Chapter III. Technology Transition
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

4. Engineer and Mine Warfare Roadmaps

Table III-M-2 presents a summary of the S/SU, Technology Demonstrations, and ATDs found in the EMW roadmaps shown in Figure III-M-1.

Table III-M-2. Engineer and Mine Warfare Demonstration and System Summary

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Figure III-M-1. Roadmap for EMW Modernization

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a. Mobility

Engineers enhance friendly freedom of maneuver by defeating, bypassing, breaching, marking, and reporting mines and other obstacles, crossing gaps, providing combat roads and trails, and performing Forward Aviation Combat Engineering (FACE) operations. S&T programs focus on integrating countermine capabilities through live and simulated experiments, maintaining Army and Marine Corps enhanced mobility, survivability, situational awareness, and agility to the force commander as a result of integrating countermine technology with C4I. The pacing technologies include sensor IR, microwave, multispectral, seismic and acoustic decoys, explosive neutralization, information processing, robotics, and other emerging technologies.

Vehicular Mounted Mine Detector ATD (96-98). The vehicular detector will demonstrate the mounted capability to detect metallic and nonmetallic mines, conventionally or remotely emplaced. The system will consist of a detection array located on the front of host vehicles, an operator screen display, a data interpretation algorithm, and a power source. Ground-penetrating radar, forward-looking radar, infrared, sensor fusion, automatic target recognition, and teleoperation capability will be demonstrated. Two multisensor suites for mounted, close-in, and stand-off detection of minefields, individual mines, and unexploded ordnance are planned. Supports: Joint Countermine ACTD and Ground Standoff Mine Detection System.

Mine Hunter Killer ATD (98-00). This program will demonstrate a countermine system that will be effective against a wide variety of antitank and antipersonnel metallic and non-metallic mines. It will show an integrated countermine system employing infrared detection, forward-looking radar, and neutralizing technologies. This integrated system will demonstrate the ability to detect and kill mines and unexploded ordnance at a standoff distance while on the move. The vehicle will be outfitted with low cost, low observable technology to improve its survivability in forward deployed areas. Supports: Mine Hunter Killer and Ground Standoff Mine Detection System P3I.

b. Countermobility

Engineers impede the enemy's freedom of maneuver by disrupting, turning, fixing, and/ or blocking his movement through obstacle development and terrain enhancement. S&T programs are integrating microelectronics, signal processing, and advanced intelligence into a controlled network of mine warfare systems. Minefields now consist of an array of independent mines, each with a preprogrammed response to an encroaching target. The Intelligent Minefield (IMF) transforms this independent array into a coordinated combat network with a gateway that transmits commands to and receives data from each mine. This gateway is linked or relayed to a remote control station in the maneuver headquarters. This network provides the commander with real-time targeting data from the minefield array. An on/off/on capability provides friendly forces freedom of maneuver and reduces the cost and logistical burden by permitting recovery/repositioning of mines. The goal is a mine system that can defend terrain, employing direct fire tactics, without overwatching direct fires, thus providing an economy of force, survivability, and greater lethality important to early entry forces.

Intelligent Minefield (IMF) ATD (93-97). This ATD will demonstrate breadboard hardware of key elements such as controllers and associated software, communications links, advanced on/off/on safe and arm devices, and extended range sensors. The goal is to demonstrate basic feasibility of coordinated tactics and remote control/reporting by integrating with the existing Wide Area Munition (WAM) program. The ATD will also provide hand-emplaced acoustic sensors for the Rapid Force Projection Initiative (RFPI) ACTD, detailed in Section H, Close Combat Light. Supports: WAM P3I and RFPI ACTD.

Mobility and Survivability (Battle Command) (95-98). This program will demonstrate decision support applications for mobility, countermobility, and survivability force level information that supports multiple battlefield operating systems. Physics-based algorithms, applicable to all climatic regions, that automate the engineer's efforts to filter, assess, and manipulate data into relevant information for the maneuver commander and staff will be incorporated into obstacle planning software and simplified survivability assessments that will be demonstrated during Task Force XXI AWE and Division XXI exercises. The software suite to be demonstrated will also provide the engineer commander with the ability to execute engineer domain force level command and control. Supports: Battle Command Decision Support System (BCDSS) (Phoenix), Maneuver Control System (MCS).

c. Survivability

Engineers reduce friendly force vulnerability to enemy weapon effects through rapid fabrication of protective structures, terrain alteration, and concealment. S&T programs are focused on upgrades to the low cost, low observable (LCLO) camouflage systems. These systems provide means for detection and hit avoidance. The upgrades are designed to reduce or eliminate visual, ultraviolet, near infrared (NIR), thermal IR, and radar waveband signatures of mobile and stationary assets. The goal is to counter the highly sensitive reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition (RISTA) threat sensors, and fused sensors in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Signature control will be achieved through integration of passive, reactive, and active low observable systems.

