News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan

L. Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality

1. Scope

Technology efforts in this area solve critical environmental and civil engineering problems related to training, mobilizing, deploying, and employing a force at any location at any time. These efforts will provide the Army with enhanced capabilities for executing mobility, countermobility, survivability, and general engineering missions. They also provide the lowest possible environmentally sustainable, life–cycle cost, military–unique infrastructure required to project and sustain U.S. forces worldwide from CONUS or forward–presence bases.

Environmental Quality subareas include cleanup of contaminated sites, compliance with all environmental laws, pollution prevention to minimize Army’s generation of wastes, and conservation of our natural and cultural resources. Civil Engineering subareas include conventional facilities, airfields and pavements, survivability and protective structures, and sustainment engineering. There is a tri–service joint engineers management panel to oversee, direct, and coordinate this program. The joint engineers panel consist of the flag officer engineer material developer for each service and is currently chaired by the Air Force under a 2–year rotation assignment. Technology subpanels in each major program area ensure coordination and nonduplication of research efforts.

2. Rationale

National and international laws and treaties demand the mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from normal operations and maintenance of Army training readiness and industrial activities. Base realignment and closure actions place an added urgency on bringing our sites into compliance while placing more activity on remaining installations, thereby creating greater demands on facilities and compliance requirements. Reduced budgets and increased regulatory requirements dictate the need for new or improved technologies to reduce the costs of contaminant cleanup, treatment, and disposal; reduce the generation of hazardous materials and pollutants; enhance compliance; and maintain natural and cultural resources in a realistic state to support training and operations. Payoff for investments in environmental quality technology is realized by reducing the cost of doing business while maintaining our mission readiness.

Civil engineering R&D provides the Army technologies to project and sustain U.S. Forces from CONUS and outside the continental United States (OCONUS) in the defense of this nation. The payoff in this area is threefold:

Operation and maintenance (O&M) cost reductions free up dollars for mission critical activities.
Infrastructure improvements of power projection platforms increase military readiness.
Enhanced quality of life improves Army capability through increases in retention rates for soldiers.

Unique Army civil engineering needs arise from the characteristics of the weapons and transportation systems. The requirement to counter the effects of advanced conventional weapons and saboteur threats is not found in the private sector and, accordingly, there is no robust civilian R&D effort. The need to rapidly establish, maintain, and upgrade or retrofit facilities and transportation infrastructure within a theater of operation is unique; the private sector has no like requirement and no significant R&D investment. Our aging CONUS infrastructure (the average age of Army facilities is 35 years) requires modernization on a scale not seen elsewhere.

3. Technology Subareas

a. Civil Engineering

Goals and Timeframes

The primary thrusts in the conventional facilities area are to develop technologies to revitalize and operate DoD’s aging infrastructure, to ensure effective strategic power projection platforms, and to maximize productivity of resources in acquisition, revitalization, operations, and maintenance and repair (M&R) management. The Army’s $162 billion physical plant requires $5.9 billion annually to operate, maintain, and repair its aging facilities. The annual energy bill alone topped $1.5 billion, while the backlog of maintenance and repair (BMAR) of facilities is $2.2 billion. The goal is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in facilities acquisition and M&R costs from 1990 levels and a 30 percent reduction from 1985 levels in energy consumption by FY05. Technologies developed are dual use and critical to DoD cost reduction goals. Delivery of mission–enhancing, energy–efficient, and environmentally sustainable facilities with scarce resources is a major challenge. Every dollar saved from infrastructure improvements can be a dollar earned for mission–critical activities.

In the subareas of airfields and pavements, the goal is to reduce costs by 20 percent ($72 million per year) and extend the life (5 to 10 years) of the Army’s military–unique roads, airfields, ports, and railroads by the year 2000. Potential payoff and transition opportunities include providing the U.S. military with a reliable launching platform to project mobile forces to support worldwide contingency conflicts. The Army’s pavement research leads the nation. Civilian airports, 26 states, and many municipalities use the Army’s airfield and pavement procedures.

