E. Command, Control, Communications, and Computers
We must strive to reap the benefits of the ongoing technology explosion, and to gain greater efficiencies in warfighting.
General John Shalikashvili
Former Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Armys command, control, communications, and computers (C4) modernization and strategic planning efforts are an integral part of Force XXI and are critical to achieving Joint Vision 2010. C4 modernization will support Force XXI by exploiting leapahead information transport, processing, and security technologies designed to provide commanders with overwhelming decision cycle superiority. The essential elements that ensure dominance of Force XXI C4 are global, theater, and tactical area transport systems, a tactical internet and battle command mobile platforms, and seamless, secure, adaptable information architectures.
The Armys C4 S&T program is directed toward providing the technologies, architectures, protocols, standards, algorithms, and software for integrating communications assets throughout the battlefield. The emphasis is placed on establishing a C4 substructure of the digitized battlefield to provide mission planning with optimal use of resources throughout the task force. Electronic maps, resource data, intelligence information, and operational procedures are used to achieve highly automated operational planning, rehearsal, and execution with realtime command and control.
The synchronization of C4 modernization through Force XXI, Joint Vision 2010, and the battle laboratories/battlefield dynamics will allow Americas Army to be the best in the worldtrained and ready for victory.
2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities
Table III6 shows detailed C4 system capabilities, noting whether they are near term (system upgrade capabilities) or far term (advanced concept capabilities). Command and control (force level and lower echelon) and communications (mobile, local, wide, and range extension), along with computing and software, are the pillars of C4 modernization.
3. Army C4 Modernization Strategy
Army C4 modernization efforts support all of the Armys modernization objectives as defined in the 1996 Army Modernization Plan. The objectives represent a combined modernization strategy that improves or enhances existing capabilities and leverages commercial investment in information technologies.
Army modernization considers Force XXI as the Armys corporate goal of what it must become to remain the lethal force of decision through the early decades of the 21st century. It embraces the tenets of doctrinal flexibility; strategic mobility; tailorability and modularity; joint, multinational, and interagency connectivity; and versatility. The warfighter information network (WIN), in conjunction with the battlefield information transmission system (BITS) and the wireless interworking testbed (WIT), will provide the communications infrastructure for Army C4 modernization. The goal is to provide an integrated "foxhole to sustaining base" warfighter information network consisting of communications and information services that support Force XXI requirements well into the 21st century. Significant emphasis is being placed on leveraging and adapting commercially available information technology.
Table III6. C4 System Capabilities
Patterns of Operation
|Project the Force||Protect the Force||Gain Information Dominance||Decisive Operations||Shape the Battlespace||Sustain the Force|
|COMMAND & CONTROL||Integrated force and execution management
Forecasting, planning, and resource allocation
Platform embedded C2
Distributed, relational database (large area, low resolution)
Automatic situation map update
Intel order generation
Software bridge between different systems
Automatic communications interface
Expert system battle planning
Concept of operation
Expert system information correlation and fusion
Distributed database with realtime updating
Interface with Army battle command system (ABCS)
Adaptive distributed processing
3D mission planning
Consistent battlespace understanding
Knowledgebased information presentation
Interoperability with joint assets
Flexible hierarchical database for multiresolution, multiscales
Multimodal command understanding
Intel message preparation
Decision aids, management system
Multimedia storage and retrieval
Multimedia presentation and interface
Interoperability to lower echelons
C2 on the move (OTM)
Enhanced situation awareness
Faulttolerant processing at critical nodes
Synchronized battle management
Integrated position/navigation (POS/NAV)
Automated mission planning
|Force XXI/Vision 2000|
Cosite interference reduction
Gateways between local, wide area, and module systems
Fiber optic LAN
EHF satellite communications
Tactical multinet gateways
RPV communications relay
Enhanced data protocols
Mobile satellite connectivity
Personal communications system
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching
Battlefield information transmission
Universal transaction communications and services
Wideband multimedia communications
Cellular satellite systems
Common user/satellite trunking
Airborne relay (surrogate satellite)
Multiband multipurpose radios
Transparent connectivity to local, wide, range external systems
OTM Defense Satellite Communications System
Militarized satellite personal communications system
Wideband radio access point OTM SATCOM
Realtime OTM planning tools
Comprehensive warfighter information network
|Force XXI/Vision 2010|
|Provides significant capability|
4. Roadmap for C4
Table III7 is a summary of demonstrations and SU/ACs as displayed on the roadmap (Figure III3) for C4 modernization. The evolution of battlefield C4 into the 21st century begins with current C4 systems as a baseline. In order to preserve current investments, a stepbystep block improvement approach to modernizing legacy systems is utilized. ATDs and ACTDs support the development of SU/ACs. The flow of C4 modernization appears on the roadmap beginning with command and control and communications system upgrades on the far left, followed by specific ATDs, ACTDs, and TDs leading to Force XXI and Vision 2010.
