E. Logistics Requirements to Project and Sustain the Force
The following force projection and force sustainment domains of the RML articulate capabilities required to project and sustain the force of the future. There may be specific, ongoing R&D initiatives relevant to logistics requirements, but where no stated or apparent linkage to logistics has been identified in the areas listed below, "none" is listed. This does not mean that there is no requirement for R&D efforts needed to fulfill the stated capability. Quite the contrarythese are areas where there is a need for R&D to support required logistics capabilities. In those cases where there is already ongoing research in the relevant technologies but logistics has not been previously been identified as a requirer of the technology, this connection needs to be formally established. Situational awareness is a specific example of an area that has ongoing research and development but logistics has not been identified previously as an eventual user of the technology.
1. RML DomainForce Projection
To project the force the logistics community needs:
Key information technologies that rapidly and automatically identify and track assets.
a. Key Information Technologies That Rapidly and Automatically Identify and Track Assets
None. While a movement tracking system has been partially acquired there remains a definite need for advanced identifying and tracking technologies.
b. Theater Entry Technologies
None. Virtually every other functional area in the Army has identified the requirement for battlefield visualization and situational awareness. It is at the core of logistics requirements to enable us to provide the support capabilities required for Army XXI and AAN.
c. Advanced Thermoreactive Material for "Smart Containers"
None. Advanced thermoreactive material that adjusts its insulating properties based upon ambient climatic conditions, and smart systems technologies need to be integrated to provide shipping, storage, and distribution containers that dramatically unencumber the soldier.
d. Advanced Materiel Handling Equipment
None. With the force structure reductions, the Army no longer can manually handle materiel shipments. Advanced materiel handling equipment incorporating advanced sensors, AI, and robotics must be developed and acquired if Army XXI and the AAN are to be supplied and resupplied in a timely manner.
e. Theater Command and Control Technologies
None. There are a host of R&D initiatives ongoing in this area but few if any incorporate the needs of logistics. This is one of the reasons that the log community "survives" on what is appropriately referred to as the "sneaker net."
f. Smart Delivery Resupply Systems
See Volume I, Chapter III, Section O.
g. Early Entry Soldier Sustenance
See Volume I, Chapter III, Section O.
2. RML DomainForce Sustainment
To sustain the force, the logistics community needs smart combat systems that have:
Ultrareliability built into them during manufacture.
a. UltraReliability Built In During Manufacture
Helicopter Active Control Technology (HACT) TD (9802). The HACT TD will demonstrate advanced processing for faulttolerant systems to maintain reliability while improving affordability and O&S costs and simplifying maintenance. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation." Supports: Comanche, Apache, JTR, ICH, and the RML.
Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART II) TD (9700). The ART TD will provide increased MTBF drivetrain subsystems, and significantly improve readiness and O&S cost reduction. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation." Supports: JTR, ICH, Apache, dualuse potential, and the RML.
RotorWing Structures Technology (RWST) TD (9701). RWST will fabricate and demonstrate advanced airframe sections by FY01 that are tailored for field supportability. System payoffs of 20 percent increase in reliability, 10 percent improvement in maintainability, and 5 percent reduction in O&S for utility type rotorcraft. The technology objectives include a 25 percent cost reduction. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation." Supports: Battle Labs, JTR, ICH, UH60 upgrades, collaborative technology, and the RML.
Advanced Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Technologies (ARCAT) (9700). Reduced MTBFs will be the result of R&D conducted to achieve reduced aircraft loads and vibration loads. Achievement of aerodynamics technology objectives will contribute to rotorcraft system payoffs, reliability, maintainability, and reduced O&S costs. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation." Supports: Battle Labs, Force XXI, and the RML.