For survivability and protective structures (S&PS), the goal is to provide reliable and affordable structural hardening and CCD that will increase survivability of facilities, equipment, and personnel against a broad spectrum of increasingly lethal modern weapon threats, ranging from terrorist attack through regional conflicts and up to limited nuclear warfare. Lightweight, highly ductile, and high–strength materials with enhanced energy absorption will reduce hardening costs. Retrofit of existing facilities will enhance survivability of large–length–to–diameter–ratio penetrators and blast and thermal weapons.

The sustainment engineering subarea is structured to provide the civil engineering technologies required by the Army for successful execution of strategic, operational, and tactical force projection, employment, and sustainment. Engineer troops will be able to support a deployed force in an austere theater with faster, lighter, less voluminous, and less manpower–intensive ways of executing mobility, countermobility, and general engineering missions. Transitions include technical and field manuals, guide specifications, and the Army’s facility component systems.

Major Technical Challenges

Challenges for the conventional facilities subareas include technologies for affordable automated condition assessment, integrated installation management tools, innovative revitalization technologies, and technologies to determine applicability and DoD–wide prioritization of energy conservation opportunities to reduce O&M costs. Technology challenges for the S&PS subarea include innovative uses of lightweight, high strength, high ductility materials in protective construction and retrofit of existing structures to increase hardness at low cost and improve numerical models for accurate vulnerability assessments. Challenges for sustainment engineering include methods to improve construction speed and reduce logistic requirements, methods to acquire and interpret data for infrastructure assessment, and methods to predict real–time sea–state forecasts and logistics over–the–shore throughput assessments.

Army research is currently working to overcome technological barriers in civil engineering by developing:

Collaborative automated environment to optimize conventional facility life–cycle costs by concurrent considerations of design, construction, operation, and maintenance.
Breakwaters that can be rapidly installed to attenuate adverse sea–states for logistics over–the–shore operations.
Material, admixtures, dynamic 3D models, and viscoelastic material responses for airfields and pavements.
Criteria and materials for constructible survivability measures and simplified survivability (facilities, equipment, and troops) assessment capabilities for battlefield commanders.

b. Environmental Quality

Goals and Timeframes

The primary thrusts of site cleanup R&D are to reduce cost and expedite cleanup programs while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. R&D is conducted in characterization/monitoring, remediation technologies, and fate and effects of environmental contaminants in all climates. Cleanup R&D will produce innovative and cost–effective site identification, assessment, characterization, advanced cleanup methods, and monitoring technologies. By 2001, advanced sensors and sampling devices will expand the capabilities and precision of these systems. Subsurface conditions will then be better understood, thus increasing the efficiency of composting, unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection, in–situ biological treatment, passive subsurface water treatment, and improved chemical immobilization concepts and methods. Techniques will be developed to more accurately and rapidly determine the fate, transport, and effects of key DoD contaminants in soil and groundwater in all climatic conditions.

Compliance R&D will provide numerous technologies for advanced "end–of–the–pipe" control and treatment of hazardous, toxic, gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes when pollution prevention is not possible. Army systems, operations, and processes will be developed to meet existing and anticipated air, water, land, and noise regulations. R&D is focused on (1) characterization of pollutant and waste behavior, (2) media–specific control and treatment technologies, and (3) monitoring and assessment tools. Pollution prevention R&D will provide the Army with alternative materials, innovative manufacturing processes, and enhancements to daily activities to enable the Army to operate current and future production plants as well as to use its weapons systems. Overall efforts are focused on minimizing compliance requirements through new systems and processes that prevent or minimize pollution, with attendant reduction in production and product treatment costs.

Conservation R&D will provide sustainable support for realistic training and testing operation through improved understanding of natural and military operations processes affecting biological, earth, and cultural resources. R&D is focused on developing cost–effective technologies to mitigate military impacts, rehabilitate damaged resources, comply with environmental regulations, and support sustainable ecosystem management. The goal by the year 2001 is to develop an integrated modeling framework linking land capacity, land rehabilitation, and species/ecosystems impact models.

