air defense, a fire control order used to direct units to stop the firing sequence against a designated target. Guided missiles already in flight will continue to intercept. (See also engage and hold fire.) See FM 44-100.

cease fire (JP 1-02)- A command given to air defense artillery units to refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne object. Missiles already in flight will be permitted to continue to intercept. (Army) A command given to any unit or individual firing any weapon to stop engaging the target. (See also call for fire, fire command, and fire mission.) See FMs 6-20, 7-8, 7-90, 17-12, 23-1, and 44-100.

cease loading (JP 1-02, NATO)- In artillery and naval gunfire support, the command used during firing of two or more rounds to indicate the suspension of inserting rounds into the weapon. (Army) Pertains to mortar fire also. See FMs 6-20 series and 7-90.

cell (JP 1-02)- Small group of individuals who work together for clandestine or subversive purposes.

centers of gravity (JP 1-02)- Those characteristics, capabilities, or localities from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fight. (Army) The hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends. (See also operational art and operational level of war.) See FMs 100-5, 100-7, and 100-15.

centigray (cGy) (JP 1-02, NATO)- A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray equals one rad). (Army) The term centigray (1/100 of a gray) (one gray equals 100 rads) has replaced the term rad and is the equivalent of one rad. (See decontamination.) See FMs 3-3-1 and 3-4.

chaff (JP 1-02)- Radar confusion reflectors, which consist of thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses, used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes. (Army) Causes enemy missiles to lock on to it instead of the real aircraft. (See also deception.) See FMs 1-111 and 90-2.

chain of command (JP 1-02, NATO)- The succession of commanding officers from a superior to a subordinate through which command is exercised. Also called command channel.

chalk- Designated troops, equipment, or cargo that constitutes a complete aircraft load. (See also air assault, airborne, and tanker air lift control element (TALCE).) See FMs 71-100-2, 71-100-3, 90-4, and 90-26.

chalk number (JP 1-02, NATO)- The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier. (See also chalk.) See FMs 71-100-2, 71-100-3, 90-4, and 90-26.

challenge- (JP 1-02, NATO)- Any process carried out by one unit or person with the object of ascertaining the friendly or hostile character or identity of another. (See also password.)

check firing (JP 1-02, NATO)- In artillery and naval gunfire support, a command to cause a temporary halt in firing. (Army) Pertains to mortar fire also. (See also cease fire, cease loading, and fire mission.) See FM 6-20 series.

checkpoint (CKP) (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. A predetermined point on the surface of the earth used as a means of controlling movement, a registration target for fire adjustment, or reference for location. 2. Center of impact; a burst center. 3. Geographical location on land or water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be determined by observation or by electrical means. 4. A place where military police check vehicular or pedestrian traffic in order to enforce circulation control measures and other laws, orders, and regulations. (Army) 1. Predetermined point on the ground used to control movement and tactical maneuver. 2. A place where military police are set up to provide information and prevent illegal actions or actions that aid the enemy; this includes inspection of vehicles and cargo. See FMs 19-1, 19-4, 71-123, and 100-103.

chemical agent (JP 1-02, NATO)- A chemical substance which is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate personnel through its physiological effects. Excluded from consideration are riot control agents, herbicides, smoke, and flame. (See also biological agent, chemical defense, and decontamination.) See FMs 3-9 and FM 8-10-7.

chemical defense (JP 1-02, NATO)- The methods, plans, and procedures involved in establishing and executing defensive measures against attack utilizing chemical agents. (See also chemical agent and decontamination.) See FMs 3-3 and 3-100.

chemical downwind message (CDM)- A weather forecast valid for three 2-hour periods (6 hours). The CDM forecasts wind direction, wind speed, air stability, humidity, air temperature, and any significant weather. (See also decontamination and mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP).) See FM 3-3.

chemical warfare (CW) (JP 1-02)- All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to separately or under the broader term "chemical," which will be used to include all types of chemical munitions/agents collectively. The term "chemical warfare weapons" may be used when it is desired to reflect both lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents of either chemical or biological origin. (See also chemical defense, herbicide, and riot control agent.) See FMs 3-9 and 3-100.

choices of maneuver (Army) - Distinct tactical combinations of fire and movement with a unique set of doctrinal characteristics that differ primarily in the relationship between the maneuvering force and the enemy. The choices of offensive maneuver are envelopment, turning movement, infiltration, penetration, and frontal attack. The choices of defensive maneuver are forward and in-depth. Commanders use these to orient on the enemy, not terrain. More than one may be applied during an operation and may be used in conjunction with a form of tactical operation. (See also attack, envelopment, frontal attack, infiltration, penetration, turning movement, and type of operation.) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, 100-7, and 100-15.

choke point- A geographical location on land or water that restricts the movement of forces and can be natural, man-made, or created through the disposition of forces.

circular error probable (CEP) (JP 1-02)- An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of a missile's projectiles are expected to fall. (Army) Error in location of a system or vehicle based on the on-board navigational system and the distance from the last survey control point. See FMs 6-50 series, 7-90, 17-12, and 23-1.

civil administration- An administration established by a foreign government in (1) friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government (also called civil affairs administration), or (2) hostile territory, occupied by US forces, where a foreign government exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can be established. (See also civil affairs (CA), civil military operations (CMO), and stability and support operations (SASO).) See FM 41-10.

civil affairs (CA)(JP 1-02)- The activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces and civil authorities, both governmental and nongovernmental, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate operational objectives. Civil affairs may include performance by military forces of activities and functions normally the responsibility of the local government. These activities may occur prior to, during, or subsequent to military actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other military operations. (Army) 1. Matters concerning the relationship between military forces located in a country or area and the civil authorities and people of that country or area, usually occurring in time of hostilities or other emergency, and normally covered by a treaty or other agreement, expressed or implied. 2. Military government: the form of administration by which occupying power exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority over occupied territory. See FM 41-10.

civil defense emergency- See domestic emergencies.

civil disturbances- See domestic emergencies.

civil military operations (CMO) - The complex of activities in support of military operations embracing the interaction between the military force and civilian authorities fostering the development of favorable emotions, attitudes, and behavior in neutral, friendly, or hostile groups. See FM 41-10.

civil military operations center (CMOC) (Army) - An operations center formed from civil affairs assets that serves as the primary interface between the US armed forces and the local civilian population, humanitarian organizations, nongovernmental organizations, private voluntary organizations, United Nations and other international agencies, multinational military forces, and other agencies of the US government. The primary purpose of the CMOC is to ensure continuous coordination among the key participants in a given area with regards to civil military matters. It is a flexible, mission-dependent organization that can be formed at brigade through joint levels of command. See FM 41-10.

clandestine operation (JP 1-02)- An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of identity of sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities.

classes of supply- The grouping of supplies by type into 10 categories to facilitate supply management and planning.

