K. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical
Weapons of mass destruction, chemical, biological, and nuclear arms will be a major concern for the U.S. forces in the foreseeable future.
General Dennis J. Reimer
Army Chief of Staff
Any nation with the will can turn its legitimate medical, biotechnology, and chemical facilities to the development of a formidable offensive biological or chemical warfare capability. With the necessary resources, a nation can develop an offensive nuclear warfare capability. The sale of technology and loss of control over weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in various world regions can greatly accelerate the acquisition of WMD programs and weapons. The Tokyo, Japan, subway incident underscores the potential for terrorist use of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) materials. Proliferation overall increases the asymmetric threat of WMD being employed against the United States and its allies during contingency operations.
In response to congressional interest in the readiness of U.S. NBC warfare defenses, Title XVII of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY1994 (Public Law 103160) required DoD to consolidate management and oversight of the CB warfare defense program into a single office within the Office of the Secretary of Defense and to execute oversight of the program through the Defense Acquisition Board process. The public law designated the Army as the executive agent for coordination and integration of the program and consolidated NBC warfare defense training activities at the U.S. Army Chemical School. Funding for all NBC defense research, development, and acquisition is now consolidated within OSD. Individual service requirements and programs are now consolidated into a true joint, integrated strategy.
This section of the Army Science and Technology Master Plan reflects the technology strategy from the perspective of future joint service requirements. The strategy herein is consistent with the AMP, the Joint Service NBC Modernization Plan, the Joint Service NBC Defense RDA Plan, and the DoD CB Defense and Nuclear Technology Area Plan. The Army program in smoke/obscurants is not a part of the joint CB defense program but is included herein as a traditional part of the Army NBC defense mission area.
The primary function of the NBC mission area is to provide U.S. forces with the capability to detect, identify and survive in an NBC environment, and to effectively sustain mission operations with minimal casualties and equipment degradation. In addition, the mission area provides electrooptical obscuration technology and material to screen U.S. assets from enemy precisionguided weapons and reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) for EO countermeasures; and to provide obscuration that allows achievement of military objectives while ensuring force protection and survivability and conservation of combat power. The technology investment in support of these objectives is covered below.
Table III23 represents the link between NBC S/SU/ACs and Army modernization objectives as well as the capabilities each provides.
2. Modernization Strategy
The NBC modernization strategy reflected in this chapter represents the emerging joint NBC defense strategy in detection, protection, and decontamination, and the Army strategy in smoke/obscurants. The joint NBC detection modernization strategy is focused on point detection for biological agents and remote detection and early warning both chemical and biological agents. Efforts in decontamination and individual protection, recently at a low level, are being increased in recognition of their role in sustainment of the forces and increased mobility. Collective protection efforts remain significantly
Table III23. NBC System Capabilities
Patterns of Operation
|Project the Force||Protect the Force||Gain Information Dominance||Decisive Operations||Shape the Battlespace||Sustain the Force|
Chemical early warning contamination monitoring system that quantifies, ranges, and maps
Miniature chemical detector
Chemical water monitor
Biological early warning up to 50 km
Biological point detection plus ID system
Longrange chemical imaging detector for aircraft, UAVs, and highaltitude aircraft
Generic biodetection and ID of asymptomatic levels
Rapid automated biodetection
ID of bioagents at increased sensitivities (1 ACPLA)
|PROTECTION & SURVIVABILITY||Integrated respiratory protection: communication, vision, and compatibility with
Reduced physiological burden and mission degradation
Increased confidence in CB protective equipment
life indicator for filters
Regenerable filtration (vapor and particulate)
|Advanced Concept||Improved entry/exit of collective protected combat vehicles
Advanced integrated filtration with environmental support systems
Regenerable filtration system tailored to host system
Reduced logistic support
Continuous filtration tailored to light vehicles
|SUSTAINMENT||Decontamination downtime reduced
Less labor intensive
Decon without water
Less labor intensive decon
Rapid, selfdecon coatings
Imaging detector to highlight contaminated areas and decon efficacy
|Screening, camouflage, and decoy capabilities in visible, IR, and MMW ranges
weapons defeat capability
EO marker for combat ID
DEW defeating obscuration
|Provides significant capability Provides some capability|
reduced and refocused to provide far term capabilities. A capability to identify significant improvements in decontamination is being maintained. Smoke/obscurants technologies are being pursued to expand the regions of the electrooptic spectrum that can be selectively obscured. A significantly smaller effort is being pursued to spin off nonlethal weapons concepts from relevant corporate technology capabilities.
