M. Engineer and Mine Warfare
Have you ever been in a minefield? ... All there has to be is one mine and thats intense.
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, USA (Ret.)
The U.S. Army is facing a changing threat with varied degrees of sophistication as it enters the 21st century. Given this uncertain threat, the engineer and mine warfare (EMW) mission area continues to play a key role as a critical member of the combined arms team. Recent military operations have demonstrated the critical need for a robust EMW mission area, which is vital to the combined arms team and combat service support elements being able to fulfill their future military role.
The EMW mission area consists of the five major battlefield functions of mobility, countermobility, survivability, sustainment engineering, and topographic engineering. Each function is critical to conducting successful operations throughout the operational continuum, whether fighting a major regional conflict or providing military assistance in operations other than war. Applying technological advancements to modernize these functions enhances the combined arms commanders ability to conduct opposed entry, sustained land combat, and OOTW to achieve a decisive victory. This section focuses on funded EMW S&T programs that provide systems and system upgrades in support of combat maneuver modernization. Only systems and system upgrades identified in the Combat Maneuver annex to the AMP, of which EMW is a part, and advanced concepts with planned 6.3 technology demonstrations of potential future systems are addressed in this section.
2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities
Table III29 shows the relationship between the EMW S/SUs and each of the TRADOC battlefield dynamics. It also details some of the operational capabilities provided by these S/SUs.
3. Modernization Strategy
The Combat Maneuver annex to the AMP provides the blueprint for equipping engineer forces into the next century. It embraces the Armys modernization visionland force dominanceby contributing to the five Army modernization objectives.
Project and Sustain. The assessment and construction or reconstruction of ports, airfields, roads, and other infrastructure to project forces rapidly and consistently and maintain logistical forces.
Protect the Force. Construction of structures to protect critical C2, weapon systems, and logistics nodes by camouflage, concealment, or bunkerage.
Win the Information War. Provide engineerrelated force level information, standard hard copy and digital maps, map substitute imagery, battlefield visualization products, and other types of terrain data, giving commanders a realistic view of the battlefield. Information and products must be readily available, rapidly updated, and quickly manipulated or tailored. Realtime electronic distribution to all elements of the force will increase leader battlefield awareness and allow commanders to operate inside their opponents decision cycle.
Conduct Precision Strike. Utilization of accurate electronic terrain data for display and tactical exploitation to obtain precise location data of both the target and the shooter. Engineer assessment of conventional weapons effects against hard structural targets will ensure correct munitiontotarget linkage. This will lead to improved effectiveness and precision of weapon system fires and total dominance of the deep battle.
Dominate the Maneuver Battle. Enhancing the tactical mobility of friendly maneuver forces and impeding the mobility of threat forces to provide commanders both protection and maneuverability necessary to dominate battlespace.
Table III29. EMW System Capabilities
Patterns of Operation
|Project the Force||Protect the Force||Gain Information Dominance||Decisive Operations||Shape the Battlespace||Sustain the Force|
|MOBILITY||Advanced image processing
Realtime data transfer
Detection for heavy and light forces
Robust sensor fusion
Computer fire control
Combined detection and neutralization capability
Unexploded ordnance detection
Rapid breaching and mine unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance
Lightweight airborne standoff detection capability
Advanced staring FPAs
Advanced sensors (multihyperspectral, passive, polarization)
Advanced electronic stabilization advanced ATR
biological explosives detection
Advanced time domain EM induction
Ultra wideband holographic radar
|Ground Standoff Mine Detection System|
Airborne Multispectral Countermine Detection System
Advanced handoff to radar to determine range, trajectory, and location
Advanced signal processing and ATR algorithms
|Standoff Scatterable Mine and Munition Detection|
|Advanced Mine Detection Sensor System|
|SURVIVABILITY||Improved visual, IR, and radar signature suppression
Lowcost mobile signature suppression
Improved chemical agent resistant coating
IR suppressive coating
Integrated active/passive signature control in UV, visible IR, and RF bands
|LowCost, LowObservable Technologies|
|TOPOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING||Rapid map or map substitute products
Battlefield environment effects
Realtime creation, update, and dissemination of digital topographic databases
Integrated decision aids
|Digital Topographic Support System/QuickResponse Multicolor Printer|
|Provides significant capability Provides some capability|
The EMW modernization strategy relies on continuous modernization as a key concept. The acquisition approach emphasizes investment in S&T programs leading to ATDs, targets of opportunity, battle laboratory experiments, AWEs, and the Joint CM ACTD. Technological advances will be incorporated more often into systems via upgrades versus entirely new systems.