Subsystems Technology for Affordability and Supportability (STAS) TD (9700). This focuses on those subsystem technologies directly affecting the supportability of Army aviation. It addresses technical barriers associated with advanced, digitized maintenance concepts, and realtime, onboard integrated diagnostics. The expected benefits are reductions in MTTR, no evidence of failure removals, and spare parts consumption resulting in overall reductions in system life cycle cost and enhanced mission effectiveness. Supports reduced MTTR across all systems by 15 percent, 25 percent reduction in maintenance costs per flight hour and payoffs of 10 percent improvement in maintainability, 20 percent increase in reliability, and 5 percent reduction in O&S costs. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation." Supports: Battle Labs, AH64, UH60, RAH66 upgrades, ICH, JTR, other services, civil rotorcraft fleets, advanced prognostics, telemaintenance, and the RML.
ThirdGeneration Advanced Rotor Demonstration (3rd GARD) TD (0104). This is to provide for systemlevel payoffs of a 45 percent increase in reliability and a 10 percent reduction in O&S costs for attack rotorcraft. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation." Supports:Farterm Advanced Rotorcraft Concepts and the RML.
Advanced Electronics for Future Combat System (AEFCS) (0004). This effort will upgrade the VOSA developed under Intravehicle Electronics Suite ATD to support highpower electronic devices. This technology, when applied, will dramatically change logistics sustainment policy, doctrine, and operations. Advanced concepts for resupply of power and distribution systems will be needed to support these highpower electronic devices on the battlefield of the future. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section G, "Mounted Forces." Supports: FCS, Abrams, CSS Battle Lab, and the RML.
Intravehicle Electronics Suite (IVES) TD (9600). This TD will develop and demonstrate a ground vehicle integrated electronic architecture. These technologies, when applied, will change logistics sustainment policy, doctrine and concept of operations It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section G, "Mounted Forces." Supports: FSCS ATD, Open Systems Joint Task Force, Army C4I Technical Architecture, FCS, FIV, Abrams, Bradley, Crusader, and the RML.
b. Alternative Propulsion Systems and Fuels
Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS) ATD (9801). This will fabricate and test a multifunction staring sensor suite, advanced lightweight structural materials and armors, electric drive, lightweight track, semiactive and fully active suspension, advanced crew stations, advanced C2, and advanced survivability systems, all of which significantly impact logistics operations, training, and support concepts, policy and doctrine. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section G, "Mounted Forces." Supports: FSCS, FIV, FCS, alternative propulsion systems, and the RML.
Integrated HighPerformance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program [Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator (JTAGG)] Demonstration (9103). Specific goals include a 25 percent reduction in fuel consumption. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section D, "Aviation."Supports: The RML, JTR, ICH, Apache, all rotorcraft, and dualuse potential.
Ground Propulsion and Mobility (9701). This effort will demonstrate advanced electronic drive, track and suspension technologies. These technologies, when applied, will dramatically change logistics sustainment policy, doctrine and concept of operations. This is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section G, "Mounted Forces." Supports: FSCS ATD, FCS, FIV, Future Electrically Driven Vehicles, Future Medium Weight Combat Vehicles, Tactical Wheeled Vehicles, and the RML.
Future Combat System Mobility (FCSM) (0206). This effort will demonstrate an advanced propulsion system that consists of a high power density, low heat rejection, engine (diesel or turbine); an electric drive and power conditioning system; an active suspension system; an automatic track tensioning system; and an advanced track. These technologies, when applied, will dramatically change logistics sustainment policy, doctrine and concept of operations It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section G, "Mounted Forces." Supports: FCS, Abrams, Crusader, and the RML.
c. Biomimetic Materials
None. The Army laboratories have research ongoing in biomimetics. Spider silk research is one specific R&D initiative that is being funded. Outside the Army laboratories, but still within the federal system of laboratories, there is considerable biomimetic research ongoing. A recently opened molecular science laboratory dedicated to molecular nanoscience offers considerable confidence that the logisticians will be capable of molecular battlefield manufacturing and repair in support of the AAN.
d. Sensors and Artificial Intelligence
None. R&D is ongoing and extensive for the warfighters in this area. It is also needed for logistics vehicles.
e. Battlefield Situational Awareness
None. R&D is ongoing and extensive for the warfighters in this area. It is also needed for logistics functions.
