Chapter III. Technology Transition
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

4. Roadmap for NBC Systems

Figures III-K-1a, 1b, and 1c are the roadmaps for CB Defense, Smoke/Obscurants, and TDC. Table III-K-2 summarizes the demonstrations and systems found in these figures. This strategy emphasizes technology demonstrations incorporated into the front end of critical development programs. These demonstrations will significantly reduce development risk, verify the system integration of advanced technologies, and facilitate technology insertions, where possible.

Table III-K-2. NBC Systems Demonstration and System Summary

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a. CB Defense

The Chemical/Biological Defense program emphasizes detection, protection, (individual and collective) decontamination, and modeling and simulation. The roadmap for CB Defense is shown in Figure III-K-1a. The detection portion of CB defense is divided into two categories: chemical detectors and biological detectors. Both remote early warning and point detection technologies are being pursued for chemical and biological detectors.

Figure III-K-1a. Roadmap for CB Defense

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The goal of CB detection is to provide a real-time capability to detect, identify, locate, map, and quantify the presence of all CB warfare agent threats at levels below hazardous levels and to disseminate this information rapidly. Current emphasis is on multi-agent sensors for point biological agent detection and remote early warning chemical and biological detection. In the near term, a number of individual sensors are being developed while detection technology matures. In particular, a miniaturized chemical vapor point detector and an automated biological point detector will be available. Far-term objective technologies focus on the integration of chemical and biological detection into a single sensor suite. Technology emphasis is on detection sensitivity and specificity across the entire spectrum of CB agents, programmable for emerging threats, system size and weight, detection range, and signature and false alarm rates. Integration of CB detectors into various platforms (vehicles and aircraft) and C3I networks constitutes the ultimate focus of this technology area.

The CB protection area covers technology efforts to provide CB protection for the individual warfighter as well as enclosures where groups of personnel require collective protection from the contaminated environment. The goal of respiratory protection technology efforts is to develop the next generation respiratory protection equipment for the 21st Century warfighter. This equipment will afford protection against current and future threats, minimize mission degradation, and improve system integration and compatibility; collective protection technology is focused on developing air purification systems for buildings, shelters, vehicles, aircraft, and ships that must operate in CB warfare agent contaminated battlefield conditions. Current efforts are directed at regenerative filtration technologies, deep-bed impregnated carbon, and single pass filters with novel impregnated materials to reduce overall cost, size, weight, and power to facilitate widespread application.

The goal for decontamination technologies is to develop effective, environmentally low impact CB decontamination systems to neutralize or break down toxic materials without damaging the contaminated surface or affecting the performance of the equipment being decontaminated. This area includes decontamination of personnel, personal individual equipment, tactical combat vehicles and equipment, sensitive electronics, cargo areas of aircraft, seagoing vessels, and critical assets in fixed sites. Due to increased user interest, funding in this area has been enhanced. Studies will focus on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide, sorbents, solution decontamination, and enzyme-based systems.

Modeling and simulation technologies are being investigated to provide enhanced command evaluations, to integrate sensor data and to permit realistic training and simulation of the CB battlefield environment. The information generated will provide decision aids to commanders to allow tradeoffs among tactical options as well as assessment of Joint Services doctrine, training, leadership, organization, materiel, and warfighter performance during and after a CB attack. Modeling and simulation technologies will be used to evaluate the battlefield value-added potential of developmental and conceptual NBC systems and will become an integral part of every development program and every phase of the acquisition cycle. A current thrust is to incorporate terrain, mesoscale meteorology, and objects such as tanks, ships, or buildings into CB effects hazard assessment models and to incorporate these models into new and existing combat simulations such as MODSAF and Distributed Interactive Simulations (DIS).

Joint Service Warning and Identification LIDAR Detector (JSWILD) (98-00). This demonstration will emphasize joint service operation with shipboard testing and airbase defense demonstrations. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of using IR LIDAR to detect vapors of nerve agents and also shown great promise in the detection of large droplets of nerve agents. In addition, the detection of aerosol particles of all sizes and compositions will be demonstrated and sensitivities determined for each application. All service interferences will be identified and introduced into the existing model for inclusion into the pattern recognition detection algorithm during subsequent development. The goal of this demonstration is to determine capabilities and limitations for each possible mission (ship defense and fixed site defense). Supports: Airbase Defense and Shipboard Warning, JSWILD, JSNBCRS.

