Chapter III. Technology Transition
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

4. Roadmap for Army Training

Table III-P-2 summarizes the training SU/ACs and relevant technology demonstrations.

Table III-P-2. Training Demonstration and System Summary

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The roadmap at Figure III-P-1 details the Army's current plans to support future training initiatives. Limited advanced development funding for Training System Upgrades is available in the outyears.

Figure III-P-1. Roadmap for Training Modernization

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CTCs represent realistic training environments using actual equipment on large, instrumented maneuver areas or advanced simulation programs. Standardized instrumentation systems at all CTCs provide precise measurement of unit performance in these simulated combat environments. NSTD upgrades include improved Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) Air/Ground Engagement Simulation (AGES II) for more effective integration of aviation operations into CTC exercises.

The Combined Arms Training Strategy is the framework that leaders will use to design and execute effective unit training programs in a resource-constrained environment. Supporting technology demonstrations that will lead to the Advanced Concepts, shown in Figure III-P-1, are described below.

a. Technology Programs for Collective Training

Combat training readiness for a wide spectrum of conflicts is a top priority for the Army. CATS seeks to provide the guidance home station training leaders need to achieve training excellence with constrained budgets and time. The following programs support the CATS through intelligent and affordable unit training strategies and by improving commander and staff effectiveness through research on training, doctrine, leadership, and organizational design.

Unit Training Strategies (92-98). This research program will provide an empirical basis for developing effective unit training strategies for armored and light forces, aircrews, and reserve components. This will be accomplished by developing new training methods and determining an optimal mix of existing TADSS and live firing and field exercises. Much of this work is aimed at discovering better ways to train with distributed interactive simulation. For example, in FY97, one program will develop methods for structuring armor training and automating performance measurement, feedback, and training management in the close combat tactical trainer (CCTT) programs. Results will also be used to update battalion level training models in FY98. Supports: Distributed Interactive Simulation and Distributed Models/Simulation for Joint/Theater Exercises.

Training for the Digitized Battlefield (96-01). The research program will develop and demonstrate new training and evaluation technologies that will prepare operators and commanders to take maximum advantage of evolving digitized C3 systems. Techniques and strategies will be demonstrated and evaluated in Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWEs). New training and evaluation technologies for the digitized battlefield will be used by TRADOC as the foundation of future doctrine and cost-effective training strategies. Supports: Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS), Innovative Simulation-Based Training Strategies, and Distributed Models/Simulation for Joint/Theater Exercises.

b. Technology Programs for Simulator/Simulation Enhanced Training

Today's Army must be capable of producing swift, decisive, low-casualty victories across the spectrum of conflict anywhere in the world. Simulated environments can be tailored to provide realistic training for new critical missions. For example, prototype simulation-based training methods are being developed to train light forces for Stability Operations. Other programs are developing innovative simulation-based training approaches for joint exercises, dismounted soldiers, and aviators. These programs include:

Joint Training Readiness (97-01). This research supports the Joint Warfighter Focus Army Modernization Objective. By FY99 the program will provide methods for planning and conducting systematic multi-site, multi-echelon After Action Reviews of interservice and joint unit operations. In FY00, the program will demonstrate distributed training methods for planning and executing tactical fires from Brigade through Corps as a Joint Task Force. Supports: Innovative Simulation-Based Training Strategies and CATS.

Individual Combatant Training in Virtual Environments (97-01). This research program will develop technologies to allow dismounted soldiers to participate in virtual simulations for training, concept development, and test and evaluation similar to their mounted counterparts. Methods for training team leaders and assessing performance will be demonstrated using state-of-the-art Virtual Environment (VE) technology. Supports: Innovative Simulation-Based Training Strategies and CATS.

Combined Arms Training Strategy for Aviation (92-98). This research has as its purpose the empirical determination of the most effective training strategies utilizing an affordable mix of existing TADSS and live exercises for initial flight skills for individuals and for unit combat tasks. This research will establish requirements for utilization of and upgrades to existing simulators. In FY98, the research will deliver an experimentally validated prototype aviation training strategy for individual pilot and unit combat tasks. Supports: Distributed Interactive Simulation and Distributed Models/Simulation for Joint/Theater Exercises, Innovative Simulation-Based Training Strategies, and CATS.

c. Technology Programs for Improved Personnel Performance

Today's smaller Army must act wisely to ensure that its strength, quality, and readiness can meet the demands of a wider range of operations. Key to this challenge is enlisting and retaining quality soldiers and understanding how to manage organizational changes. Properly placed, quality soldiers save recruiting, training, and supporting dollars. The following programs describe research addressing these issues.

Human Dimensions of Battle Command (93-98). This research will determine the key factors in the effectiveness of tactical and operational unit commanders and their staffs, with an emphasis on the impact of doctrine, training, technology, and organizational influences. Research products will support changes in staff training, command staff design, and command staff training strategies. A major goal is to demonstrate a significant improvement in the tactical decision skills of commanders in the Battle Command Battle Lab advanced warfighting experiments (AWE). Supports: Advanced Assessment and Leader Development Technologies and CATS.

Special Forces Personnel Development (95-01). This research will develop methods, models, and strategies to meet the particular needs of the Special Forces to improve train- ing (e.g., leveraging and developing advanced technologies for foreign language training), reduce training attrition, and enhance leader and personnel development. Supports: Advanced Assessment and Leader Development Technologies and CATS.

Personnel Management for the 21st Century (97-00). The objective of this research is to identify noncommissioned officers who can operate most effectively in the complex, high-tech Army of the future. The work involves identifying performance requirements and the attributes that underlie successful performance. By FY00, the program will produce new methods for assessing NCOs and recommendations for fine-tuning career progression procedures. Supports: Advanced Assessment and Leader Development Technologies and CATS.

d. Other Training Modernization Programs

The Army's manpower, personnel, and training science and technology program supports these activities as well as the majority of the Battle Labs' advanced warfighting experiments.

ARPA Advanced Technology Demonstration #1 (Synthetic Theater of War (STOW)). STOW uses Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) to link live, virtual, and constructive simulation systems into a synthetic environment battlefield. The program grew out of the Synthetic Environment Program (SEP) initiated in 1994. A demonstration is planned for FY97.

ARPA Advanced Technology Demonstration #2 [Simulation in Training for Advanced Readiness (SIMITAR)]. SIMITAR was initiated to address training readiness issues identified during mobilization for Operation Desert Shield. Results led to congressional interest and funding (FY93-97) for DARPA-led research on advanced technology training for the Army National Guard (ARNG). The effectiveness of SIMITAR training technologies will be validated in two ARNG brigades in FY97-98.