Supply Class Definition/Examples
* I Subsistence items (meals ready to eat (MRE), T-rations, and fresh fruits and vegetables) and gratuitous-issue health and comfort items.
II Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, organizational tool sets and kits, hand tools, maps, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment.
III Petroleum fuels, lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, preservatives, liquids and gases, bulk chemical products, coolants, deicer and antifreeze compounds, components and additives of petroleum and chemical products, and coal.
IV Construction materials including installed equipment, and all fortification and obstacle materials.
V Ammunition of all types including chemical, bombs, explosives, mines, fuzes, detonators, pyrotechnics, missiles, rockets, propellants, and other associated items.
* VI Personal demand items such as health and hygiene products, writing material, snack food, beverages, cigarettes, batteries, and cameras (nonmilitary items).
VII Major end items such as launchers, tanks, mobile machine shops, and vehicles.
* VIII Medical material, including repair parts peculiar to medical equipment and management of blood.
IX Repair parts and components, to include kits, assemblies, and subassemblies (repairable or nonrepairable), that are required for maintenance support of all equipment.
X Material required to support nonmilitary programs, such as agricultural and economic development projects (not included in classes I through IX).
MISC Water, captured enemy material, salvage material.

clear (JP 1-02)- 1. To approve or authorize, or to obtain approval or authorization for: a. a person or persons with regard to their actions, movements, duties, etc; b. an object or group of objects, as equipment or supplies, with regard to quality, quantity, purpose, movement, disposition, etc; and c. a request, with regard to correctness of form, validity, etc. 2. To give one or more aircraft a clearance. 3. To give a person a security clearance. 4. To fly over an obstacle without touching it. 5. To pass a designated point, line, or object. The end of a column must pass the designated feature before the latter is cleared. 6. a. To operate a gun so as to unload it or make certain no ammunition remains; and b. to free a gun of stoppages. 7. To clear an engine; to open the throttle of an idling engine to free it from carbon. 8. To clear the air to gain either temporary or permanent air superiority or control in a given sector. (Army) 1. A tactical task to remove all enemy forces and eliminate organized resistance in an assigned zone, area, or location by destroying, capturing, or forcing the withdrawal of enemy forces such that they cannot interfere with the friendly unit's ability to accomplish its mission. 2. To eliminate transmissions on a tactical radio net in order to allow a higher-precedence transmission to occur. 3. The total elimination or neutralization of an obstacle that is usually performed by follow-on engineers and is not done under fire. (See also reduce.) See FMs 5-100, 5-101, and 90-13-1.

clearance of fires- The process of approving or obtaining approval to attack targets with indirect fires within and outside the boundaries of the maneuver unit for which the fires are provided. See FMs 6-20 series, 7-30, 7-90, 71-100, and 71-123.

clearing operation (JP 1-02)- An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles from a route or area. (See also breach.) See FMs 5-100, 5-101, and 90-13-1.

clearing station- An Echelon II medical treatment facility established by a medical company that provides emergency or resuscitative treatment for patients until evacuated and definitive treatment for patients with minor illness, wounds, or injuries who can return to duty.

close air support (CAS) (JP 1-02)- Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets which are in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. (See also air interdiction (AI).) See FMs 1-111 and 6-20 series.

close operations- Involves forces in immediate contact with the enemy and the fighting between the committed forces and the readily available tactical reserves of both combatants. (See also attack and defend.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.

cluster (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. Fireworks signal in which a group of stars burns at the same time. 2. Group of bombs released together. A cluster usually consists of fragmentation or incendiary bombs. See FM 6-20 series. 3. Two or more parachutes for dropping light or heavy loads. See FMs 90-26 and 71-100-2. 4. In land mine warfare, a component of a pattern-laid minefield. It may be antitank, antipersonnel, or mixed. It consists of one to five mines and no more than one antitank mine. See FM 5-102. 5. Two or more engines coupled together so as to function as one power unit. 6. In naval mine warfare, a number of mines laid in close proximity to each other as a pattern or coherent unit. They may be of mixed types. 7. In minehunting, designates a group of mine-like contacts.

clutter (JP 1-02)- Permanent echoes, cloud, or other atmospheric echo on radar scope; as contact has entered scope clutter. (See also air defense) See FM 44-100.

coalition- An ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action. (See also alliance and multinational operations.) See FMs 100-5, 100-15, and 100-20.

coil - An arrangement of vehicles forming a circle and providing 360-degree security in an assembly area with the primary weapon systems and protective armor facing outward. See FMs 7-7, 17-12, 17-15, and 17-95.

collateral damage- Unintended and undesirable civilian personnel injuries or materiel damage adjacent to a target produced by the effects of friendly weapons. See FM 6-20 series.

collateral damage distance - Minimum distance in meters that a desired ground zero for a nuclear explosion must be separated from civilian personnel and materiel to ensure with 99-percent assurance that a 5-percent incidence of injuries or property damage will not be exceeded. See FM 100-30.

collateral mission activities- The inherent capabilities of all military forces that may periodically be applied to accomplish missions other than those for which the forces are principally organized, trained, and equipped. Collateral activities in which special operations forces, by virtue of inherent capabilities, may be tasked to participate include humanitarian assistance, security assistance, search and rescue, counternarcotics, antiterrorism and other security activities, and special activities. See FM 31-20.

collecting point (JP 1-02)- A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers, disabled materiel, salvage, etc, for further movement to collecting stations or rear installations. (Army and Marine Corps: collection point.)

collection emphasis message- A unit's collection strategy in a narrative message format. This message communicates the collection intent and "big picture" to higher, lower, and adjacent units; collectors; and others. See FM 34-2.