Biological Remote Early Warning Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (Proposed) (97-01). The objective of this ACTD is to evaluate the military utility of remote early warning for biological warfare attacks against U.S. forces and to develop operational procedures associated with that capability. The ACTD will demonstrate several remote early warning platforms. All the remote detectors will be connected to a warning and reporting system that promptly alerts forces who are downwind of biological warfare agents. The ACTD will leverage advanced biological detection technologies from the DoD counterproliferation initiative and technology base community. Extensive simulation will be conducted in parallel to evaluate the operation utility of the remote early warning system during all phases of warfighting operations. Supports: Joint Biological Remote Early Warning System (JBREWS).

Integrated Biodetection ATD (96-99). The Integrated Biodetection ATD will demonstrate point detection and remote early warning of biological agents using two state-of-the-art technologies. In addition, multi-year 6.2-technology base efforts are being carried out in both areas to support and ensure the successful demonstration of the ATD technologies in FY96-99. The ATD will focus on point biosensors that incorporate Automated DNA Diagnostic technology to identify biological agents with the highest known degree of specificity and sensitivity in addition to increasing current reliabilities, stabilities, and response times of fielded and near-term P3I biosensors. These state-of-the-art biological identification devices are planned for incorporation into the Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS) as next generation biosensors. A rapid, real-time Biological Aerosol Warning System using small, micro-UV laser-based, fluorescent particle counters will also be demonstrated. Its purpose is to provide an early warning/alert of a threat biological aerosol cloud to high value battlefield assets. The key to the demonstration is to show the technologies in a unified effort in a battlefield exercise providing detection and warning of biological agents before forces are adversely affected, thus reducing casualties. Supports: JBPDS, Biological Standoff Detection Systems, Air Base/Port Biodetection ACTD, Proposed Biological Remote Early Warning ACTD.

Air Base/Port Biological Detection ACTD (96-00). The Air Base/Port ACTD objective is to evaluate the military utility of an air base or port biological detection perimeter capability and to develop operational procedures associated with that capability. An additional objective is to provide a residual capability adequate to detect, alarm/warn/dewarn, identify, protect, and decontaminate against a biological warfare (BW) attack on an air base or port facility. The air base or port residual capability will consist of a perimeter biological detection capability, laboratory agent identification capability, dewarning procedures, C4I connectivity with theater NBC reporting system, medical countermeasures, oronasal protection, collective protection, and decontamination procedures and capability. This ACTD will also include a chemical add-on capability which will utilize mature and available technology (passive IR spectrometry and ion trap spectroscopy) to automatically detect and identify chemical threat agents in near real time (less than 30 seconds). Additionally, this chemical add-on will provide the CINCs a first time capability to network legacy and emerging biological and chemical detectors and will produce automated warnings and reportings for enhanced battlefield visualization and force protection as defined in Joint Vision 2010. Supports: JBPDS.

Chemical Imaging Sensor Demonstration (02-03). This sensor will expand the capability of current passive interferometry and signal processing to allow long-range chemical imaging. The sensor will be capable of detecting known chemical agents and can be programmed to detect other militarily significant spectral data. It will also provide a visual display of the hazard area. Extended detection range capability will be provided for use on aircraft and high altitude reconnaissance systems. Program will use design and performance data developed in Project Safeguard. Supports: Wide Area Detection.

Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) (97). The JCAD (formerly titled the Joint Service Chemical Miniature Agent Detector) has been accelerated to transition one year earlier than planned. It will demonstrate an advanced lightweight chemical detection concept capable of selective detection of low asymptomatic/subsymptomatic levels of chemical agents. The demonstration will focus on small size, low electrical power consumption, and reliable detection of known chemical agents. The JCAD will be capable of integration with Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) sensors and communication equipment. The program includes evaluation of ion mobility spectrometry, surface acoustic waveguide, and other technologies. Supports: FXXI LW, Chemical Detectors (Small Lightweight Chemical Detector).