Table III7. C4 Demonstration and System Summary
Advanced Technology Demonstration
Digital Battlefield Communications
Information Operations C2 Protect and Attack
(See Section IIIF, "Intelligence and Electronic Warfare.")
Rapid Force Projection C2
Communications Integration and Cosite Mitigation
(See Volume II, Annex NO TAG, for further information.)
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
and ControlForce Level
Force XXI (Vision 2010)
a. Technology Programs Leading to Command and Control Modernization
The following ATDs and TDs represent the Armys investment in modernizing its C2 capabilities.
Rapid Terrain Visualization ACTD (199701). The goal of this ACTD is to demonstrate capabilities to collect source data and generate highresolution digital terrain databases quickly to support crisis response and force projection operations within the timelines required by the joint force commander. The commander will be capable of integrating terrain databases with current situation data and can, therefore, manipulate and display the integrated databases, achieve operational objectives, and visualize a desired end state. Source data collection, digital terrain database generation and tailoring, database dissemination, and applications software will be integrated and evaluated. Supports: Joint Precision Strike Demonstration (JPSD)/RFPI, Force XXI, and Vision 2010.
Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (199398). The goal of the BCID ATD is to solve the combat identification problem that surfaced in Operation Desert Storm. This ATD forms the technical foundation for the Combat Identification ACTD, which will validate the architecture for a comprehensive airtoground and groundtoground combat identification system. BCID will demonstrate improved situational awareness and various airtoground concepts including direct sensing target identification, "dont shoot me net," and "situational awareness through sight" approaches. Concepts for lightweight combat identification of/for the dismounted soldier will be investigated. A laser, RF and thermalbased solution for soldiertosoldier and potentially vehicleinteroperable application will be demonstrated (in both a standalone and integrated version). Supports: BCIS, Land Warrior, Protecting the Force, Battlefield Digitization, Information Warfare, and Force XXI.
Figure III-3. Roadmap - Command, Control, Communications, and Computers
Click on the image to view enlarged version
Rapid Force Projection Command and Control (RFP C2) TD (199598). This program will develop the command and control element for the RFPI ACTD. It consists of a reconfigurable light tactical operation center testbed (LT2) and multiple communications interfaces. Digitized systems will link all battlefield elements from the individual soldier through the brigade and at the same time prevent communications systems information overload. The RFP C2 demonstration will provide realtime to nearrealtime integration of ACTD task force "hunters," "killers," and organic weapons; commanders; and battlefield functional area (BFA) battlefield operating systems (BOS) (i.e., AllSource Analysis System (ASAS) and Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS)). The LT2 will support target analysis, weapontarget pairings, engagement control, EFOGM fire direction, organic sensor management, commanders situation awareness, battle damage assessment, hunter/killer mission planning, nearrealtime data fusion, vertical integration of command levels, and horizontal integration with other functional elements (i.e., intelligence, field artillery, air defense, armor, and dismounted soldier). Supports: Force XXI.
Battlespace Command and Control (BC2) ATD (199701). The BC2 ATD and its associated followon efforts will develop and demonstrate information and knowledgebased technology. It will provide a common, integrated situation display with selectable detail and resolution, providing battlefield visualization and supporting systems architectures. BC2 comprises intelligent agents for information retrieval, filtering, and deconfliction; intelligent products to support decision making; and development of systems architecture. Triservice C2 sources will be partitioned and distributed automatically across an integrated network of communications and computer media to provide realtime targeting, target handover, mission planning, route planning, and friendly and enemy pictures. A multiservice system architecture will interoperate with multiechelon joint/allied assets to provide faster, more accurate, intuitive, and tailored battlespace information to the mobile strike force and Force XXI. This ATD is also an integral part of the Defense Technology Objectives (DTOs) for consistent battlespace understanding; forecasting, planning, and resource allocation, and integrated force and execution management. Supports: Force XXI and Rapid Battlefield Visualization (RBV) ACTD.
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) C4I TD (199600). The goal of this TD is to demonstrate robust, scalable C4I and advanced sensor capabilities that provide commanders and warfighters with seamless, nonhierarchical adaptive networks for multimedia communications in a highly dynamic MOUT environment. The objective is to evolve an integrated communications infrastructure that leverages commercial protocols, formats, waveforms, and standards to achieve global triservice interoperability through integration of mobile Internet protocol (IP) tactical networks into global infrastructure. MOUT C4I will demonstrate nearrealtime vertical and horizontal C2 from the battalion down to the individual combatant. Supports: Force XXI Land Warrior.