collection plan (JP 1-02, NATO)- A plan for collecting information from all available sources to meet intelligence requirements and for transforming those requirements into orders and requests to appropriate agencies. (See also combat intelligence, information requirements(IR), reconnaissance(recon, recce) , and reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) plan.) See FMs 34-1 and 101-5.

collection point - A point designated for the assembly of casualties, stragglers, not operationally ready equipment and materiel, salvage, prisoners, and so on for treatment, classification, sorting, repair, or further movement to collecting stations or rear facilities and installations. (See also aid station.) See FMs 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 8-10-1, 8-10-6, 63-2, 63-2-1, 63-6, 63-20, 63-21, 71-100, and 71-123.

column formation - An arrangement of vehicles or dismounted troops in which each individual or vehicle in a specified unit follows directly behind the one in front. This type formation provides good security and permits maximum fire to the flanks, facilitates control, facilitates rapid deployment into any other formation, normally employs flank security, and may employ rear or forward security. It is used when speed is essential or for road marches, night movements, and when passing through defiles or dense woods. (See also box formation, diamond formation, echelon formation, formation, line formation, movement formation, vee formation, and wedge formation.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, and 17-95.

combatant command (JP 1-02) - A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense, and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Combatant commands typically have geographic or functional responsibilities. See FMs 100-5, 100-15, and JP 0-2.

combatant command (command authority) (COCOM) (JP 0-2, JP 1-02)- Nontransferable command authority established by title 10 ("Armed Forces"), United States Code, section 164, exercised only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense. Combatant command (command authority) cannot be delegated and is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Combatant command (command authority) should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service or functional component commanders. Combatant command (command authority) provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). (See also combatant command, operational control (OPCON), and tactical control (TACON).) See FMs 100-5, 100-15, and JP 0-2.

combat arms- Units and soldiers who close with and destroy enemy forces or provide firepower and destructive capabilities on the battlefield. The included branches and functions are: Air Defense Artillery, Armor/Cavalry, Aviation, Field Artillery, Infantry, Special Forces, and the Corps of Engineers.

combat assessment (JP 1-02)- The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major components: (a) battle damage assessment, (b) munitions effects assessment, and (c) reattack recommendation. The objective of combat assessment is to identify recommendations for the course of military operations. The J-3 is normally the single point of contact for combat assessment at the joint force level, assisted by the joint force J-2. (See also battle damage assessment (BDA), course of action (COA), and wargaming.) See FM 101-5.

combat configured load (CCL) (Army) - A planned package of ammunition or other supplies that are transported as a single load to support a type unit or weapon system. See FM 9-6.

combat control team (CCT) (Army) - A team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to establish and operate navigational or terminal guidance aids, communications, and aircraft control facilities within the objective area of an airborne operation. (See also airborne and landing zone (LZ).) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 71-100-2, and 90-26.

combat effectiveness- The ability of a unit to perform its mission. Factors such as ammunition, personnel, status of fuel, and weapon systems are assessed and rated. See FM 101-5.

combat functions- Functions that commanders integrate and coordinate to synchronize battle effects in time, space, and purpose. They are intelligence, maneuver, fire support, air defense, mobility and survivability, logistics, and battle command. See FM 100-5.

combat health support- All services performed, provided, or arranged to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel in the Army and, as directed, by other services, agencies, and organizations. See FM 8-10-1.

combat information (JP 1-02)- Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user's tactical intelligence requirements. (See also information requirements (IR).)

combat intelligence (JP 1-02)- That knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical features required by a commander in the planning and conduct of combat operations. (Army) Information on the enemy's capabilities, intentions, vulnerabilities, and the environment. (See also collection plan, intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB), reconnaissance (recon, recce), and reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) plan.) See FMs 1-111, 5-100, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 31-20, 34-1, 34-2, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, 100-15, 100-20, 100-25, and 101-5.

combat load- Those quantities of all classes of supplies kept by a unit to sustain operation in combat for a prescribed number of days. Combat loads must be capable of being moved into combat in one lift using organic transportation. See FM 10-1.

combat loading (JP 1-02, NATO)- The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the organization embarked. Each individual item is stowed so that it can be unloaded at the required time. (See also load plan.) See FMs 7-8, 55-12, and 71-10.

combat multiplier - Supporting and subsidiary means that significantly increase the relative combat strength (power) of a force while actual force ratios remain constant. Examples of combat multipliers are economizing in one area to mass in another, leadership, unit morale, surprise, deception, battlefield information, camouflage, electronic warfare, psychological operations, terrain reinforcement, smoke, and indirect fires. (See also combat power.) See FM 100-5.

combat observation and lasing team (COLT)- A fire support team controlled at the brigade level that is capable of target acquisition under reduced visibility conditions and has both laser-rangefinding and laser- designating capabilities. (See also call for fire.) See FMs 6-20-10, 7-30, and 17-95.

combat outpost- A well-prepared fortified outpost used to engage enemy reconnaissance and main body forces. Combat outposts are normally employed in restrictive terrain where armored forces cannot adequately deploy or when the security force is less mobile than the enemy and can be employed during security operations such as a guard or cover. Combat outposts may accept encirclement or displace, based on commander's intent. (See also counterreconnaissance.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, and 100-40.

combat patrol (NATO)- A tactical unit sent out from the main body to engage in independent fighting or a detachment assigned to protect the front, flank, or rear of the main body by fighting if necessary. (See also ambush ,raid, and security operations.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, and 71-123.

combat power (JP 1-02, NATO) - The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force which a military unit/formation can apply against the opponent at a given time. (Army) A combination of the effects of maneuver, firepower, protection, and leadership. (See also combat multiplier.) See FMs 1-111, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, and 71-123.

combat service support (CSS) (JP 1-02)- The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of operating forces in theater at all levels of war. Within the national and theater logistic systems, it includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service forces in ensuring the aspects of supply, maintenance, transportation, health services, and other services required by aviation and ground combat troops to permit those units to accomplish their missions in combat. Combat service support encompasses those activities at all levels of war that produce sustainment to all operating forces on the battlefield. (Army) CSS also include those activities in stability and support operations that sustain all operating forces. The included branches and functions are: Adjutant General Corps, Acquisition Corps, Chaplain Corps, Finance Corps, Judge Advocate General Corps, Medical Corps, Ordnance Corps, Transportation Corps, and the Quartermaster Corps. See FMs 8-10, 10-1, 100-5, and 100-10.