Protecting the force is paramount in the joint NBC defense strategy. Early detection and warning is key to this strategy by providing situational awareness and the capability of U.S. forces to counter any NBC threat. Chemical and biological detection systems, fully integrated in the digital battlefield, will enable battlefield commanders to detect NBC warfare agents at operationally significant levels and immediately activate protective or avoidance measures. Decision aids and planning tools will assist commanders at all levels. They will be designed to allow nonNBC staffs to evaluate NBC situations and allow for timely and effective decisions. The goal of protection is to isolate forces and weapons systems from NBC agents using individual and collective protection systems. Personnel protection will consist of nonmedical, respiratory, and whole body protection that will allow forces to operate at near normal levels of effectiveness while in protective posture. Integrated environmental control and longer life NBC filtration will meet the increasing need for collective protection for vehicle crew compartments, shelters, and command posts. When NBC contamination cannot be avoided, decontamination systems and point detectors will be used to restore personnel and units rapidly to near normal operating capability. New decontamination technologies and systems will reduce the hazard of decontamination operations on personnel, equipment, and the environment; minimize the logistics burden; and decrease the restoration time. CB modeling and simulation technologies are being enhanced to assess doctrine, training, and materiel operating in an NBC environment, to provide equipment design parameters, and to serve as a realtime decision aid for battlefield commanders. The following goals define the NBC defense strategy:
Provide rapid field biodetection and identification capability.
Smoke and obscurants provide a potent combat multiplier by increasing the effectiveness of certain weapons systems, countering enemy RSTA efforts, conserving effective combat power and supporting deception operations. The thrust of the smoke/obscurant technology strategy is:
Enhance the capability of smoke/obscurants to defeat enemy RSTA capabilities by selectively dominating the electromagnetic spectrum, thus allowing the maneuver commander to control the maneuver space.
Modernization efforts will be implemented through horizontal integration of NBC capabilities into major weapon systems. NBC materiel acquisition will be conducted via technology insertions, product improvements, and advanced concepts. Integration efforts such as these will ensure significant gains in operational survivability and mission sustainment at modest incremental costs. The joint NBC modernization strategy is postured to meet the challenges facing U.S. forces in the 21st century.
3. Roadmaps for CB Defenses and Smoke Obscurants
Figures III16 and III17 are the roadmaps for CB defense and smoke/obscurants, respectively. Table III24 summarizes the demonstrations and systems found in these figures. This strategy emphasizes technology demonstrations incorporated into the front end of critical development programs. These demonstrations will significantly reduce development risk, verify the system integration of advanced technologies, and facilitate technology insertions, where possible.
The NBC defense program emphasizes detection, protection (individual and collective), decontamination, and modeling and simulation. The roadmap for NBC defense is shown in Figure III16.
The detection portion of CB defense is divided into two categories:
chemical detectors and biological detectors. Both remote early warning and point detection
technologies are being pursued for chemical and biological detectors. The goal of CB
detection is to provide a realtime capability to detect, identify, locate, map, and
quantify the presence of all CB warfare agent threats at levels below hazardous levels and
to disseminate this information rapidly. Current emphasis is on multiagent sensors for
point biological agent detection and remote early warning chemical and biological
detection. In the near term, a number of individual sensors are being developed while
detection technology matures. In particular, a miniaturized chemical vapor point detector
and an automated biological point detector and identifier will be available. Farterm
objective technologies focus on the integration of chemical and biological detection into
a single sensor suite. Technology emphasis is on detection sensitivity and specificity
across the entire spectrum of CB agents (programmable for emerging threats), system size
and weight, reduction of logistics support requirements and O&M costs, detection
range, and signature and false alarm rates. Integration of CB detectors into various
platforms (vehicles and aircraft) and C4I networks constitutes the ultimate
focus of this technology area.