Field fortifications research is conducted by the Corps of Engineers' Waterways Experiment Station (WES) for all of DoD. The focus of these efforts is in design of protective structures to defeat advanced munitions (bunker busters) and unconventional munitions (car bombs), to capture commercial technology, and to identify high payoff protection techniques.

Low Cost, Low Observable (LCLO) System Upgrade Demonstrations (94-06). Demonstrations are scheduled during FY94-FY00 for upgrades to LCLO systems, including the Ultra Lightweight Camouflage Net System--General Purpose (ULCANS-GP), Multispectral Camouflage System for Mobile Equipment, and Reactive/Active Standardized Camouflage Paint Pattern (SCAPP). Currently fielded LCLO systems do not counter threat thermal infrared sensors. Supports: Ultra Lightweight Camouflage Net System, Multispectral Camouflage System for Mobile Equipment, Standard Camouflage Paint Pattern.

Lightweight Airborne Multispectral Countermine Detection System Technology Demonstration (98-01). This demonstration will utilize novel focal plane array (FPA) and system technologies (35 m staring FPAs, passive polarization, multi/hyperspectral imaging, electronic stabilization) to develop a lightweight airborne standoff mine detection capability for limited area (point) detection, limited corridor route reconnaissance, and detection of nuisance mines along roads. The system will detect buried nuisance mines on unpaved roads and off-route side attack mines, as well as detection of surface and buried patterned and scatterable minefields. The system will also have applications to other intelligence gathering programs requiring increased thermal sensitivity as well as those that would benefit from a wider field of view than supported by a framing FLIR. Supports: Tactical UAV.

Hunter Sensor Suite ATD (94-97). Low observable ("cheap suit") technologies are being incorporated into the Hunter Sensor Vehicle. See Close Combat Light, Section H, for further details.

d. Sustainment Engineering

Engineers support force sustainment by maintaining, upgrading, or constructing lines of communication and facilities; providing construction support and materials; and performing area damage assessment. Sustainment in the form of infrastructure assessment, generation and allocation of engineer resources required, and visualization technologies will be among the technologies critical in wartime contingency and support and sustainment operations. Chapter IV, Section L, Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality, provides more information on sustainment engineering S&T efforts.

e. Topographic Engineering

Topographic engineers provide timely, accurate knowledge of the battlefield and terrain visualization to operational commanders and staffs at all echelons throughout the operational continuum. Knowledge of the battlefield consists of information in narrative or graphic format describing the effects of terrain and climate on military operations. The ability of the commander to visualize the terrain in all climate conditions before the battle will help him to develop dynamic operational plans; and locate, engage, and defeat the enemy with a more agile, synchronized force. Terrain information developed by Army engineers provide the basic terrain reference for land and air forces as well as other DoD and non-DoD agencies.

S&T programs focus on providing tactical environmental decision support, real-time position and azimuth determination, realistic battlefield visualization capabilities, terrain data base construction and/or update, data base value-adding for modeling and simulation, and geographic data base management. In addition, key to battlefield awareness and crisis response is the development of technologies to support the capability for the rapid production and dissemination of image-based topographic products. Advances in microelectronics, artificial intelligence, advanced computing, and signal processing techniques make topographic technology an extremely dynamic field.

Topographic engineers are working closely with TRADOC Battle Labs and the user community to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine technological developments and doctrinal topographic support concepts. Initial fielding of the Combat Terrain Information System [Digital Topographic Support System (DTSS), and the Quick Response Multicolor Printer (QRMP)], coupled with its accelerated Preplanned Product Improvement (P3I) program directed at imagery exploitation, will provide the battlefield commander with the latest in topographic technology.

Rapid Battlefield Visualization (Proposed) ACTD (97-01). This ACTD will demonstrate capabilities to rapidly collect source data and generate high resolution digital terrain data bases to support crisis response and force projection operations. It will demonstrate capabilities for the commander to integrate these terrain data bases with current situation data, and manipulate and display the integrated data bases to visualize a desired end state. (See Section III-F, IEW, for more detailed information.) Supports: Force XXI, Division '98 AWE.