Of the EMW battlefield mission areas, mobility and survivability are currently receiving a new focus in S&T due to the everincreasing mine threat. Effective and responsible mine warfare obstructs the mobility and survivability of opposing forces and creates conditions favorable to the mine employer without inflicting needless casualties on noncombatants. Mine warfare constitutes a significant element in armed conflict at all levels of intensity and is critical to early entry forces who may be overmatched. The intelligent minefield (IMF) ATD will enhance the antiarmor lethality of the early entry force, cue fires beyond lineofsight, and provide the potential to revolutionize maneuver. IMF can not only be turned off to provide oneway obstacles, but should be able to augment friendly maneuver forces by performing screen and guard missions autonomously. Mines are cheap, lethal, psychologically disruptive, and readily available, and they will be encountered on all future battlefields. The result is that relatively cheap mines employed quickly and in quantity can immobilize a powerful force.
Inexpensive, land mines can destroy multimillion dollar weapon systems. The future outlook is even more ominous, with the evolution of new smart mines. Microelectronics will soon take mines to new levels of lethality. The countermine shortfall is particularly worrisome because it strikes at the heart of Armys doctrine of rapid movement and surprise to win quick decisive victories.
4. Engineer and Mine Warfare Roadmaps
Table III30 presents a summary of the S/SU/ACs, TDs, ATDs, and ACTDs found on the EMW roadmap shown in Figure III19.
Figure III-19. Roadmap - Engineer and Mine Warfare
Click on the image to view enlarged version
Engineers enhance friendly freedom of maneuver by detecting, bypassing, breaching, marking, and reporting mines and other obstacles, crossing gaps, providing combat roads and trails, and performing forward aviation combat engineering (FACE) operations. S&T programs focus on integrating countermine capabilities through live and simulated experiments, maintaining Army and Marine Corps enhanced mobility, survivability, situational awareness, and agility to the force commander as a result of integrating countermine technology with C4I. The technologies include sensors, IR, microwave, multispectral, seismic and acoustic decoys, explosive neutralization, information processing, robotics, and other emerging technologies.
Joint Countermine (CM) ACTD (199500). This ACTD will demonstrate a seamless amphibious and land warfare countermine operational capability from sea to land by coordinating Army, Navy, and Marine Corps technology demonstrators, prototypes, and fielded military equipment.
Demonstration I, successfully executed in 4QFY97, focused on nearshore capabilities of assault, reconnaissance, breaching, and clearing with emphasis on instride detection and neutralization of mines and obstacles. The Army was the lead for Demonstration I. It included joint ArmyMarine Corps technology demonstrations in mine detection technology for the Armys future closein manportable mine detector, with the capability to detect both metallic and nonmetallic mines (handheld standoff mine detection system). It also included countermeasures to sideattack mines (offroute smart mine clearance) in support of roadclearing operations. These technologies are applicable to other military uses such as unexploded ordnance and range clearing, duds on the battlefield, and demining.
Table III30. EMW Demonstration and System Summary
Advanced Technology Demonstration
and Survivability (Battle Command)
LowCost, LowObservable Technologies
Rapid Terrain Visualization
(For additional information, see Volume II, Annex B)
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Ground Standoff Mine Detection System
LowCost, LowObservable Technologies
Demonstration II, planned for 3QFY98, will emphasize technologies of clandestine surveillance and reconnaissance as described in the FY94 Navy Mine Warfare Plan and will demonstrate the elements of seamless transition of countermine operations from sea to land. The Navy is lead for Demonstration II.
Mobility and Survivability (Battle Command) TD (199598). This program will demonstrate decision support applications for mobility, countermobility, and survivability force level information that supports multiple battlefield operating systems. Physicsbased algorithms, applicable to all climatic regions, that automate the engineers efforts to filter, assess, and manipulate data into relevant information for the maneuver commander and staff will be incorporated into obstacle planning software and simplified survivability assessments that will be demonstrated during Task Force XXI AWE and Division XXI exercises. The software suite to be demonstrated will also provide the engineer commander with the ability to execute engineer domain force level command and control. Supports: Battle Command Decision Support System (BCDSS) (Phoenix) and Maneuver Control System (MCS).