Table III24. NBC Demonstration and System Summary
Advanced Technology Demonstration
|Integrated Biodetection (OSD funded)||CB Defense
Biological Universal Detection System
Millimeter Wave Screening
Airbase/Port Biological Detection (includes chemical detection addon)
Joint Biological Remote Early Warning (proposed)
(See Volume II, Annex B, for additional information)
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Service Warning and ID LIDAR
Joint Warning and Reporting Network P3I
Wide Area Detector
Figure III-16. Roadmap - Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense
Click on the image to view enlarged version
The NBC protection area covers technology efforts to provide NBC protection for the individual warfighter as well as enclosures where groups of personnel require collective protection from the contaminated environment. The goal of eye, respiratory, and percutaneous protection technology efforts is to develop the next generation eye and respiratory protection equipment and clothing ensembles for the 21st century warfighter. This equipment will afford protection against current and future threats, minimize mission degradation and physiological impacts, and improve system integration and compatibility. Collective protection technology is focused on developing air purification systems for buildings, shelters, vehicles, aircraft, and ships that must operate in NBC warfare agentcontaminated battlefield conditions. Current efforts are directed at regenerative vapor and particulate filtration technologies, deepbed impregnated carbon, residual filter life indicators, and novel single pass filter designs and materials to reduce overall cost, size, weight, and flow resistance to facilitate widespread application.
The goal for decontamination technologies is to develop effective, environmentally low impact CB decontamination systems to neutralize or break down toxic materials without damaging the contaminated surface or affecting the performance of the equipment being decontaminated. This area includes decontamination of personnel, individual equipment, tactical combat vehicles and equipment, sensitive electronics, cargo areas of aircraft, seagoing vessels, and critical assets in fixed sites. Due to increased user interest, funding in this area has been enhanced. Studies will focus on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide, ozone, sorbents, solution decontamination, and enzymebased systems.
Modeling and simulation technologies are being investigated to provide enhanced command evaluations, to integrate sensor data, and to permit realistic training and simulation of the CB battlefield environment. The information generated will provide decision aids to commanders to allow tradeoffs among tactical options as well as assessment of joint services doctrine, training, leadership, organization, materiel, and warfighter performance during and after a CB attack. Modeling and simulation technologies will be used to evaluate the battlefield valueadded potential of developmental and conceptual NBC systems and will become an integral part of every development program and every phase of the acquisition cycle. A current thrust is to incorporate terrain, mesoscale meteorology, and objects such as tanks, ships, or buildings into CBeffects, hazardassessment models and to incorporate these models into new and existing combat simulations such as ModSAF and distributed interactive simulations (DIS).
Joint Biological Remote Early Warning System (JBREWS) ACTD (Proposed) (199801). The objective of this ACTD is to evaluate the utility of remote early warning for BW point attacks against U.S. forces and to develop operational procedures and doctrine associated with that capability. The ACTD will enhance the overall biological force protection system in a theater by providing sensors significantly farther upwind (therefore closer to the BW agent release point) in much greater density than current biological detection systems. This demonstration will exploit the inherent power of networked sensors and revolutionize our current approach to warning and reporting of BW attacks. The ACTD will demonstrate a BW early warning network that is organic to a CINC tactical unit and connected to a warning and reporting system to alert forces downwind promptly of BW agents. The ACTD will leverage mature and lowrisk biological detection technologies from the DoD counterproliferation initiative and technology base community, as well as the Department of Energys Chemical Biological Nonproliferation program. Extensive simulation will be conducted in parallel to evaluate the utility of the remote early warning system during all phases of warfighting operations. Supports: JBREWS.