Joint Service Agent Water Monitor (JSAWM) (98). The Joint Service Agent Water Monitor will demonstrate both an in-line (USAF) and a portable batch water test capability. JSAWM will be capable of detecting chemical agents below the revised U.S. Army Surgeon General's requirements for chemical agents and also be able to detect a range of waterborne biological agent contamination down to parts per million. The system will rapidly evaluate water and provide near real-time alert if water becomes contaminated so that immediate action can be taken to prevent ingestion by warfighters. Supports: In-Line Water Monitor (USAF) and Agent Water Monitor (U.S. Army Quartermaster).

Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN) (97). JWARN (formerly titled NBC Oracle JWARS) will demonstrate the integration of off-the-shelf versions of JWARN Sensor Link (SL), JWARN Hazard Prediction Tool (HPT), and the JWARN Automated NBC Warning and Reporting System (ANBCWRS). JWARN will provide commanders, military forces, and civilian officials with near-real-time situational awareness of NBC and WMD hazards by integrating NBC sensors with Service C4I systems to provide fully automated and intelligent NBC and WMD prediction, warning, and reporting. Supports: JBREWS, JBPDS, JCAD, Battlefield Digitization.

Liquid Surface Detection (02-03). This effort will culminate in the development of both active and passive detection systems for detection and identification of chemical agent liquid surface contamination for the purpose of reconnaissance and contamination avoidance and decontamination effectiveness. Supports: reconnaissance (air and ground), stand-off detection (vehicle and fixed site), alarms/monitors, and warning and reporting.

Joint Service General Purpose Mask (97-98). A variety of advanced respiratory protection concepts are being investigated for application to a Joint Service eye/respiratory protection system for ground use and possibly for use in Army aviation applications. The general purpose mask will provide protection against current and future chemical/biological threats, reduced physiological and psychological burden and resulting mission degradation associated with individual protection equipment, and improved integration with future soldier (i.e., weapons sighting systems, night vision equipment, helmets and helmet-mounted displays). Technology efforts will focus on improved filter design and filtration media, lens design and materials, and agent resistant faceblank materials. Advancements in protection and performance testing to support assessment to anticipated standards are included in these efforts. Supports: Joint Service General Purpose Mask, FXXI LW, and Air Warrior.

Joint Service Aviation Mask (JSAM) (98-99). The Joint Services are supporting this technology effort to develop a protective mask system for high-performance aviation requirements and possibly for use by rotary-wing pilots (including Army aviation). The effort will focus on consolidation of requirements from a series of high-performance aviation mask systems, some of which are not intended to provide protection against chemical or biological agents. The "Combat Ace" mask system is a likely candidate for the baseline JSAM system. Various mask technologies and designs will transition to the JSAM program as they become available. Supports: Joint Service Aviation Mask, FXXI LW.

Joint Service Collective Protection Improvement (formerly titled Advanced Filtration Concepts) (98-99). Several advanced CB filtration concepts will be evaluated to prove feasibility in implementing improved filtration technologies into various combat system applications. Technologies investigated will include regenerable filtration systems, catalytic systems, improved sorbents, and improved biological filtration media. Advanced filtration concepts demonstrate reduced size and weight potential, improved filtration capability, elimination of filter change out (except at scheduled maintenance periods), and integration with power and environmental control systems. Supports: AFAS/FARV and Comanche, NBC Collective Protection System [Advanced Deployable Collective Protection (CP) for Fixed Sites, Advanced Lightweight Collective Protection System].

Chemical/Biological Decon (00-01). This demonstration will consist of using a closed loop recirculating supercritical carbon dioxide system to remove chemical and biological materials from sensitive equipment items and the use of surbent and solution technologies for decontamination of sensitive interiors. Enzyme components will be evaluated for potential use in surface decontamination of sensitive equipment and other applications. These new decontaminants will reduce manpower constraints and logistics burden over present assets. Supports: Joint Service Sensitive Equipment Decon System.