VehicularMounted Mine Detector (VMMD) ATD (199698). The vehicular detector will demonstrate the mounted capability to detect metallic and nonmetallic mines, conventionally or remotely emplaced. The primary operational mode of the VMMD is to detect mines on roads and routes across full vehicular widths so that lines of transportation are kept open. There is no currently fielded vehicular mounted system that can detect both metallic and nonmetallic mines. The ATD will demonstrate in FY98 a system using multiple sensor suites, sensor fusion, and ATR techniques. Sensor fusion will provide for a higher mine detection rate while keeping false alarm rates at an acceptable level. The sensors that will be demonstrated include IR, groundpenetrating radar (GPR), and EM induction detectors. The IR sensors include both 3 to 5µm and 8 to 12µm wavelength sensors. These will be currently available sensors with specially developed ATR algorithms. The primary purpose of the IR sensor is to provide a standoff cueing detection capability. The GPR operates in the 13GHz band that represents a tradeoff between the lower frequencies required for sufficient ground penetration and the higher frequencies needed to achieve spatial resolution for specific targets. Various algorithms are being investigated for use with the GPR approach. The EM induction detection combines traditional metallic mine detection operating features with an innovative concept that combines the induction coils with the GPR antennas in a single search head. Supports: Joint Countermine ACTD and Ground Standoff Mine Detection System.
Mine Hunter/Killer (MH/K) ATD (199800). The MH/K program will allow the Army to investigate and clear routes and roads through terrain where conventional countermine tools are not desirable and do so at near tactical speeds. The purpose of the MH/K program is to develop an integrated standoff mine detection and neutralization system for installation on any tactical vehicle. The system is intended to neutralize surface laid and buried, metallic and nonmetallic, AT and large AP mines. The MH/K system will consist of a multimode sensor array including forwardlooking radar, and FLIR systems with a robust sensor fusion architecture and advanced ATR algorithm suite, a target designation system, a set antimine weapon with computer fire control and articulation, and a stabilized teleoperations kit. The system will detect and destroy mines and unexploded ordnance in a wide path in front of the vehicle at moderate speeds without needing to pause or stop. Supports: MH/K and Ground Standoff Mine Detection System P3I.
Lightweight Airborne Multispectral Countermine Detection System TD (199801). This demonstration will utilize novel focal plane array (FPA) and system technologies (3 to 5µm staring FPAs, passive polarization, multihyperspectral imaging, electronic stabilization) to develop a lightweight airborne standoff mine detection capability for limited area (point) detection, limited corridor route reconnaissance, and detection of nuisance mines along roads. The system will detect buried nuisance mines on unpaved roads and offroute side attack mines, as well as detect surface and buried patterned and scatterable minefields. The system will also have applications to other intelligencegathering programs requiring increased thermal sensitivity as well as those that would benefit from a wider field of view than supported by a framing FLIR. Supports: Tactical UAV.
Engineers impede the enemys freedom of maneuver by disrupting, turning, fixing, or blocking his movement through obstacle development and terrain enhancement. S&T programs are integrating microelectronics, signal processing, and advanced intelligence into a controlled network of mine warfare systems. The Intelligent Minefield S&T program ended in FY97, but continues to support technology developments through participation in the Rapid Force Projection ACTD. To use this future capability and other engineer assets optimally requires the development of software to assist in evaluating the whole picture (environment, intelligence data, assets, capabilities, etc.) to facilitate planning and execution of maneuver operations.
Area Denial Systems TD (199801). This program will demonstrate the capability of selfcontained, semiautonomous, longstandoff munitions that can defend an area by defeating, disrupting, and delaying vehicles that enter into its battlespace. This system will enhance other weapon systems in a manner similar to that achieved by land mines today, but without the postwar civilian mine threat and the demining problem. Support: Unmanned Terrain Domination.
Engineers reduce friendly force vulnerability to enemy weapon effects through rapid fabrication of protective structures, terrain alteration, and concealment. S&T programs are focused on upgrades to the lowcost, lowobservable (LCLO) camouflage systems. These systems provide means for detection and hit avoidance. The upgrades are designed to reduce or eliminate visual, UV, near IR, thermal IR, and radar waveband signatures of mobile and stationary assets. The goal is to counter the highly sensitive reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition (RISTA) threat sensors, and fused sensors in all parts of the EM spectrum. Signature control will be achieved through integration of passive, reactive, and active lowobservable systems.
Field fortifications research is conducted by the Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) for all of DoD. The focus of these efforts is in design of protective structures to defeat advanced munitions (bunker busters) and unconventional munitions (car bombs), to capture commercial technology, and to identify highpayoff protection techniques.