None. The Army labs have research ongoing in nanotechnology. Outside the Army labs but still within the federal system of laboratories there is considerable nanotechnology research ongoing. A recently opened molecular science laboratory that is dedicated to molecular nanoscience offers considerable confidence that the logisticians will be capable of molecular battlefield manufacturing and repair in support of the AAN.
g. Information Technologies To Automatically Identify and Track Assets
Universal Transaction Communications/Services TD (9603). This TD will allow information to flow in any form to wherever it is needed in whatever form it is needed, thus permitting unrestrained information flow between otherwise incompatible systems. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: All tacticalcommunications and the tactical internet, Force XXI, and the RML.
h. Theater Command, Control and Assessment/Decision Making Technologies
Battlespace Command and Control (BC2) ATD (9703). This ATD will develop and demonstrate advanced decision aids, 3D visualization, distributed and shared databases, all capabilities required to ensure that logistics can meet the demands imposed by combat operations. The triservice C2 sources will provide essential elements of information required for the timely and survivable distribution of supplies, repair parts, and technicians to perform battlefield maintenance and repair. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: Force XXI, RTV ACTD, Velocity Management, Battlefield Distribution, and the RML.
Digital Battlefield Communications (DBC) ATD (9599). This ATD will support digitized battlefield and splitbased operations. It will provide bandwidth on demand to support multimedia information requirements. Digitized communications directly supports the rapid processing of logistics data critical to supporting battlefield commanders. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: All Transport Systems, Force XXI, Future Digital Radio (FDR), and the RML.
Rapid Terrain Visualization (RTV) ACTD (9701). The goal of this ACTD is to demonstrate capabilities to collect source data and generate high resolution digital terrain databases quickly to support crisis response and force projection operations within the timelines required by the Joint Force Commander. Rapid knowledge of terrain characteristics helps logistics commanders provide battlefield support under all conditions. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers" and Section F, "Intelligence and Electronic Warfare." Supports: JSPD/RFPI, Force XXI, Vision 2010, Army Battle Command System (ABCS), Intel XXI, Division 98 AWE, the RML, Telemaintenance and Logistics C2.
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) C4I TD (9600). The "open system" architecture will facilitate a large reduction in future Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) life cycle costs. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, andComputers." Supports: Force XXI Land Warrior and the RML.
Joint Speakeasy/Multiband Multimode Radio (MBMMR) TD (9599). MBMMR will demonstrate a highly flexible radio architecture to support maintenance, interoperability, networking, traffic load, frequency assignment, and general modes of operation. The number of antennas required will be minimized. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: Future Digital Radio, Force XXI, and the RML.
Range Extension (RE) TD (9799). This program will identify and develop key technologies required for airborne applications of a suite of communications packages, design and integrate specific systems, and conduct system tests and demonstrations of intratheater communications range extension at a variety of data rates. When applied these technologies will overcome current restrictions on maintenance communications requirements. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: JPO UAV TIER II Program, Goldenhawk, Joint Precision Strike, Automated SelfPrognosis Decision System, Telemaintenance, and the RML.
SATCOM TD (0002). This technology effort will extend the applications and capabilities of SATCOM terminals by providing higher data rates, improvements in throughput, and reduced lifecycle costs. Overall improvements to systems and equipment will reduce size and increase mobility. When applied these technologies will overcome current restrictions on maintenance communications requirements It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control,Communications, and Computers." Supports: SATCOM upgrades and the RML.
i. Logistics Survivability on the Battlefield
Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (9398). The BCID addresses the mission need to develop effective and survivable groundtoground and airtoground combat identification capabilities to avoid engagement of friendly forces and noncombatants. This ATD will demonstrate target identification techniques together with situational awareness information, which will prevent fratricide during resupply and maintenance missions. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section F, " Intelligence and Electronic Warfare." Supports: Armored Vehicles, the Integrated C3IEW SystemofSystems, Land Warrior, Battlespace C2, Aviation platform upgrades, JPSD/RFPI, Force XXI, Logistics Survivability, and the RML.