combat service support element (CSSE) (JP 1-02)- The Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) element that is task organized to provide the full range of combat service support necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. CSSE can provide supply, maintenance, transportation, deliberate engineer, health, postal, disbursing, enemy prisoner of war, automated information systems, exchange, utilities, legal, and graves registration services. The CSSE varies in size from a Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) service support group (MSSG) to a force service support group (FSSG). Normally, there is only one combat service support element in a MAGTF.

combat stress control (CSC)- A coordinated program for the prevention, triage, and treatment of each echelon of battle fatigue to maximize rapid return to duty and minimize misconduct stress reactions and post-traumatic stress disorders. This program is conducted by unit mental health personnel plus echelon above division combat stress control units. See FMs 8-51 and 22-51.

combat support (CS) - Units and soldiers that provide critical combat functions in conjunction with combat arms units and soldiers to secure victory. The included branches and functions are: Chemical Corps, civil affairs, psychological operations, Military Intelligence, Military Police Corps, and the Signal Corps.

combat support elements (JP 1-02)- Those elements whose primary missions are to provide combat support to the combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations.

combatting terrorism (JP 1-02) - Actions, including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism), taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum. (See also stability and support operations (SASO).) See FM 100-20.

combat trains- The portion of unit trains that provides the combat service support required for immediate response to the needs of forward tactical elements. At company level, medical recovery, supply, and maintenance elements normally constitute the combat trains. At battalion, the combat trains normally consist of ammunition and petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) vehicles, maintenance and recovery vehicles and crews, and the battalion aid station. (See also collection point, field trains, and unit trains.) See FMs 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, and 71-123.

combat trains command post (CTCP)- The CTCP consists of the Task Force S4 and representatives from the S1. It plans and coordinates sustainment for tactical operations and serves as the alternate for the main CP. (See also alternate command post, brigade support area, collection point, combat trains, field trains, and unit trains.) See FM 7-10, 7-20, and 71-123.

combat zone (CZ) (JP 1-02)- 1. That area required by combat forces for the conduct of operations. 2. The territory forward of the Army rear area boundary. (NATO) It is divided into: a. the forward combat zone, comprising the territory forward of the corps rear boundary; and b. the rear combat zone, usually comprising the territory between the corps rear boundary and the army group rear boundary. (See also communications zone (COMMZ).) See FMs 100-5 and 100-7.

combined arms - The synchronized or simultaneous application of several arms, such as infantry, armor, artillery, engineers, air defense, and aviation, to achieve an effect on the enemy that is greater than if each arm was used against the enemy in sequence. (See also combat multiplier and task force (TF ).) See FMs 71-100, 71-123, and 100-5.

combined arms team - Two or more arms mutually supporting one another, usually consisting of infantry, armor, cavalry, aviation, field artillery, air defense artillery, and engineers. (See also combat multiplier, joint operations, and task force (TF).) See FMs 71-100, 71-123, and 100-5.

combined operation- See combined warfare.

combined warfare (JP 1-02) - Warfare conducted by forces of two or more allied nations in coordinated action toward common objectives. (Army) Currently referred to as multinational warfare. (See also coalition and multinational operations.) See FM 100-5.

command (JP 1-02)- 1. The authority that a commander in the Military Service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. 2. An order given by a commander; that is, the will of the commander expressed for the purpose of bringing about a particular action. 3. A unit or units, an organization, or an area under the command of one individual. 4. To dominate by a field of weapon fire or by observation from a superior position. (See also battle command and commander.) See FMs22-100, 22-103, 100-5, and 101-5.

command and control (C2) (JP 1-02)- The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of a mission. (See also battle command(BC), command, commander, and command post (CP).) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I)- Integrated system of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, facilities, communication computers, and supporting intelligence assets. It includes missile warning and cueing of defense systems by missile warning sensors and ground stations. C4I provides command authorities at all levels with timely and accurate data systems to plan, monitor, direct, control, and report operations. (Army) The means for the commander to communicate his intent, command and control his forces, and disseminate pertinent information throughout his area of operations.

command and control warfare (C2W) (JP 1-02)- The integrated use of operations security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP), electronic warfare (EW), and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities, while protecting friendly command and control capabilities against such actions. Command and control warfare is an application of information warfare in military operations and is a subset of information warfare. Command and control warfare applies across the range of military operations and all levels of conflict. C2W is both offensive and defensive: a. C2-attack. Prevent effective C2 of adversary forces by denying information to, influencing, degrading or destroying the adversary C2 system. b. C2-protect. Maintain effective command and control of own forces by turning to friendly advantage or negating adversary efforts to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy the friendly C2 system. (See also information warfare (IW).) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and JP 3-13.1.

command element (CE) (JP 1-02)- The Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) headquarters. The CE is a permanent organization composed of the commander, general or executive and special staff sections, headquarters section, and requisite communications and service support facilities. The CE provides command, control, and coordination essential for effective planning and execution of operations by the other three elements of the MAGTF. There is only one CE in a MAGTF.

commander - One who is in command because of rank, position, or other circumstances. (See also battle command and command.)

commander's critical information requirements (CCIR) - Information required by the commander that directly affects his decisions and dictates the successful execution of operational or tactical operations. CCIR normally result in the generation of three types of information requirements: priority intelligence requirements, essential elements of friendly information, and friendly force information requirements. (See also essential elements of friendly information (EEFI), friendly force information requirements (FFIR), and priority intelligence requirements (PIR).) See FMs 34-1 and 101-5.

commander's estimate of the situation (JP 1-02)- A logical process of reasoning by which a commander considers all the circumstances affecting the military situation and arrives at a decision as to a course of action to be taken to accomplish the mission. A commander's estimate which considers a military situation so far in the future as to require major assumptions is called a commander's long-range estimate of the situation. (Army)) The procedure whereby a commander decides how to best accomplish the assigned mission. It is a thorough consideration of the mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) and other relevant factors. The commander's estimate is based on personal knowledge of the situation and on staff estimates. (See also battle command (BC), battlespace, and staff estimates.) See FM 101-5.