LowCost, LowObservable (LCLO) System Upgrade TD (199406). Demonstrations are scheduled during FY9400 for upgrades to LCLO systems, including the multispectral camouflage system for mobile equipment, the ultralightweight camouflage net systemgeneralpurpose (ULCANSGP), and the reactive/active standardized camouflage paint pattern (SCAPP). Currently fielded LCLO systems do not counter threat thermal IR sensors. Supports: ULCANSGP, Multispectral Camouflage System for Mobile Equipment, and SCAPP.
c. Sustainment Engineering
Engineers support force sustainment by maintaining, upgrading, or constructing lines of communication and facilities; providing construction support and materials; and performing area damage assessment. Sustainment in the form of infrastructure assessment, generation and allocation of engineer resources required, and visualization technologies will be among the technologies critical in wartime contingency and support and sustainment operations.
d. Topographic Engineering
Topographic engineers provide timely, accurate knowledge of the battlefield and terrain visualization to operational commanders and staffs at all echelons throughout the operational continuum. Knowledge of the battlefield consists of information in narrative or graphic format describing the effects of terrain and climate on military operations. The ability of the commander to visualize the terrain in all climate conditions before the battle will help him to develop dynamic operational plans, as well as to locate, engage, and defeat the enemy with a more agile, synchronized force. Terrain information developed by Army engineers provide the basic terrain reference for land and air forces as well as other DoD and nonDoD agencies.
S&T programs focus on providing terrain database construction or update realtime positioning and navigation determination, realistic physicsbased terrain capabilities, geospatial database management, database valueadding for modeling and simulation, and tactical terrain and environment decision aid support. Key to battlefield awareness and crisis response is the development of technologies to support the capability for the rapid production and dissemination of imagebased topographic products. Advances in microelectronics, knowledgebased systems, and signal processing techniques make the topographic engineering sciences an extremely dynamic field.
Topographic engineers are working closely with TRADOC battle labs and the user community to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine technological developments and doctrinal topographic support concepts. The digital topographic support systemmultispectral imagery systems (DTSSMSIP) currently fielded to all active duty topographic units provides automated topographic support and imagery exploitation capabilities to the commander. The DTSS/Quick Response Multicolor Printer (QRMP), to begin fielding in FY98, will provide a tactical capability to support the commander further with the latest in topographic technology. The P3I program will provide periodic increases in functionality, maintaining topographic support at the technological leading edge in capability and in data imagery exploitation.
Rapid Terrain Visualization (RTV) ACTD (199701). The RTV ACTD will demonstrate the capabilities required to provide the warfighter level V elevation data, feature data, and imagery over a 9090 km area in 72 hours. The focus of the RTV ACTD will be on source collection, data generation, and transformation of digital topographic data. These data are the essential foundation for battlefield visualization. Situation databases, integrated on current terrain databases, provide the commander a dynamic, 3D visualization of his battlespace and enhance his mission planning, course of action analysis, and mission rehearsal capabilities. The ACTD will leverage technologies being developed by government and industry. These technologies will be integrated in the JPSD Integration and Evaluation Center (IEC) and analyzed to determine their effectiveness. The ACTD has provided a testbed capability to the XVIII Airborne Corps to ensure continual feedback on the military value of capabilities. Selected capabilities, whose maturity has been demonstrated in the IEC, will be transitioned to the user testbed for evaluation. An objective capability will be delivered to the using unit as leave behind in the year 2000. Supports: XVIII Airborne Corps Warfighter Exercises, Force XXI, and Division 98 AWE.
5. Relationship to Army Modernization Plan Annexes
The EMW modernization strategy and related S&T programs are linked
with modernization plans in other mission areas. Table III31 shows the linkage
between EMW S/SUs and other AMP annexes.
Table III31. Correlation Between EMW S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Modernization Plan Annexes
|Mounted Forces*||Close Combat Light*||Space & Missile Defense||IEW||Soldier Systems||C4||Aviation||Fire Support|
|System||Maneuver Control System|
|Ground Standoff Mine Detection|
|Lightweight Airborne Multispectral Countermine Detection System|
|Digital Topographic Support System/QuickResponse Multicolor Printer|
|LowCost LowObservable Technologies|
|Advanced Mine Detection Sensors|
|Standoff Scatterable Mine and Munition Detection|
|* See Combat
System plays a significant role in the modernization strategy
System makes a contribution to the modernization strategy
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