Information Operations C2 (IOC2) Protect and Attack ATD (199802). This ATD will demonstrate the ability to launch effective C2 attacks against threat information systems and protect the Armys tactical information systems from modern network attacks. See Section IIIF, "Intelligence and Electronic Warfare," for details on this program. Supports: Integrated Countermeasures, Tactical Internet (TI) C2 Components, and Networks.
b. Technology Programs Leading to Communications Modernization
Communications, specifically seamless communications, facilitates command and control. C2 would be impossible without the ability to communicate (i.e., transmit and receive strategic, tactical, and operational information in a timely manner to and from the commander and associated staff). Several 6.2 programs are under way to facilitate and implement Army 6.3 communications efforts, including a personal communications system (PCS), antennas for communication across the spectrum, and advanced modeling and simulation (see Chapter NO TAG for details on 6.2 programs). The following ATDs and TDs reflect the Armys current strategic plan for communications modernization.
Digital Battlefield Communications (DBC) ATD (199599). This ATD will exploit emerging commercial communications technologies to support multimedia communications in a highly mobile dynamic battlefield environment, the "digitized battlefield," and splitbased operations. Commercial asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology will be integrated into actual tactical communications networks to provide bandwidth on demand to support multimedia information requirements. To extend ATM services to forward tactical units, a radio access point (RAP) will be prototyped and tested. The RAP utilizes a highcapacity, OTM trunk radio to feed a variety of mobile subscriber services. Both manned and unmanned aerial platforms will be fitted with wideband relay packages to support OTM tactical operations, supporting bandwidths of up to 155 megabytes per second (MBps). This ATD will conclude in FY99 with the insertion of appropriate technology products (highcapacity digitized communications and splitbased operations) in Corps XXI advanced warfighting experiment (AWE). A parallel effort, DBC enhancements (199699), includes an earlier demonstration of the direct broadcast satellite (DBS) technology (in support of Joint Warfighter Interoperability Demonstration (JWID) 96 and Task Force XXI). An effort to exploit terrestrial PCS was added to the program at the request of the Army Digitization Office, and will be used to exploit commercial code division multiple access (CDMA) and broadband CDMA (BCDMA) technology as a wireless private branch exchange (PBX) off a mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) switch for command post voice and data subscribers. Multilevel security requirements for Force XXI will be addressed by the insertion of tactical endtoend encryption device (TEED) hardware. Wideband HF technology will be evaluated, tested in a digital integrated laboratory environment, and inserted into Division XXI AWE. Supports: All Transport Systems, Force XXI, and Future Digital Radio (FDR).
Universal Transaction Communications/Services TD (199603). Seamless connectivity and integration across communications media will be demonstrated. The goal is to provide the commander the ability to exchange and understand information unimpeded by differences in connectivity, processing, or systems interface characteristics. It will allow information to flow from wherever it exists, in whatever form, to wherever it is needed, in whatever form it is needed. Attributes include automated interfaces, techniques for enhancing the commercially available signal conditioning, provision of dynamic profiles and adaptive conditioning, and automatic, adaptive addressing to allow connections to users completely independent of any knowledge of location. Supports: All tactical communications, a tactical internet, and Force XXI.
Multiband Multimode Radio (MBMMR) TD (199599). The MBMMR is a joint service program to develop the baseline architecture and technology for the objective MBMMR, meeting the requirements of FDR. MBMMR will demonstrate a highly flexible radio architecture, allowing rapid waveform reprogrammability/reconfigurability to support the rapidly changing mission requirement of electronic warfare (EW) threats, interoperability, networking, traffic load, frequency assignment, and general modes of operation. Technology insertion includes the use of advanced digital signal processors (DSPs), programmable fourchannel CYPRIS chip information security (INFOSEC) modules, and interference cancellation (cosite) circuitry. The MBMMR will utilize an open (industry releasable) system architecture. A highly software reprogrammable (waveform and INFOSEC) radio will provide four simultaneous MBMMR channels and networking functions, thus minimizing the required number of antennas. Supports: FDR and Force XXI.
