News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan

Annex D
Space and Missile Defense Technologies

A. Purpose

This annex describes space and missile technology developments that support the needs that are documented in Joint Vision 2010, Army Vision 2010, U.S. Space Command Vision for 2020, and insights emerging from the Army After Next (AAN) process. It provides a technology development roadmap to meet the evolving needs for joint operations of the warfighter out to 2015. It also provides an overview of the Program Executive Office—Air Missile Defense (PEO–AMD) system elements and the associated technology programs that address the needs of the system elements. The objective is to provide the Army position for missile defense and space technology, needs, and requirements.

The near–term technologies support ongoing programs that typically provide a risk mitigation alternative to the program managers and cover up to 5 years. Mid–term technologies addressing preplanned product improvement (P3I) and next–generation efforts to counter known threats are also included under the near–term technologies. Far–term technologies are initiatives that typically address future operational capabilities (FOCs) and projected/evolving threats and focus on the efforts with payoffs 5 years and beyond.

B. Introduction

On October 1, 1997, the Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (SSDC) was reorganized to become the Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC). The reorganization recognizes the command’s expanding role in Army space and missile defense areas and better postures the Army to meet space and missile defense needs for Joint Vision 2010, Army Vision 2010, and U.S. Space Command Vision 2020, as well as insights emerging from the Army After Next process. A memorandum of agreement (MOA) between the Army’s Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and SMDC was signed in February 1997. This MOA established SMDC as the Army’s specified proponent for space and national missile defense (NMD) issues and the lead for integration of TRADOC theater missile defense (TMD) issues; identified SMDC as the Army lead for the generation and definition of space and national defense requirements, and authorized SMDC to establish a space and missile defense battle laboratory to develop warfighting concepts, focus military science and technology (S&T) research, and conduct warfighting experiments. The SMDC has a unique role as technology developer and integrator, combat developer, materiel developer, tester, evaluator, and operational commander.

In response to the expanded role of the command, SMDC has outlined four goals of the reorganized command. These goals encompass the major themes for Army space and missile defense modernization. Progress towards the goals will enable the joint and army visions of warfighting in the 21st century. The goals are:

Robust space integration into full–spectrum land force operations
Global, multielement missile defense
Progressive space and missile defense technology for land forces
Anticipatory space partnerships.

Missile Defense and Space Technology Center (MDSTC), Huntsville, Alabama. The MDSTC is the nation’s hub of Army missile defense technology excellence. In addition to advancing missile defense technologies in support of organizations such as the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), it places renewed emphasis on space technology development. The MDSTC enables FOCs in space and missile defense and will continue to develop opportunities for international cooperation as well as partnerships with academia, industry, and other government organizations.

Space and Missile Defense Battle Laboratory (SMDBL), Huntsville, Alabama. The SMDBL will conduct warfighting experiments, develop and use space missile defense modeling and simulation (M&S) tools, support Army and other major exercise and training activities, and conduct studies and analyses on issues relevant to the battle laboratory. This effort is the heart of the Army space and missile defense requirements determination process. Progressive and iterative mixtures of constructive, virtual, and live simulations will be used, incorporating soldiers and units. The warfighting insights developed from this process will serve as way points to plot the Army’s future space and missile defense course.

The SMDBL synthetic battlefield environment (SBE) will support space and missile defense live–virtual–constructive experiments in the domains of advanced concepts and requirements (ACRs); training, exercises, and military operations (TEMO); and research, development, and acquisition (RDA). The SBE architecture will be holistic, allowing operators, combat and materiel developers, technology developers, and testers to examine doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldiers (DTLOMS) requirements in a virtual environment.

The SMDBL will work in close coordination with the TRADOC Analysis Center, Operational Test and Evaluation Command (OPTEC), the S&T community, the joint test community, TRADOC battle laboratories, and battle laboratories of other services.

Army Space Command (ARSPACE), Colorado Springs, Colorado. The ARSPACE will conduct space and missile defense operations supporting U.S. Space Command and other joint forces and commands. ARSPACE will represent the Army in the space planning and requirements system process. In addition, ARSPACE will coordinate plans for Army national missile defense, including plans for fielding and operating a national missile defense battalion. ARSPACE will maintain contact with other joint space and missile defense users to determine needs and demonstrate capabilities such as the joint in–theater injection (JITI) capability. Army space support teams will remain the Army’s primary interface with the warfighter in the field. These teams will be enhanced with increasingly capable space applications developed through the SMDBL and the Space Technology Directorate (STD).

Army Space Program Office (ASPO), Fairfax, Virginia. The ASPO will provide national intelligence to the warfighter. In addition to the well–established tactical exploitation of national capabilities (TENCAP) program, SMDC will apply ASPO’s TENCAP to other operational capabilities involving space and missile defense. ASPO, working in coordination with SMDBL, STD, and ARSPACE, will place emphasis on integrating space capabilities, evolving into the overall space materiel developer for the command. Initiatives such as Eagle Vision II will leverage commercial space applications for commanders in the field.

Force Development and Integration Center (FDIC), Arlington, Virginia. The FDIC’s mission is to develop, coordinate, and prioritize Army actions associated with space and missile defense combat and materiel development. The FDIC will integrate and synchronize space and missile defense DTLOMS solutions across the Army and, as appropriate, among joint warfighters. The FDIC will determine requirements to integrate solutions horizontally and vertically. To coordinate externally, SMDC will exchange liaison officers with appropriate organizations. In some cases, this liaison is already in place (TRADOC and U.S. Space Command, for example). Identifying additional liaison requirements is a priority.

Space Technology Directorate (STD), Huntsville, Alabama. The STD, organized within MDSTC, will identify space technologies and applications developed by the Army and other agencies. The STD will develop a long–range space research and development program. This program will focus Army space technology on space future warfighting concepts and space operational capabilities. It will review space technology initiatives in cooperation with the SMDBL experimentation program. The STD will emphasize horizontal technology integration and search for opportunities to leverage the technology developed outside of the Army in organizations such as BMDO, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), other services, and other military and commercial technology developers.

Space and Missile Defense Acquisition Center, Huntsville, Alabama. The Space and Missile Defense Acquisition Center centralizes materiel development, testing, and evaluation. The center will develop, field, and sustain low–density space and missile defense systems for the warfighter. Initially, the center will include the National Missile Defense (Ground) Project Office, ASPO, Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS) Project Office, and Targets Program Office, in addition to U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) and High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). The center will develop working relationships with organizations such as the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM), OPTEC, and Communications–Electronics Command (CECOM).

U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) and Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR), Republic of the Marshall Islands. The USAKA/KMR is a world–class space surveillance and missile defense test facility that provides a vital role in the research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) of America’s defense and space programs. The Kiernan Reentry Measurement System (KREMS) radar complex will continue to support U.S. Space Command operations, and USAKA/KMR will proactively develop additional test support initiatives. In supporting the U.S. Space Command and the Army space mission, KMR will conduct space–object identification and provide orbital information on new foreign launches.

High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF), White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The HELSTF operates the nation’s most powerful laser (mid–infrared (IR) advanced chemical laser) in support of Army and DoD laser RDT&E. It also provides test support to DoD NASA, industry, universities, and foreign governments under appropriate user agreements. The HELSTF will be a major contributor to the command’s international and commercial partnership initiatives. HELSTF’s capabilities will support active defense against aerospace targets, as well as initiatives such as space control and applying force into and from space.

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