Major Technical Challenges

Challenges include:

Site heterogeneity (soil, water, and climate).
Complex mixtures of military–unique chemical compounds encountered at cleanup sites.
Inherent complexity of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena.
Density and opaqueness of earth media.
Differences in acceptable risk.
Need to understand and develop technologies that address the diversity and complexity of waste streams, composition of wastes, the energetic instability of waste streams, and the destruction or conversion of wastes and contaminants without the production of unwanted or hazardous by–products.
The need to adapt military ranges to changes in mission, equipment, and training, and the need to understand and manage complex ecosystems and their responses to stress.

Army research is currently working to overcome technological barriers in environmental quality by developing technologies and applications such as:

Supercritical water oxidation, advanced oxidation processes, catalytic decomposition, biodegradation and "cometabolic" processes, sorption, separation, and conversion to reduce costs and increase efficacy of treatment and disposition.
Replacement materials for existing solvents, soluble chromium, strong acids, bases, and oxidizers used in production and maintenance activities.
Integrated sensors, sampling, modeling, and management technologies to maintain DoD activities while conserving natural and cultural resources that are protected by a variety of statutory requirements.

4. Roadmap of Technology Objectives

The roadmap of technology objectives for civil engineering and environmental quality is shown in Table IV–24.

5. Linkages to Future Operational Capabilities

The influence of this technology area on TRADOC FOCs is summarized in Table IV–25.

Table IV–24.  Technical Objectives for Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality

Technology Subarea

Near Term FY98–99

Mid Term FY00–04

Far Term FY05–13

Civil Engineering
Addition of new building types into current version of modular design system (MDS) to dramatically reduce delivery time of Army facilities

Basic framework for an integrated installation management system to reduce costs of O&M for Army installations

Reduce facilities acquisition, M&R costs by 15% of 1990

Reduce energy consumption by 20% of 1985

Integrated maintenance management prioritization analysis and coordination tool (IMPACT)

Reduce facilities acquisition, M&R costs by 20% of 1990

Reduce energy consumption by 30% of 1985 (Executive Order 12902)

Civil Engineering
(Airfields and
New materials and design system to increase pavement life at reduced costs

Database development and interactive design systems for pavement prediction

Fracture and durability model field validation

Develop improved mixture design for quality control and quality assurance

Fundamental understanding and analytical capability to address all aspects of pavement response and behavior

Methods and materials for rapid construction of operating surfaces

Reduced life–cycle costs and increased durability of DoD’s pavement by 10% of FY93 cost

Criteria for aerial port of embarkation (APOE) power projection platforms

Criteria for airfield design and construction to support contingency operation worldwide

DoD transportation systems designed with confidence levels of service ability and performance

25% life–cycle cost reduction of FY93 cost

Civil Engineering
and Protective
Criteria for antipenetration systems to defeat heavy penetrators

Procedures for retrofitting roofs and walls of existing facilities to provide protection from vehicle bombs

Develop a family of protective systems using advanced materials and design procedures that will increase the survivability of troops (in fighting positions), weapon systems, materials, and equipment

Quantity CCD signature–reduction techniques for materials used in fixed and relocatable assets

PC–based design manual for hardened structures

Develop 5X to 6X conventional concrete strength at reduced cost for hardened facilities

Antipenetration systems to defeat very heavy robust penetrators

Lightweight, high–strength composite framing elements for hardening structures

Deployable protective packages for light forces

Automated CCD design/
analysis capability

Vulnerability assessment model for retrofitting critical facilities to enhance survivability against advanced weapons

Develop criteria for survivability of conventional facilities against entire spectrum of terrorist weapons

Increase force survivability with 40% reduction in logistics burden

Decrease probability of detection by 50% through advanced multispectral signature management techniques

Civil Engineering
Field demonstration of advanced materials for construction of operating surfaces

Determine mechanical properties of snow and ice as construction materials

Validate and document mobility data inference routines for all of the world’s major climatic zones

Demonstrate obstacle planning software

Reduce construction time in soft soil by 35%

First–generation theoretical mobility model

Design for rapidly installed breakwater

First logistics over–the–shore operational simulator (LOTSOS)