Integrated Biodetection ATD (199699). The Integrated Biodetection ATD will demonstrate point detection and remote early warning of biological agents using two stateoftheart technologies. In addition, multiyear 6.2 technologybased efforts are being carried out in both areas to support and ensure the successful demonstration of the ATD technologies in FY9699. The ATD will focus on point biosensors that incorporate automated DNA diagnostic technology to identify biological agents with the highest known degree of specificity and sensitivity, in addition to increasing current reliabilities, stabilities, and response times of fielded and nearterm P3I biosensors. These stateoftheart biological identification devices are planned for incorporation into the Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS) as nextgeneration biosensors. A rapid, realtime biological aerosol warning system using small, microultraviolet (UV) laserbased, fluorescent particle counters will also be demonstrated. Its purpose is to provide an early warning of a biological aerosol cloud threatening high value battlefield assets. The key to the demonstration is to show the technologies in a unified effort in a battlefield exercise providing detection and warning of biological agents before forces are exposed, thus reducing casualties. Supports: JBPDS and JBREWS.
Airbase/Port Biological Detection ACTD (199600). The objective of this ACTD is to evaluate the military utility of an airbase or port perimeter biological detection capability and to develop operational procedures associated with that capability. An additional objective is to provide a residual capability adequate to detect, alarm/warn/dewarn, and identify against a BW attack on an airbase or port facility. The airbase or port residual capability will consist of a perimeter biological detection capability, laboratory agent identification capability, dewarning procedures, C4I connectivity with base NBC reporting, oronasal protection, and biological sensor decontamination procedures and capability. This ACTD will also include a chemical addon capability that will utilize mature and available technology (passive IR spectrometry and ion mobility spectroscopy) to detect and identify automatically chemical threat agents in near real time (less than 30 seconds). Additionally, this chemical addon will provide the CINCs a capability to network legacy and emerging biological and chemical detectors, and will produce automated warnings and reportings for enhanced battlefield visualization and force protection as defined in Joint Vision 2010. Supports: JBPDS and JBREWS.
Joint Biological Universal Detection System (JBUDS) TD (200203). The JBUDS will be the universal detector to the armed forces that fully integrates both point and remote sensors into one detector. This demonstration will feature miniaturized, multitechnologybased, fully automatic (in manned or unmanned mode), allagentcapable (generic) detection with automatic warning and reporting linked to the theater C4I system. This capability will provide the commander an all encompassing chemical and biological assessment of the battlefield. Supports: JBPDS.
Joint Service Warning and Identification LIDAR Detector (JSWILD) TD (199800). This demonstration will emphasize joint service operation with shipboard testing and airbase defense demonstrations. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of using IR light detection and ranging (LIDAR) to detect vapors of nerve agents and also shown great promise in the detection of large droplets of nerve agents. In addition, the detection of aerosol particles of all sizes and compositions will be demonstrated and sensitivities determined for each application. All service interferences will be identified and introduced into the existing model for inclusion into the pattern recognition detection algorithm during subsequent development. The goal of this demonstration is to determine capabilities and limitations for each possible mission (ship defense and fixed site defense). Supports: Airbase Defense and Shipboard Warning, JSWILD, and Joint Service Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System (JSNBCRS).
Chemical Imaging Sensor TD (200103). This sensor will expand the capability of current passive interferometry and signal processing to allow longrange chemical imaging. The sensor will be capable of detecting known chemical agents and can be programmed to detect other militarily significant spectral data. It will also provide a visual display of the hazard area. Extended detection range capability will be provided for use on aircraft and highaltitude reconnaissance systems. The program will use design and performance data developed in Project Safeguard. Supports: Wide Area Detection.
Joint Service Agent Water Monitor (JSAWM) TD (199899). The JSAWM will demonstrate both an inline (USAF) and a portable batch water test capability. JSAWM will be capable of detecting chemical agents below the revised U.S. Army Surgeon Generals requirements for chemical agents and also be able to detect a range of waterborne biological agent contamination down to parts per million. The system will rapidly evaluate water and provide nearrealtime alert if water becomes contaminated so that immediate action can be taken to prevent ingestion by warfighters. Supports: InLine Water Monitor (USAF) and Agent Water Monitor (U.S. Army Quartermaster).
Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN) P3I TD (2003). The JWARN P3I will build from the capabilities of offtheshelf integration efforts of the interim JWARN program. This first step includes sensor links, a hazard prediction tool, and an automated NBC warning and report system. The P3I version will demonstrate seamless integration into the future digitized "common picture" of the battlefield. Included will be decision aid support modules and automation tools that provide a shared situational awareness of the hazard and allow realtime NBC defense synchronization. Advanced callback capabilities for splitbased operations and a highresolution digitized mapping capability are being pursued. Supports: JBREWS, JBPDS, and Battlefield Digitization.
Liquid Surface Detection TD (200103). This program will demonstrate an active/passive hybrid system for detection and identification of chemical agent liquid surface contamination. This effort will culminate in the development of a system for reconnaissance, contamination avoidance, and decontamination effectiveness evaluation. Supports: reconnaissance (air and ground), standoff detection (vehicle and fixed site), alarms/monitors, and warning and reporting.
Joint Service GeneralPurpose Mask (JSGPM) TD (199798). A variety of advanced respiratory protection concepts are being investigated for application to a joint service eye/respiratory protection system for ground use and possibly for use in Army aviation applications. The generalpurpose mask will provide protection against current and future CB threats, reduced physiological and psychological burden and resulting mission degradation associated with individual protection equipment, and improved integration with future soldier systems (e.g., weapons sighting systems, night vision equipment, helmets, helmetmounted displays) and joint service requirements. Technology efforts will focus on improved filter design and filtration media, lens design and materials, agent resistant faceblank materials, and reduced bulk/logistics burden. Advancements in protection and performance testing to support assessment to anticipated standards are included in these efforts. Supports: Joint Service GeneralPurpose Mask and FXXI LW.
Joint Service Aviation Mask (JSAM) TD (199899). The joint services are supporting this technology effort to develop a protective mask system for highperformance aviation and rotarywing pilots. The effort will focus on consolidation of requirements from a series of highperformance aviation and helicopter mask systems, and development of performance specifications sufficient to support EMD initiation in FY00. Various mask technologies and designs will transition to the JSAM program as they become available. Supports: Joint Service Aviation Mask and Air Warrior.
Joint Service Chemical Ensemble TD (200203). A variety of materials and materials technologies are being investigated to provide fully integrated percutaneous protection against chemical and biological agents into the warriors battledress ensemble. Integrated CB percutaneous protection will eliminate the need for a separate battledress overgarment. To accomplish this, protective materials must be resistant to agents without increasing the physiological burden (e.g., heat stress, moisture buildup) normally associated with wearing individual protection equipment/ensembles. Selectively permeable fabrics that will allow heat and moisture to escape while not allowing agents to permeate (i.e., selective permeable membrane technology) will provide the soldier with enhanced percutaneous protection over carbonimpregnated materials used in the current battledress overgarment. Supports: Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) P3I.
Joint Service Collective Protection TD (199899). Several advanced CB filtration concepts will be evaluated to prove feasibility in implementing improved filtration technologies into various combat system applications. Technologies investigated will include regenerable vapor and particulate filtration systems, catalytic systems, improved sorbents, improved nuclear and biological particulate filtration media, and residual vapor filter life indicator. Advanced filtration concepts demonstrate reduced size and weight potential, improved filtration capability, elimination of filter change out (except at scheduled maintenance periods), and integration with power and environmental control systems. Supports: Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS)/Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV) and Comanche, Crusader, Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV), and NBC Collective Protection Systems (Advanced Deployable Collective Protection (CP) for Fixed Sites, Advanced Lightweight Collective Protection System).
Joint Service Sensitive Equipment TD (199800). This demonstration addresses two requirements. The first will consist of using a closedloop recirculating supercritical carbon dioxide system to remove chemical and biological materials from small sensitive equipment items and components. A second system using ozone as an oxidizing agent will be demonstrated as a means to decontaminate and detoxify chemical and biological agents in interior spaces containing electronic components. These systems will provide additional capability to the user. They will eliminate the need for protective status while performing maintenance operations, render contaminated individual equipment and small electronics reusable after prior contamination, and provide the capability to decontaminate the interior spaces of aircraft, tanks, ships, and other vehicles. Supports: Joint Service Sensitive Equipment Decontamination System and Aircraft Interior Decon System.