commander's intent (Army) - Commander's personal expression of why an operation is being conducted and what he hopes to achieve. It is a clear and concise statement of a mission's overall purpose, acceptable risk, and resulting end state (with respect to the relationship of the force, the enemy, and the terrain). It must be understood two echelons below the issuing commander because it provides an overall framework within which subordinate commanders may operate when a plan or concept of operation no longer applies, or circumstances require subordinates to make decisions that support the ultimate goal of the force. (See also battle command, commander's estimate, concept of operations, and operation order (OPORD).) See FM 101-5.

command group- A small party that accompanies the commander when he departs the command post to be present at a critical action. The party is organized and equipped to suit the commander and normally provides local security and other personal assistance for the commander as he requires. (See also command post (CP).) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 101-5.

command post (CP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A unit's or subunit's headquarters where the commander and the staff perform their activities. In combat, a unit's or subunit's headquarters is often divided into echelons; the echelon in which the unit or subunit commander is located or from which such commander operates is called a command post. (Army) - The principal facility employed by the commander to control combat operations. (The commander is only present at the command post to receive information or briefings. He controls the battle from a forward position called the command group.) A CP consists of those coordinating and special staff activities and representatives from supporting Army elements and other services that may be necessary to carry out operations. Corps and division headquarters are particularly adaptable to organization by echelon into a tactical CP, a main CP, and a rear CP. (See also alternate command post, assault command post, base defense operations center (BDOC), combat trains command post (CTCP), command group, main command post, rear command post, tactical command post (TAC CP), and tactical operations center (TOC).) See FMs 1-111, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 101-5.

command post exercise (CPX) (JP 1-02, NATO) - An exercise in which the forces are simulated, involving the commander, his staff, and communications within and between headquarters. (See also exercise.) See FMs 100-5 and 101-5.

command relationship (Army) - The degree of control and responsibility a commander has for forces operating under his command. (See also administrative control, assign, attach, direct support (DS), general support (GS), operational control (OPCON), and tactical control (TACON)) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.

committed force (Army) - A force in contact with an enemy or deployed on a specific mission or course of action which precludes its employment elsewhere. (See also attack, decisive engagement, and defend.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8 and 7-10.

common servicing (JP 1-02) - That function performed by one Military Service in support of another Military Service for which reimbursement is not required from the Service receiving support. (See also command relationship and support.) See FM 10-1.

common understanding of the battlefield (Army) - The commander and staff's perception of the battlefield environment. It includes the sum of all that is known or perceived of friendly or threat forces and the effects of the battlefield environment.

common use (JP 1-02)- Services, materials, or facilities provided by a Department of Defense agency or a Military Department on a common basis for two or more DOD agencies. See FM 10-1.

communication deception (JP 1-02)- Use of devices, operations, and techniques with the intent of confusing or misleading the user of a communications link or a navigation system. (See also command and control warfare (C2W), deception operation, electronic warfare (EW), imitative electromagnetic deception (IED), and information warfare (IW).) See FMs 34-1, 34-10, and 90-2.

communications checkpoint (CCP) (Army) - An air control point that requires serial leaders to report either to the aviation mission commander or the terminal control facility. (See also air control point (ACP), air corridor, and Army airspace command and control (A2C2).) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, 1-116, 71-100-3, and 90-4.

communications intelligence (COMINT) (JP 1-02)- Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. (See also combat intelligence.) See FMs 34-1 and 34-10.

communications jamming- Electronic measures taken to deny the enemy the use of communications means. (See also barrage jamming, command and control warfare (C2W), electronic warfare (EW), and jamming.) See FMs 34-1 and 34-10.

communications security (COMSEC) (JP 1-02) - The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. COMSEC includes cryptosecurity, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of COMSEC materials and information. See FMs 24-1, 34-1, and 34-10.

communications zone (COMMZ) (JP 1-02, NATO)- Rear part of theater of operations (behind but contiguous to the combat zone) which contains the lines of communications, establishments for supply and evacuation, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces. (See also combat zone (CZ) and rear area.) See FM 100-7.

company team (Army) - A combined arms team formed by attaching one or more nonorganic tank, mechanized infantry, or light infantry platoons to a tank, mechanized infantry, or light infantry company either in exchange for or in addition to organic platoons. (See also combined arms team.) See FM 7-10.

compartment- Areas bounded on at least two sides by terrain features affected by drainage and relief, such as woods, ridges, or ravines, that limit observation or observed fire into the area from points outside the area and effect avenues of approach. (See also cross-corridor.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, and 34-130.

compartmentation(Army) - In unconventional warfare, the division of an organization or activity into functional segments or cells to restrict communication between them and prevent knowledge of the identity or activities of other segments except on a need-to-know basis. Restricting the use of specific cryptovariables to specific users for the purpose of limiting access to the information protected by these cryptovariables and limiting the adverse impact of a compromise of these variables.

complete round (JP 1-02)- A term applied to an assemblage of explosive and nonexplosive components designed to perform a specific function at the time and under the conditions desired. Examples of complete rounds of ammunition are: a. separate loading, consisting of a primer, propelling charge, and, except for blank ammunition, a projectile and a fuze. b. fixed or semifixed, consisting of a primer, propelling charge, cartridge case, a projectile, and, except when solid projectiles are used, a fuze. c. bomb, consisting of all component parts required to drop and function the bomb once. d. missile, consisting of a complete warhead section and a missile body with its associated components and propellants. e. rocket, consisting of all components necessary to function. See FM 6-20 series.

computed air release point (CARP) (JP 1-02, NATO)- A computed air position where the first paratroop or cargo item is released to land on a specified impact point. See FMs 71-100-3 and 90-26.

concealment (JP 1-02, NATO)- The protection from observation or surveillance. (See also camouflage and cover.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, and 34-130.

concentrated fire- A limited area on which a volume of gunfire is placed within a limited time.

concept of operations- 1. (JP 1-02) A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of a commander's assumptions or intent in regard to an operation or a series of operations. The concept of operations frequently is embodied in campaign plans and operation plans; in the latter case, particularly when the plans cover a series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. 2. (NATO) A clear and concise statement of the line of action chosen by a commander in order to accomplish his mission. See FM 101-5.

concept plan (CONPLAN) (JP 1-02)- An operation plan in concept format. (See also operation plan (OPLAN).) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and 101-5.