Precision Navigation (PN) (9498). This program provides accurate, robust, worldwide positioning that will allow resupply and maintenance/repair missions on the battlefield of the future. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: Digitization of the Battlefield, Navigation Warfare, Battlespace C2, Precision Strike, RPA, Comanche, PEO Aviation, PEO C3S, PEO IEW, PM AEC, PM GPS, PM ATC, systems upgrades Soldier System, Ground and Air Vehicles, and the RML.
Machine Vision for Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle (MVAUGV) TD (9699). Through this technology demonstration an autonomous navigation capability will be developed and demonstrated on a UGV that allows operation on or off roads, that can detect and circumnavigate obstacles, and that can autonomously replan its route. Resupply of the Army is essential to sustaining combat operations. This technology provides the capability to ensure that resupply operations continue at the required level and timeliness even with continued troop strength reductions. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section F, " Intelligence and Electronic Warfare." Supports: Joint UGV Project Office, Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD, Early Entry Lethality and Survivability, Dismounted Battlespace, Combat Service Support, and Depth and Simultaneous Attack Battle Labs, and the RML.
j. Soldier Sustainment
Performance Enhancing Demonstrations (9598). Special supplemental components will supplement the Individual Combat Ration to heighten alertness, extend endurance, and reduce the effects of high altitude sickness. Sustaining our soldiers in all combat conditions is a key logistics mission. It is discussed in detail in Volume I, Chapter III, Section I, "Soldier." Supports: Army Field Feeding Future and the RML.
In March 1997, TRADOC hosted an AAN Technology Workshop with six panels, one of which focused on logistics efficiencies. The AAN Logistics Efficiencies Panel identified applications of advanced technology in power, distribution, soldier sustainment, system sustainment, ammunition, and C4I. Its mission was to conduct broad studies of warfare to about the year 2025 to frame issues vital to the Army after about 2010 and to provide issues to the senior Army leadership for integration into TRADOC combat development programs. The objectives were to expand the AAN network of technologists across multiple disciplines and organizations, link technological possibilities to innovative operational capabilities, introduce the Integrated Idea Team Concept, identify enabling technologies that provide needed capabilities, integrate human and organizational issues, and answer these questions:
How can the AAN project influence the science and technology process?
How can science and technology influence AAN?
Technological issues identified by the AAN Logistics Efficiencies Panel include:
Power and energy
Fossil fuel energy conversion is nearing the upper limits
AAN platforms, even at 15 tons, exceed current energy conversion capabilities for a tenday operational mission
Significant RDT&E is required to obtain better energy conversion with new techniques, and reduce the weight of the AAN platform
Tactical energy distribution requires development
Alternate energy options (e.g., hydrogen, natural gas, methanol)
"Ultrareliability" as a major design priority:
systems that never "break"
Predictive maintenancesystems that report on their condition: system health monitors, embedded sensorsnanoscience, and advanced prognostics
Selfrepairsystems that fix themselves: smart structuresbiomimetics (natural processes) and microengineered machines
Ease of repairparts within 24 hours: telemaintenance and global distribution, design for discard100 percent recoverability, and embedded training
Command, control, communication, and automation
Fully automated, integrated operations/logistics C2
capability: intelligent agents, and equally capable as combat platform and fielded
Automated logistics planning: interactive, predictive, and collaborative; and "sentinels"
Zero staging: AIbased and embedded simulation
Rapid supply: data mining, automatic requisition, automated contract negotiation, and EDI
Realtime situational awareness: objectbased visualization, HCI, modeling, and simulation; realtime day/night, allweather, allterrain, allthreat knowledge; and realtime comprehensive knowledge of (1) location and combat status of friendly forces, (2) location, type, and timing of degrading and degraded ("broken") friendly assets, (3) disposition of threat forces ion relationship to degraded and degrading friendly assets, (4) location of natural and manmade obstacles to resupply/repair routes, (5) location and availability of supply/resupply assets to include repair parts, (6) location and availability transportation assets, and (7) current and predicted weather conditions