Joint Service Chemical and Biological Decontaminants (JSCBD) TD (199899). The objective of this demonstration is to provide the joint services with a decontaminant to reduce and eventually eliminate requirements for decontamination solution 2 (DS2). This decontaminant should be environmentally acceptable and be useful for applications where the use of DS2 is currently forbidden. Several commercially available CB decontamination systems have been identified and have inspired the interest of several joint service user groups as a potential interim solution to the DS2 problem. This demonstration will evaluate the effectiveness of these potential nondevelopmental items and provide the user community with performance data. Supports: Modular Decon System, Joint Service MiniDecon System, Superior Decon Solution, and Joint Service Fixed Site Decon.
Generic Decontamination Solution TD (200103). This demonstration will evaluate the effectiveness of a new generation of decontamination materials that are nontoxic, material compatible, and environmentally safe. Technologies investigated will include highcapacity surfactants, improved sorbent systems, reactive organic solutions, dry powder formulations, and enzymaticbased systems in a variety of carrier systems. Materials should be suitable for a variety of surfaces and applications, ultimately replacing DS2 and any interim decontaminant chosen to reduce reliance upon DS2. Supports: Superior Decon Solution, Modular Decon System, Joint Service MiniDecon System, and Joint Service Fixed Site Decon.
In response to the proliferation of increasingly sophisticated RSTA capabilities throughout the EM spectrum, the smoke/obscurant strategy capitalizes on technologies capable of providing multispectral screening. These environmentally and logistically acceptable multispectral materials will counter enemy RSTA activities in broader ranges of the EM spectrum for selfdefense, large area coverage, and projected applications. The roadmap for smoke/obscurants is shown in Figure III17.
Figure III-17. Roadmap - Smake/Obscurants
Click on the image to view enlarged version
MillimeterWave Screening TD (199900). This demonstration will determine the feasibility of an MMW obscurant generating system in preventing threat radars from observing, acquiring, targeting, and tracking friendly targets. The module will expand the capability of the current M56 large area smoke generator, which screens only the visual and IR bands. Aerosol technology, chemical dispersion techniques, and dissemination mechanisms will be exploited. Supports: Smoke/Obscurants (M56 P3I).
Direct Fire Smoke TD (200102). This demonstration will develop the technology required to support direct fire obscurant munitions. Lowcost, nontoxic, environmentally friendly materials, effective in all spectral regions of military interest, will be investigated with an eye toward performance consistent with a volumeconstrained application. Creative packaging will be investigated that will minimize environmental impact. Supports: Smoke/Obscurants (Direct Fire Smoke).
ElectroOptical (EO) System Marking Smoke TD (200203). This demonstration will consist of a personal smoke grenade that will release a material detectable only by a mid or farIR sighting device. The grenade is intended for ground force use as a signaling device to mark landing and drop zones. It also has application for pilot rescue missions and combat identification. This demonstration will explore cryogenics, exothermic reactive materials, and reaction control techniques. Supports: Smoke/Obscurants (EO System Marking Smoke).
Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke (VEES) System TD (1998). This demonstration revives the old diesel fuelbased VEES made ineffective when the M1 Abrams went to JP8. It will be packaged as a modification kit to existing M1A1 Abrams platforms. It enhances unit survivability by screening movement, concealing position, and defeating enemy visual and nearIR target acquisition systems such as laser designators and laser range finders, especially in military OOTW and during peacekeeping operations. Current prototype incorporates a swingaway mount, facilitating maintenance. Supports: Smoke/Obscurants (PM Abrams SEP).
4. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes
Table III25 shows the correlation between the NBC S/SU/ACs and
the other modernization plan annexes that they support.
Table III25. Correlation Between NBC S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Modernization Plan Annexes
|Force Structure*||Combat Maneuver||C4||IEW||Fire Support||Space & Missile Defense||Tactical Wheeled Vehicles*||Logistics||Aviation||Combat Health Support||Training||Space|
|NBC Individual Protection|
|NBC Collective Protection|
|Advanced Concept||NBC Individual Protection|
|* See Combat
System plays a significant role in the modernization strategy
System makes a contribution to the modernization strategy
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