A major element of the Army strategy is a strong, viable,
highquality inhouse research capability. Laboratories and centers are the key
organizations responsible for technical leadership, scientific advancement, and support
for the acquisition process, including a smart buyer function. The Army S&T
organizational structure is illustrated in Figure I33.
Click on the image to view enlarged version.
Figure I-33. Army S&T Organization
Facilities and EquipmentEssential Foundation for Success
The Army owns a multibillion dollar network of RDT&E facilities located at over 100 sites worldwide (see Chapter VI). The technological demands in many fields¾including medicine, microelectronics, photonics, materials, and manufacturing processes¾dictate the need for modern, excellent facilities. Consequently, the Army is consolidating specialized facilities, eliminating aging and technologically obsolete facilities, and using the capabilities of contractors and other military services. At the same time, Army RDT&E manpower is being drawn down. The new Walter Reed Army Institute for Research (WRAIR) facility is an example of long overdue modernization of inhouse facilities that focuses on those unique capabilities that truly must be owned by the Army itself, consistent with Project Reliance and Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) processes. The 1991 BRAC mandated organizational consolidation and geographic collocation of ARL at two main campuses: Adelphi and Aberdeen, Maryland. Construction has been completed on a new materials research facility at Aberdeen and new laboratory and office facilities at Adelphi to accommodate incoming personnel and maintain mission synergy.
In the future, the Army will use more automated equipment, computerbased research support, and technological networking of researchers to yield more work per scientist and engineer. This strategy will be very important as the Army reduces the size and changes the composition of its civilian work force. Advanced distributed simulation is compressing research and technology development cycle times. The use of physical simulation tools, computer modeling, and other highly automated systems is necessary to both product and manufacturing process technologies and is pivotal to the future of the Army R&D establishment. These issues are discussed further in Chapter VI.
PeopleThe Key to the Future
Approximately 13,000 inhouse personnel in 30 laboratories, centers, and institutes are funded by S&T. Working at a diversified set of facilities, ranging from solidstate physics laboratories to outdoor experimental ranges, they conduct research, technology development, "smart buyer," and product support activities for the total Army. Highly motivated, competent, welltrained people are essential to the success of the Army S&T strategy. Keeping the inhouse work force technically competent in a rapidly changing environment is a major objective for the future. The DoD Laboratory Quality Initiative (LQI) allows revised procurement rules and investment in facilities that will assist in meeting the challenge.
Army S&T Laboratory Personnel Demonstration Projects
In 1994, Congress recognized the challenges facing DoD in its efforts to improve the recruitment, retention, and utilization of laboratory personnel. As a result, the National Defense Authorization Act for FY95 (Public Law 103.337) authorized laboratories designated by DoD as S&T reinvention laboratories to undertake personnel demonstration projects relating to qualifications, recruitment and appointment of personnel, classification and compensation, assignment, reassignment and promotions, discipline, incentives, hours of work, methods involving employees in labor organizations, and methods of reducing staff and grade levels.
The Army has 19 R&D organizations designated as S&T reinvention laboratories, each with authority to develop its own plan. Five of these organizationsARL, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, the Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, the U.S. Army Missile RDEC, and the U.S. Army Aviation RDECwere selected as Phase I participants. The personnel demonstrations for the U.S. Army Missile RDEC and the U.S. Army Aviation were effective October 1, 1997. The rest of the Phase I laboratories will obtain the authority to begin implementation of their demonstrations in early FY98. The remaining 14 S&T reinvention laboratories are in Phase II. Their plans are currently under development, with approval of their final plans anticipated for spring 1998. More than 13,000 engineers, scientists, and administrative and technical personnel will be covered by Army S&T reinvention laboratory personnel demonstrations.
These demonstrations are the first major steps in developing personnel systems specifically tailored to the Armys laboratories. The demonstrations go far in answering criticisms from the Defense Science Board and others that the current system is too slow, puts up administrative barriers, and is impossible to change. These projects streamline some processes and introduce new flexibilities. Broadbanding, pay for performance, and pay in excess of the GS15 levels for critical S&T management positions provide comparability to features that have been available in the private sector for many years.
These demonstrations are critical to strengthening the foundation needed to recruit and sustain a strong 21st century laboratory workforce capable of solving the technical challenges facing the 21st century warfighter.
Demographic projections for college graduates indicate a declining number of engineers and scientists in the period to 2015. The Army is the DoD leader in Youth Outreach (Table I4), Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), and Minority Institutions (MIs) (Table I5). Every university research center of excellence and federated laboratory is required to have an HBCU or MI partner who performs a significant amount of the research. Army stayinschool and summerintern programs have convinced many students to study science and engineering.
Table I4. Youth Science Activities
Conduct, promote, and sponsor science, mathematics, and engineering education
Promote competent and diverse technical workforce
Implement Executive Order 12821 and 10 U.S.C. 2192 (b)
DoD Science and Engineering Education Panel
Junior Science and Humanities Symposia
Research and Engineering Apprenticeship Program (REAP)
"Uninitiates" Introduction to Engineering (UNITE)
Science and Engineering Apprentice Program (SEAP)
International Mathematical Olympiad and Science and Engineering Fairs
Table I5. Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions
|Centers of Excellence:
Advanced Distributed Simulation: Grambling State University
Advanced Materials: Tuskegee University
Advanced Fuel Cell and Battery Manufacturing Technology: Illinois Institute of Technology
Science, Math, and Engineering Education: Contra Costa College, Morehouse College
Single Investigator Programs:
16 investigators at 11 institutions,including:
North Carolina A&T State University
Alabama A&M University
University of Texas at San Antonio
New Mexico State University
Collaborative Research Programs:
U.S. Army HighPerformance Computing Research Center Subcontractor: Howard University
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