Informationbased distribution, based on anticipated
demand: embedded sensors and realtime total situational awareness (logistics,
operations, supply chain)
Strategic maneuverability: "pipes" project logistics support fluidity, advanced airlift and fast sealift, single mobility platform (combat and combat support), and tactical sorter hub
24hour global delivery with 100 percent accuracy: precision (next generation) GPS air delivery
Agility, 90 percent lighter weight for combat load, uniform:
advanced materials, multispectral protective fabrics; and combat power from external
Every soldier a "combat center": personal communications and POSNAV, headsup displays with IFF, wearable computers/intelligent assistants, and "infallible" communications and support
Long term (24 weeks) selfsustainability: medical and nutrient patches, vehicles for medical evacuation owned by the medics, mission tailorable/sensory enhancing rations, physiological and mental status sensors, and nextgeneration water purification (e.g., polymers, UV)
Advanced soldier power sources (microturbines, fuel cells/batteries)
Single round, single fuze: GPSguided munitions, variable
thrust, and lethality; and electronic fuze with built in IFF
"Safe" ammunition/environmentally green: insensitive munitions and energetic materials
Single propellantrun on what you shoot: hybrid electric weapons and energetic materialsliquid propellant hydrogen (multipurpose)
"Smart" lightweight packaging: embedded condition sensors and composites and plastics
"Soft kill" of equipment.
The AAN Logistics Efficiencies Panel has provided this framework of issues/requirements that need to be addressed in the S&T community for the Army to realize its Logistics capabilities required for Army XXI and the AAN.
The DoD S&T community has identified six Strategic Research Objectives (SROs) where the longterm potential exists for developing advanced technologies to meet requirements: nanotechnology, smart structures, intelligent systems, biomimetics, broadband communications, and compact power sources. These SROs are described below.
Nanotechnology. Achieve dramatic, innovative enhancements in the properties and performance of structures, materials, and devices on the nanometer scale (i.e., tens of angstroms). Fabrication of structures at the nanometer scale will enable manufacturing of more reliable, lower cost, higher performance and more flexible electronic, magnetic, optical, and mechanical devices. The potential exists for "battlefield manufacture" of materials required to prosecute a conflict.
Smart Structures. Demonstrate advanced capabilities for modeling, predicting, controlling, and optimizing the dynamic response of complex, multielement, deformable structures used in land, sea, and air vehicles and systems. Smart structures offer significant potential for expanding the effective operations envelope and improving critical operational characteristics for weapon systems. Logistics applications include a "selfhealing" area for structural damage detection and mitigation systems.
Intelligent Systems. Enable the deployment of advanced systems able to sense, analyze, learn, adapt, and function effectively in changing or hostile environments. Intelligent systems typically consist of a dynamic network of agents interconnected via spatial and communications links that operate in uncertain and dynamically changing environments using decentralized or distributed input and under localized goals that may change over time. Intelligent systems must be capable of gathering relevant information about their environment, analyzing its significance in terms of assigned functions, and defining the most appropriate course of action consistent with programmed decision logic. Builtin, realtime, selfreporting prognostics for weapon systems is an application of this technology that will dramatically reduce logistic burdens, associated costs, and significantly improve the MTTR.
Biomimetics. Enable the development of novel synthetic materials, processes, and sensors through advanced understanding and exploitation of design principles found in nature. Materials and structures of intricate complexity that exhibit remarkable properties are found throughout the biological world. Many of these biological systems derive their functionality from fabrication through several levels of selfassembly involving molecular clusters organized into structures of different length scales. The result is an optimized architecture tailored for specific applications through molecular, nanoscale, microscale, and macroscale levels that is unobtainable through conventional, equilibriumbased, synthetic fabrication methods. The superior strengths and other properties such as noncorrosiveness and light weight of biomimetic materials lend themselves to solving and reducing numerous logisticsburdens.