confirmation brief- A briefing subordinate leaders give to the higher commander immediately after the operation order is given. It is their understanding of his intent, their specific tasks, and the relationship between their units' tasks and the other units in the operation. (See also backbrief.) See FM 101-5.

conflict (Army) - A political-military situation between peace and war, distinguished from peace by the introduction of organized political violence and from war by its reliance on political methods. It shares many of the goals and characteristics of war, including the destruction of governments and the control of territory. SeeFM 100-20.

conflict termination (Army) - The point a conflict ends and postconflict activities begin. The enemy should be both unable and unwilling to resist. Strategic, operational, and political goals established at the beginning of the conflict should either be secured, or their securement be the immediate result of the end of the conflict. See FM 100-5.

connectivity- The exchange of information by electronic means.

consolidation of position (JP 1-02, NATO)- Organizing and strengthening of a newly captured position so that it can be used against the enemy. (Army) Also called consolidation phase. (See also assault, attack, and objective.) See FMs 5-102, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, and 71-123.

constraint (Army) - Restrictions placed on the command by a higher command to dictate an action or inaction, thus restricting the freedom of action the subordinate commander has for planning a mission by stating things that must or must not be done. See FMs 71-100, 100-15, and 101-5.

consumption rate (JP 1-02, NATO)- The average quantity of an item consumed or expended during a given time interval, expressed in quantities by the most appropriate unit of measurement per applicable stated basis. See FMs 10-1, 63-20, 63-21, and 100-10.

contact (JP 1-02)- 1. In air intercept, a term meaning, "Unit has an unevaluated target." 2. In health services, an unevaluated individual who is known to have been sufficiently near an infected individual to have been exposed to the transfer of infectious material. (Army) 1. Friendly, when two or more friendly forces make visual, physical, or communications interaction. 2. Enemy, when a friendly force engages an enemy force physically in hand-to-hand fighting or at the maximum range of weapons and visual or electronic devices. (See also close operations.)

contact point (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. In land warfare, a point on the terrain, easily identifiable, where two or more units are required to make contact. 2. In air operations, the position at which a mission leader makes radio contact with an air control agency. (See also checkpoint (CP), control point, and coordinating point.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 19-1, and 71-123.

contain (JP 1-02, NATO)- To stop, hold, or surround the forces of the enemy or to cause the enemy to center activity on a given front and to prevent his withdrawing any part of his forces for use elsewhere. (Army) A tactical task to restrict enemy movement. (See also block, fix, suppression.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10,7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.

container delivery system (CDS) - A system for aerial delivery of supplies and small items of equipment from low or high altitudes into a small area. (See also bulk cargo.) See FM 55-12.

contamination (JP 1-02)- 1. The deposit, absorption, or adsorption of radioactive material, or of biological or chemical agents on or by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. 2. Food and/or water made unfit for consumption by humans or animals because of the presence of environmental chemicals, radioactive elements, bacteria or organisms, the byproduct of the growth of bacteria or organisms, the decomposing material (to include the food substance itself), or waste in the food or water. (See also decontamination.) See FMs 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 3-7, 8-10-7, and 21-10.

contingency (JP 1-02)- An emergency involving military forces caused by natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or by required military operations. Due to the uncertainty of the situation, contingencies require plans, rapid response, and special procedures to ensure the safety and readiness of personnel, installations, and equipment. (See also branch, concept plan (CONPLAN), operation order (OPORD), operation plan (OPLAN), and sequel.) See FMs 19-15, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, 100-20, and 101-5.

contingency plan (Army) - A plan used in accomplishing different missions and anticipated major events before, during, and after operations.

contour flight- Flight characterized by constant airspeed and varying altitude as dictated by vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light. (See terrain flight.) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, and 1-116.

control (JP 1-02)- 1. Authority which may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. 2. In mapping, charting, and photogrammetry, a collective term for a system of marks or objects on the Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevations, or both, have been or will be determined. 3. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to ensure that an agent or group will respond as directed. 4. An indicator governing the distribution and use of documents, information, or material. Such indicators are the subject of intelligence community agreement and are specifically defined in appropriate regulations. (Army) To maintain physical influence by occupation or range of weapon systems over the activities or access in a defined area. Actions taken to eliminate hazards or reduce their risk (third step in risk management process). (See also administrative control, command relationship, operational control (OPCON), and tactical control (TACON).) See FMs 22-100, 22-103, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and 101-5.

controlled airspace (JP 1-02, NATO)- An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to controlled flights. (Army) Airspace in which another unit is conducting operations and which requires permission from controlling unit to enter. (See also (airspace coordination area ACA), area of operations (AO), Army airspace command and control (A2C2), and restricted operations zone (ROZ).) See FM 100-103.

controlled exchange (Army) - The removal of serviceable parts, components, or assemblies from unserviceable, economically reparable equipment and their immediate reuse in restoring a like item of equipment to a combat operable or serviceable condition. (See also cannibalize.) See FMs 10-1, 63-2-1, 63-20, 63-21, and 100-10.

controlled supply rate (CSR) (Army) - The rate of ammunition consumption that can be supported, considering availability, facilities, and transportation. It is expressed in rounds per unit, individual, or vehicle per day. The Army service component commander announces the CSR for each item of ammunition, and, in turn, the commander of each subordinate tactical unit announces a CSR to his commanders at the next lower levels. A unit may not draw ammunition in excess of its CSR without authority from its next higher headquarters. (See also required supply rate (RSR).) See FMs 10-1, 63-20, 63-21, 71-100, 100-10, 100-15, and 701-58.

control measures- Directives given graphically or orally by a commander to subordinate commands to assign responsibilities, coordinate fires and maneuver, and control combat operations. Each control measure can be portrayed graphically. In general, all control measures should be easily identifiable on the ground. Examples of control measures include boundaries, objectives, coordinating points, contact point, and direction of attack. See FMs 5-100, 6-20, 7-90, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, 100-103, and 101-5.

control point (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. A position along a route of march at which men are stationed to give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or traffic. 2. A position marked by a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device, conspicuous terrain feature, or other identifiable object which is given a name or number and used as an aid to navigation or control of ships, boats, or aircraft. 3. In making mosaics, a point located by ground survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched as a check. See FMs 5-36, 5-100, 7-92, 21-18, 71-100, and 100-15.