Automated bridge classification system

Reduce horizontal construction time by 20%

Reduce logistic requirements for engineer construction materials by 20%

High–resolution mobility model for advanced vehicle platforms

Gap/river crossing site selection procedures based on trafficability and crossability

Environmental Quality
Plant succession model for impact prediction and recovery potential

Complete guidelines for 30% reduction in streambank erosion

Provide knowledge, approach, and tools to match land use and land capacity in selected ecoregions

Models to simulate mission impacts on key protected species

75% reduction in soil erosion on bases

Risk–based ecosystem use models

Environmental Quality
Advanced oxidation treatment for explosives in groundwater

In–situ treatment of heavy metals

Groundwater modeling system

Biotreatment of explosives in soils

Fate and transport risk assessment model

On–site assessment visualization

Remote multisensor UXO detection

In–situ biotreatment of explosives in soil

Supercritical water oxidation for destruction of waste

Environmental Quality
Guidance for intelligent application for advanced oxidation (ADVOX) processes for munitions production waste

25% reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in manufacturing energetics

Nitrocellulose fine treatment

Treatment of advanced energetic materials used for propellants

Advanced maintenance technology to reduce the cost of operating energetic manufacturing facility pollution control equipment

90% reduction in VOC emissions from production facilities
Ozone depleting substance (ODSs) elimination for refrigerants, sealants, and degreasing cleaners

Laser ignition to replace chemical ordnance to medium and large caliber ammunition (avoid toxins during manufacture and demilitarization)

Improved tools/models for life–cycle environmental analysis to assist weapon designers and program managers

Low VOC reformulated chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) paints

Thermoplastic elastomer propellants elimination in the manufacturing process

Green bullets (elimination of lead in primers and bullet cores)

Alternative technologies to avoid open burn/open detonation of energetics (scrap/demilitarization)

Green missile (lead elimination and no hydrocyanic acid (HCI) emission)

Green barrel (elimination of hexavalent chromium in waste water)

Halon 1301 replacement for ground tactical vehicles and aircraft engine protection (ODS problem solved)

Cleaner processes and products for energetics

Aqueous processes for ceramics and composites


Table IV–25.  Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality
Linkages to Future Operational Capabilities

Technology Subarea

Integrated and Branch/Functional Unique Future Operational Capabilities

Civil Engineering (Conventional Facilities) TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–019 Command Control Warfare
EN 97–014 Provide, Repair, and Maintain Logistics Facilities
EN 97–015 Procurement and Production of Construction Materials
Civil Engineering (Airfields and Pavements) TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
EN 97–015 Procurement and Production of Construction Materials
EN 97–028 Engineering Support to Nonmilitary Operation
Civil Engineering (Survivability and Protective Structures) TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–019 Command Control Warfare
TR 97–043 Survivability—Materiel
EN 97–014 Provide, Repair, and Maintain Logistics Facilities
EN 97–015 Procurement and Production of Construction Materials
Civil Engineering (Sustainment Engineering) TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–019 Command Control Warfare
EN 97–014 Provide, Repair, and Maintain Logistics Facilities
EN 97–015 Procurement and Production of Construction Materials
EN 97–028 Engineering Support to Nonmilitary Operation
Environmental Quality (Conservation) TR 97–012 Information Systems
EN 97–001 Develop Digital Terrain Data
EN 97–002 Common Terrain Database Management
EN 97–028 Engineering Support to Nonmilitary Operation
Environmental Quality (Cleanup) EN 97–028 Engineering Support to Nonmilitary Operation
Environmental Quality (Compliance) TR 97–019 Command Control Warfare
EN 97–014 Provide, Repair, and Maintain Logistics Facilities
EN 97–028 Engineering Support to Nonmilitary Operation
Environmental Quality (Pollution Prevention) TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–019 Command Control Warfare
EN 97–014 Provide, Repair, and Maintain Logistics Facilities
EN 97–015 Procurement and Production of Construction Materials
EN 97–028 Engineering Support to Nonmilitary Operation

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