News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan

4. Hardware–in–the–Loop Simulation

Hardware–in–the–loop simulations test types of systems using real hardware and computer simulations, providing a significant return on investment for the Army.

One example of hardware–in–the–loop simulation is ARDEC’s Ware Simulation Center located at Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois (Figure VI–19). This simulator provides a realistic emulation of the field environment that an armament system will encounter. The facility can test weapons using up to 30–mm live or 40–mm inert ammunition. In addition, the facility’s 6–DOF simulator is a large mount capable of holding weapons, gun turrets, and vehicle sections weighing up to 10,000 pounds. Programmed vibrations as well as pitch and yaw motions may be applied to the attached loads while the weapons are test fired in the indoor range.

Figure VI-19. ARDEC’ s Ware Simulation Center.
Figure VI-19. ARDEC’ s Ware Simulation Center.
The center’ s 6-DOF mount allows conceptual and fielded weapons to be
fired in realistic mounting environments to isolate design deficiencies in controlled laboratory conditions.

The AMCOM open–loop tracking complex (OLTC), a computer–automated electro–optical countermeasure (EOCM) simulation facility, provides electronic warfare analysts the tools for evaluating the performance and effectiveness of EO air defense missile systems and guidance assembly hardware in the presence of countermeasures.

CECOM has implemented the Army Interoperability Network (AIN), a nationwide suite of distributed communications capabilities and services to support interoperability and software development for Army C4I systems throughout their life cycle. The AIN provides the Army infrastructure for C4I systems to achieve the objectives of the Army Enterprise Strategy (i.e., battlefield digitization and C4I for the warrior). The AIN provides rapid engineering support solutions that replicate battlefield configurations by networking dispersed fielded C4I systems. Current AIN major operational equipment includes the AIN Central Control Facility, Protocol Assessment Facility, four sites at Fort Monmouth, and remote sites at Fort Leavenworth, Fort Sill, and Fort Huachuca. A remote site is planned for PEO Armored Systems Modernization at General Dynamics Land Systems, Warren, Michigan. A transportable AIN node is available to provide quick–reaction AIN access in situations requiring rapid test support. The AIN is the Army’s infrastructure for linking the battle laboratories with the RDECs.

5. Combined Arms Battlefield Soldier–in–the–Loop Simulation

Enhanced design architectures and improved battlefield simulation techniques are rapidly growing areas of Army simulation and modeling capability. The Army leadership has a vision of how the totality of battlefield simulation technology and techniques can be used throughout the research and acquisition process (Figure VI–20).

Figure VI-20. Potential Use of Battlefield Simulations Throughout the Research and Acquisition Process
Figure VI-20. Potential Use of Battlefield Simulations Throughout the Research and Acquisition Process
Click on the image to view enlarged version

The cornerstone is the BDS–D program, designed to create and maintain a distributed, state–of–the–art network capability linking government, university, and industry sites into a simulation of the combined and joint arms battlefield. The BDS–D program is shown in Figure VI–11 above.

Using current and emerging long–haul data communication capabilities to create wide area networks (WANs), simulation capabilities will be resident at geographically separate sites and linked together to form much larger synchronized simulation environments. Thus simulation environment can be "packaged" in sizes and places corresponding to the size and location of actual units for evaluating weapon system, force development, and training concepts (Figures VI–21 and VI–22).

Figure VI-21. BDS-D Referees.
Figure VI-21. BDS-D Referees.
WithBDS-D, wargame exercise referees can observe training operations
from any vantage point on the battlefield while remaining transparent to the players.

Figure VI-22. BDS-D Training.
Figure VI-22. BDS-D Training.
BDS-D will give weapon system operators the ability to more
realistically train with non-line-of-sight missile technologies.

Armored Systems Modernization (ASM) is similarly being analyzed under the BDS–D concept. ASM mobility, weapon station stability, and ride quality, as well as the survivability of all the ASM variants, will be evaluated in a true combined arms simulation. Anticipated ASM capabilities are being simulated and evaluated via the BDS–D test bed resources; crew controls and displays for the LOSAT variant of the ASM family have been prototyped within the BDS–D resources and successfully used to describe valuable human factors modifications.

6. Test and Evaluation Simulation

Technological progress must be complemented by test and instrumentation facilities, including T&E simulation, that can measure the technological progress being achieved. Environmental and safety concerns increasingly impose constraints on T&E facilities. The ability to simulate the physical conditions of the battlefield for T&E reduces the time to obtain data and cost. Bringing the test environment under laboratory control provides high–quality, reproducible data that can be recorded and analyzed during the test process.

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