controls- Actions taken to eliminate hazards or reduce their risk.

converged sheaf (JP 1-02) - The lateral distribution of fire of two or more pieces so that the planes of fire intersect at a given point. (See also final protective fire (FPF) and sheaf.) See FM 6-20 series and 7-90.

convoy (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. A number of merchant ships or naval auxiliaries, or both, usually escorted by warships and/or aircraft, or a single merchant ship or naval auxiliary under surface escort, assembled and organized for the purpose of passage together. 2. A group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection. (Army) A group of vehicles that moves over the same route at the same time and under one commander. (See also march column.) See FMs 55-2, 55-10, and 55-30.

coordinated fire line (CFL) (NATO: no-fire line)- A line beyond which conventional surface fire support means (mortars, field artillery, naval gunfire ships) may fire at any time within the zone of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. It is usually established by brigade or division but may be established by a maneuver battalion. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

coordinating altitude (JP 1-02)- A procedural airspace control method to separate fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft by determining an altitude below which fixed-wing aircraft will normally not fly and above which rotary-wing aircraft normally will not fly. The coordinating altitude is normally specified in the airspace control plan and may include a buffer zone for small altitude deviations. (See also above ground level (AGL) and controlled airspace.) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, 1-116, 6-20, and 100-103.

coordinating point (JP 1-02, NATO)- Designated point at which, in all types of combat, adjacent units/formations must make contact for purposes of control and coordination. (Army) A control measure that indicates a specific location for the coordination of fires and maneuver between adjacent units. They usually are indicated whenever a boundary crosses the forward edge of the battle area (FEBA) and may be indicated when a boundary crosses phase lines (PLs) used to control security forces. (In NATO, physical contact between adjacent units is required.) (See also contact point.) See FMs 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-103, and 101-5.

coordination (Army) - Exchange of information to inform and integrate, synchronize, and deconflict operations. Coordination is not necessarily a process of gaining approval but is most often used for mutual exchange of information.

corduroy road- A road made or reinforced by laying logs or planks perpendicular to the direction of travel. It is usually used when a road is muddy, snow packed, or in a swamp.

counter air (JP 1-02)- A US Air Force term for air operations conducted to attain and maintain a desired degree of air superiority by the destruction or neutralization of enemy forces. Both air offensive and air defensive operations are involved. The former range throughout enemy territory and are generally conducted at the initiative of friendly forces. The latter are conducted near or over friendly territory and are generally reactive to the initiative of the enemy air forces. (See also defensive counterair (DCA) and offensive counterair (OCA).) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, 1-116, 44-100, 71-100, 90-4, 100-5,100-15, and 100-103.

counterattack (JP 1-02, NATO)- Attack by part or all of a defending force against an enemy attacking force, for such specific purposes as regaining ground lost, or cutting off or destroying enemy advance units, and with the general objective of denying to the enemy the attainment of his purpose in attacking. In sustained defensive operations, it is undertaken to restore the battle position and is directed at limited objectives. (See also attack and defend.) See FMs 1-112, 7-8, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.

counterdrug (CD) (JP 1-02)- Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. See FMs 100-19 and 100-20.

counterfire (JP1-02, NATO)- Fire intended to destroy or neutralize enemy weapons. (DOD) Includes counterbattery, counterbombardment, and countermortar fire. (See also fire mission.) See FMs 6-20 series and 7-90.

counterinsurgency (JP 1-02)- Those military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency. (See also stability and support operations (SASO).) See FMs 31-20 and 100-20.

counterintelligence (CI) (JP 1-02)- Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities. (See also combat intelligence, operations security (OPSEC), and sabotage.) See FM 34-1.

countermeasures (Army) - Actions taken to counter danger, threat, or hazards. (See also risk management.)

countermine (JP 1-02, NATO)- To explode the main charge in a mine by shock of a nearby explosion of another mine or independent explosive charge. The explosion of the main charge may be caused either by sympathetic detonation or through the explosive train and/or firing mechanism of the mine. (Army) The actions taken to detect, bypass, breach, mark, report, record, and eliminate enemy mines or minefield. (See also breach.) See FMs 5-101, 5-250, and 90-13-1.

countermobility operations - The construction of obstacles and emplacement of minefields to delay, disrupt, and destroy the enemy by reinforcement of the terrain. The primary purpose of countermobility operations is to slow or divert the enemy, to increase time for target acquisition, and to increase weapon effectiveness. See FMs 3-50, 3-100, 5-102, and 5-250.

counterpreparation fire (JP 1-02, NATO)- Intensive prearranged fire delivered when the imminence of the enemy attack is discovered. (DOD) It is designed to break up enemy formations; disorganize the enemy's systems of command, communications, and observation; decrease the effectiveness of artillery preparation; and impair the enemy's offensive spirit. (See also fire.) See FMs 6-20 series and 7-90.

counterproliferation- Military measures centering on deterring or discouraging, as well as defending against, the possible use of weapons of mass destruction.

counterreconnaissance (JP 1-02)- All measures taken to prevent hostile observation of a force, area, or place. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 34-2, 34-130, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

counterterrorism (CT) (JP 1-02) - Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. See FMs 19-1, 34-1, and 100-20.

country team (JP 1-02)- The senior in-country United States coordinating and supervising body, headed by the chief of the United States diplomatic mission, and composed of the senior member of each represented United States department or agency, as desired by the chief of the US diplomatic mission. See FMs 31-20-3, 100-20, and JP 3-07.4.

coup de main (JP 1-02)- An offensive operation that capitalizes on surprise and simultaneous execution of supporting operations to achieve success in one swift stroke. See FMs 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.

course of action (COA) (JP 1-02) - 1. A plan that would accomplish, or is related to, the accomplishment of a mission. 2. The scheme adopted to accomplish a task or mission. It is a product of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System concept development phase. The supported commander will include a recommended course of action in the commander's estimate. The recommended course of action will include the concept of operations, evaluation of supportability estimates of supporting organizations, and an integrated time-phased data base of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces and sustainment. Refinement of this data base will be contingent on the time available for course of action development. When approved, the course of action becomes the basis for the development of an operation plan or operation order. (Army) 1. Any sequence of acts that an individual or a unit may follow. 2. A possible plan open to an individual or a commander that would accomplish or is related to accomplishment of the mission. 3. A feasible way to accomplish a task or mission that follows the guidance given, will not result in undue damage or risk to the command, and is noticeably different from other actions being considered. See FMs 8-55, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and 101-5.