Communications Integration and Cosite Mitigation TD (199701). The objective of this demonstration is to reduce the size, weight, power, and cosite interference problems that occur when multiple radios in either the same or dissimilar frequency bands are integrated within a communications system. The physical space constraints of mobile platforms cause these problems to be even worse. Technology from ongoing developments will be coupled with new efforts to address the problem within the continuous frequency band from 2 MHz to 2 GHz while also attacking the cosite interference in the HF, VHF, and UHF bands. Development efforts include VHF and UHF multiport antenna multiplexers, ancillary cosite mitigation devices, and wideband linear power amplifiers. Additionally, a multiband communications system will be integrated within a typical Army single integrated command post (SICP) shelter mounted on a highmobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), and tests will be performed to evaluate the resultant performance and enhancements. This testbed will be exercised throughout the FY99FY01 period for evaluation of the individually developed items. Supports: All mobile multiband communications systems and Force XXI.
Range Extension TD (199799). This program directly supports the Army C4 modernization "key azimuth" of range extension through the development and integration of a multitude of satellite communications (SATCOM) and related technologies. It will identify and develop key technologies required for airborne applications of a suite of communications packages, design and integrate specific systems, and conduct system tests and demonstrations of intratheater communications range extension at a variety of data rates. Major technology areas to be addressed are airborne payload (including antennas) designs, ground terminal adaptations, interoperability/compatibility, and simulation. These technologies will be used to supplement current (and programmed) SATCOM resources at all frequency bands. SATCOM terminals will be augmented and enhanced to provide the capability of communicating via satellite or airborne platforms. The utility of SATCOM terminals will be extended by improvements to reduce size and weight, increasing throughput and mobility, and implementing emerging techniques such as demand assignment multiple access (DAMA). A super high frequency (SHF) surrogate satellite system will be demonstrated in FY98. In FY99, a UAVbased EHF and airborne battlefield paging capability will be demonstrated. Supports: Joint Project Office (JPO) UAV TIER II Program, Goldenhawk, and Joint Precision Strike.
Integrated Photonics TD (199500). This effort will develop integrated photonic subsystems for application to optical control of singlebeam phasedarray antennas and fiber optic pointtopoint links, local area networks, and antenna remoting systems. Subsystems will be developed for optical control of multibeam phasedarray antennas. These subsystems will reduce size, cost, and power consumption while increasing the performance of highspeed fiberoptic systems. Demonstration of a photonically controlled, multipanel, phasedarray antenna will be conducted during FY00. Supports: SATCOM OTM.
SATCOM TD (200002). This technology effort will extend the applications and capabilities of SATCOM terminals by providing higher data rates, improvements in throughput, and reduction in lifecycle costs. Throughput improvement will utilize emerging techniques and architectures, such as DAMA, on a percall basis. Overall improvements to systems and equipment will reduce size and increase mobility for military and commercial SATCOM terminals. Supports: SATCOM upgrades.
Commercial Communications Technology Testbed (C2T2) TD (200003). C2T2 is designed to take advantage of breakthroughs in commercial communications technology and assess their utility for military applications. The objective is successful technology insertion. It provides a means for rapidly evaluating and characterizing commercial products. The most promising candidates are introduced to the battle laboratories and field users for evaluation, then incorporated into warfighting experiments. The threephase evaluation process includes standalone evaluation, Digital Integrated Laboratory (DIL) integration, and an AWE. Supports: COTS technology insertion.
c. Computer Technology
Computer technology, the fourth "C" in C4, forms the underpinnings of most, if not all, C3 systems today and in the future. The computing and software technology area is focused on novel computer hardware and integrated systems for Army applications. The Armys computing technology programs include scalable parallel systems and applications, high performance specialized systems and applications, and networks and mobile computing. Details on these programs and more on computing and software technology may be found in Chapter NO TAG, "Technology Development."
5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes
Table III8 shows the correlation between C4 modernization efforts and other AMP annexes. C4 permeates throughout the other Army mission areas (i.e., aviation, IEW, mounted/dismounted forces, soldier, air defense, theater missile defense (TMD), close combat light, fire support, logistics, training, NBC, space, and combat health support). C4 facilitates the Armys capability to project, sustain, and protect the force, win the information war, conduct precision strikes, and dominate the maneuver.
The Armys continued pursuit of emerging C4 stateoftheart communicationselectronics technologies guarantees the stability of the United States defense posture and the safety of its most valuable asset, the warfighter.
Table III8. Correlation Between C4 S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Modernization Plan Annexes
|Mounted/Dismounted Forces*||Aviation||Fire Support||Space & Missile Defense*||Close Combat Light*||IEW||Soldier Systems||Space||Logistics||Training||NBC||Combat Health Support|
|System Upgrade||C2Force Level|
|Advanced Concept||Force XXI/Vision 2010|
|* See Combat
System plays a significant role in the modernization strategy
System makes a contribution to the modernization strategy
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