Broadband Communications. Provide fundamental advances enabling the rapid and secure transmission of large quantities of multimedia information (speech, data, graphics, and video) from pointtopoint, broadcast, and multicast over distributed networks for heterogeneous C3I systems. Research is needed to dramatically improve the throughput, survivability, and security of communication networks critical to logistics viability and the success of future Force XXI military operations.
Compact Power Sources. Achieve significant improvements in the performance (power and energy density, operating temperature, reliability, and safety) of compact power sources through fundamental advances relevant to current technologies (e.g., batteries and fuel cells) and the identification and exploitation of new concepts. Efficient, longlife, durable, and quiet compact power sources are a critical requirement for electronics, communications, heating and cooling, weapons, and propulsion systems.
Table G2 portrays the value added for logistics from the application of the technologies represented in the six DoD SROs.
Table G2. Logistics Applications of DoD SRO Technologies
|Changes concept of manufacturingdo anywhere||Vibration damping and reduction via embedded sensors||Execution of logistics system tasks without human intervention except when desired||
Medical applications to include immediate repair of broken/
|Provide field users with flexible, mobile, and easily deployable communications conduits||Reduce fuel and power storage and distribution requirements significantly|
|Synthesis from local materials||Reduced maintenance requirement||Unmanned ground/air vehicles decrease force structure and improve system response time||Repairs to combat damaged equipment||Untether logistics processes from fixed wire sites||Increased operational capability of the soldier as a system|
|Sophisticated, extremely lightweight material||Reduced resupply and transportation requirements||Robots to handle materiel that is dangerous, heavy, or sensitive||Designer vaccines and drugs for quick return to healthy status||Increased data pass capability||Handle power requirement of dismounted soldier: heating and cooling; computer use; communications transmissions|
|Quantum computing at very high speed||Improved storage with ambient temperature control||Decision support system "brains" to monitor individual weapon systems and prevent failure||Lightweight structures and system components with ultrareliability and virtually frictionless||Reduce frequency of data reporting||Reduced dependence on fossil fuels|
|Prophylactics and cures for chem/bio agents||Secure system containers for critical resources||Reduced logistics distribution requirements by accurately assessing potential component failures and using collective knowledge of entire weapon system||Impact resistant material that can be grown in combat area||Integrate weapon system sensors reporting prognostic information on a broad scale||Reduced resupply requirement for power sources|
|Ultrastrong fibers||Reduced damage to material by adjusting containers and structures for various shock and impact conditions||Improved logistics planning via multisensory perception development||Lightweight armorreduced logistics footprint across the board||Evaluate the "health" of entire groups of common weapon systems individually and independently||Reduce environmental issues associated with battery disposal|
|Programmed ultrareliability||Structures respond to external stimuli and adapt accordingly||Improved exoskeletons to reduce force structure for materials handling equipmentincreased lift capability||High resolution sensors to detect imperfections and for troubleshooting||Improve timeliness of the logistics communications support structure||Required to develop containers with micro heat pumps and long term power capability for independent operations|
|Reduced logistics demand||Retain history of access and denials/automatic inventory||Reduced hazardous exposure during critical item operations or repair||Development of superconductor material could lead to propulsion without motors or gears as we know them|
|Environmentally enhancing||Reduce logistics requirements for chem/bio defense||Noncorrosive and nonerosive|
|Immediate battle damage assessment and failure reporting|
|Improve fuel storage capability|
|Biomedical applications including "in vivo" sensing and control|
|Rapid nondestructive testing responses (less out of service time)|
This annex shows R&D initiatives that are ongoing in the Army laboratories that directly and significantly benefit Army logistics in its quest to fulfill its obligations to support Army XXI and AAN.
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