cover (JP1-02, NATO) - 1. The action by land, air, or sea forces to protect by offense, defense, or threat of either or both. 2. Those measures necessary to give protection to a person, plan, operation, formation, or installation from the enemy intelligence effort and leakage of information. 3. The act of maintaining a continuous receiver watch with transmitter calibrated and available, but not necessarily available for immediate use. 4. Shelter or protection (either natural or artificial). (DOD) 5. Photographs or other recorded images which show a particular area of ground. (Army) 1. Shelter or protection from enemy observation that reduces the effects of enemy direct and indirect fire. 2. A form of security operations which accomplishes all of the tasks of screen and guard. (See covering force.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 34-1, and 34-130.

covered approach- 1. Any route that offers protection against enemy fire. 2. An approach made under the protection furnished by other forces or by natural cover. (See also concealment and cover.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, and 7-10.

covering fire (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. Fire used to protect friendly troops when they are within range of enemy small arms. 2. In amphibious usage, fire delivered prior to the landing to cover preparatory operations such as underwater demolition or minesweeping. (See also fire.) See FMs 6-20 and 6-30.

covering force (JP 1-02, NATO)- 1. A force operating apart from the main force for the purpose of intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing, and deceiving the enemy before he can attack the force covered. 2. Any body or detachment of troops which provides security for a larger force by observation, reconnaissance, attack, or defense, or by any combination of these methods. (See also cover and security operations.) See FMs 1-116, 6-20, 17-95, 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.

covering force area (CFA) (NATO)- The area forward of the forward edge of the battle area out to the forward positions initially assigned to the covering forces. It is here that the covering forces execute assigned tasks. See FMs 1-116, 6-20, 17-95, 71-100, 90-13, 100-5, and 100-15.

covert breach (Army) - A breach tactic used when the force must reduce lanes through enemy tactical or protective obstacles undetected. In the covert breach, suppression from the support force is a be-prepared task upon detection of the breach force or an on-order task once the breach is completed and the assault is initiated. Normally, this type of breach is used when mission success depends on achieving surprise at the expense of speed or mass. See FMs 5-71-100 and 90-13-1.

covert operation (JP 1-02)- An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation.

cratering charge (JP 1-02, NATO)- A charge placed at an adequate depth to produce a crater. (Army) A demolition charge used to create a type of point obstacle usually used to close a lane or block a road. (See also point obstacle and state of readiness.) See FMs 5-34, 5-71-100, and 5-102.

crisis action planning (CAP) (JP 1-02) - 1. The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System process involving the time-sensitive development of joint operation plans and orders in response to an imminent crisis. Crisis action planning follows prescribed crisis action procedures to formulate and implement an effective response within the time frame permitted by the crisis. 2. The time-sensitive planning for the deployment, employment, and sustainment of assigned and allocated forces and resources that occurs in response to a situation that may result in actual military operations. Crisis action planners base their plan on the circumstances that exist at the time planning occurs. (See also deliberate planning.) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, 101-5, and JP 5-0.

critical point (JP 1-02)- 1. A key geographical point or position important to the success of an operation. 2. In a point in time, a crisis or turning point in an operation. 3. A selected point along a line of march used for reference in giving instruction. 4. A point where there is a change in direction or change in slope in a ridge or stream. 5. Any point along a route of march where interference with a troop movement may occur. (Army) Roadways, structures, and man-made or terrain features that limit the ability to maneuver. See FM 101-5.

cross-attachment- The exchange of subordinate units between units for a temporary period. Example: A tank battalion detaches a tank company that is subsequently attached to a mechanized infantry battalion, and the mechanized infantry battalion detaches a mechanized company that is then attached to the tank battalion. See FM 7-7.

cross-corridor- A terrain compartment, its long axis generally perpendicular to the direction of movement of a force. (See also compartment.) See FM 34-130.

cross-country movement - The movement of forces (usually tactical) across terrain without using roads and bridges. See FMs 7-7, 7-8 and 7-10.

crossing area (JP 1-02, NATO)- A number of adjacent crossing sites under the control of one commander. (Army) A controlled access area for a river crossing operation used to decrease traffic congestion at the river. It is normally a brigade-sized area defined by lateral boundaries and release lines 3 to 4 kilometers (based on METT-T) from each side of the river. (See also crossing site and river crossing.) See FM 90-13.

crossing area commander- The officer responsible for the control of all crossing units, assault units, and support forces while they are in the crossing area. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 71-100, 90-13, and 100-15.

crossing force (Army) - Normally a division size unit that has responsibility to establish the bridgehead. This is accomplished in four phases; the advance to the river, the assault across the river, the advance from the exit bank, and the securing of the bridgehead line. (See also bridgehead line, crossing area, and crossing site.) See FM 90-13.

crossing force commander (Army) - The individual designated to control the lead brigades during the assault across the river to secure the bridgehead line. (See also bridgehead.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 90-13, and 100-15.

crossing site- The location along a water obstacle where the crossing can be made using amphibious vehicles, assault boats, rafts, bridges, or fording vehicles. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 90-13, and 100-15.

crossing site commander - The individual, normally an engineer company commander or a platoon leader, responsible for the crossing means and crossing site, and for crossing the units sent to the crossing site. He commands the engineers operating the crossing means and the engineer regulating points (ERPs) at the call forward areas and staging areas for that site. (See also bridgehead.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 90-13, and 100-15.

cross-loading (personnel) (JP 1-02) A system of loading troops so that they may be disembarked or dropped at two or more landing or drop zones, thereby achieving unit integrity upon delivery. See FMs 1-103, 55-2, 55-10, 55-12, and 100-17.

cruise missile (JP 1-02)- Guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target is conducted at approximately constant velocity; it depends on the dynamic reaction of air for lift and upon propulsion forces to balance drag.

culminating point- The point in time and space when the attacker can no longer accomplish his purpose, or when the defender no longer has the ability to accomplish his purpose. This can be due to factors such as combat power remaining, logistic support, weather, morale, and fatigue. See FM 101-5.

Updated 27 July 1997.

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