Joint Service Mini Decon (02-03). This program will demonstrate a concept for a manportable modular decon system to support the warfighter's needs, in particular the dismounted forces and the Marine Corps. Enzyme components will be evaluated for potential use in surface decontamination of sensitive equipment and other applications. Supports: Joint Service Mini-Decon System.

Generic Decon (02-03). The use of non-toxic, material compatible, and environmentally safe decon will be evaluated. Technologies investigated will include high capacity surfactants, sorbent systems, reactive organic solutions. Enzyme components will be evaluated for potential use in surface decontamination of sensitive equipment and other applications. Supports: Joint Service Mini Decon System.

b. Smoke/Obscurants

In response to the proliferation of increasingly sophisticated RSTA capabilities throughout the Electro-Magnetic (EM) spectrum, the Smoke/Obscurant strategy capitalizes on technologies capable of providing multispectral screening. These environmentally and logistically acceptable, multispectral materials will counter enemy RSTA activities in broader ranges of the EM spectrum for self-defense, large area coverage, and projected applications. The roadmap for Smoke/Obscurants is shown in Figure III-K-1b.

Figure III-K-1b. Roadmap for Smoke Obscurants

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Millimeter Wave Screening (97-98). This demonstration will determine the feasibility of a millimeter wave (MMW) obscurant generating system in preventing threat radars from observing, acquiring, targeting, and tracking friendly targets. The module will expand the capability of the current M56 Large Area Smoke Generator, which screens only the visual and infrared (IR) bands. Aerosol technology, chemical dispersion techniques, and dissemination mechanisms will be exploited. Supports: Smoke/Obscurants (M56 P3I).

Electro Optical (EO) System Marking Smoke (02-03). This demonstration will consist of a personal smoke grenade that will release a material detectable only by a mid- or far-IR sighting device. The grenade is intended for ground force use as a signaling device to mark landing and drop zones. It also has application for pilot rescue missions and combat identification. This demonstration will explore cryogenics, exothermic reactive materials, and reaction control techniques. Supports: Smoke/Obscurants (Electro-Optical System Marking Smoke).

Multispectral Smoke (03-04). This demonstration will exhibit the following capabilities:

c. Target Defeat Capabilities (TDC)

Future efforts in the TDC area will be directed toward various classes of target sets through the use of lethal combined-effects payloads and innovative antimateriel means. These munitions will defeat or degrade enemy armored targets and disrupt operational tempo by exploiting vulnerable areas of armored vehicles, logistic supply lines, and other militarily significant targets. The roadmap for TDC is shown in Figure III-K-1c.

Figure III-K-1c. Roadmap for Target Defeat Capabilities (TDC)

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Target Defeat Capability (00-01). This demonstration will focus on a unique pay- load concept that will increase the operational effectiveness of conventional weapons. Flame/incendiary technology will be used to defeat, degrade, or immobilize enemy targets. This unique approach will provide both direct and indirect fire support capabilities across the battlefield. This concept will also demonstrate the increase in terminal effectiveness from combined effects greater than conventional warheads of the same caliber and explosive weight. Energetic materials, high energy oxidizers, and other pyrotechnics will be investigated for use in conjunction with existing military weapon systems. Supports: TDC [Flame Incendiary (F/I) Indirect Fire System and Enhanced Incendiary Projectile].

Field Expedient Foam (98). Target Defeat Capability also includes investigation of both aqueous and rigid foam technologies. The rigid foams program represents a technology investigation and evaluation program, coupled with state-of-the-art and emerging foam materials and technologies, which could provide the ability to construct field barriers and foxhole covers; create fragmentation barriers with Kevlar cloth; and seal doors, windows, and other entrance ways. Antimateriel applications and use as a mine countermeasure through "freezing up" of the mine's firing mechanism are also under investigation. The aqueous foams program investigates aqueous foam formulations and the ability to disseminate large volumes of aqueous foams both for area denial and intruder confusion. The addition of irritants to aqueous foams for crowd denial and dispersion is also being investigated. Supports: TDC.