4. Soldier Systems Modernization Roadmap
Table III-I-2 presents the demonstrations and systems which are part of the Soldier Systems Modernization Roadmap (see Figure III-I-1).
Table III-I-2. Soldier Systems Demonstration and System Summary
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Figure III-I-1. Roadmap for Soldier Systems Modernization
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a. Command and Control Demonstrations
Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) (96-98). The primary objectives of FXXI LW are to pursue:
- Evolutionary advanced technology developments at the component level and integration of those technology upgrades into the LW EMD system architecture to support an Early User Test (EUT).
- Revolutionary advanced technology developments that would provide more far-reaching enhancements to the LW System.
- Technology efforts to help reduce the risks associated with reaching the LW EMD Milestone III on schedule.
Specific technologies to be pursued include lighter weight helmet materials and designs, modeling and simulation, wireless weapon and sensor interfaces, integrated sight, enhanced navigation, packet relay protocols for soldier radio, system voice control, combat ID functions, helmet-mounted display upgrades (1280x1024, and low power 640x480), handheld color displays, and head orientation sensor. In addition to these technologies, integration of PSM and LWCAD components onto the LW platform will also be accomplished. Future upgrades to the LW system will include electronically coupled indirect night vision, digital image processing, optimized computer architecture concepts, and interfaces to future infantry systems such as the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW).
FXXI LW will perform risk reduction efforts to assist in fielding the LW EMD System on schedule. These efforts include pursuing lighter weight helmet materials, design, and integration variations to reduce weight and optimize CG; utilizing rapid prototyping and load assessment capabilities; and leveraging Modular Body Armor/Load Bearing Programs. Modeling and simulation will be used to evaluate FXXI LW performance characteristics such as survivability and lethality. Constructive system modeling, virtual simulation, and other tools will be used to examine the contribution of FXXI LW capabilities to future military organizations engaged in force-on-force combat engagements. This program will make extensive use of Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) to ensure that critical manufacturing processes are developed in parallel to the design of the technical components. This approach will ensure a viable, affordable, and producible product which will perform as expected in the field.
A two-phase EUT will assess the viability of the evolutionary enhancements that are integrated into Pre-production Qualification Test (PPQT) LW EMD Systems. The EUT evaluation, conducted at the squad level, will be a field test utilizing Land Warrior systems configured with FXXI LW evolutionary insertion candidates and available revolutionary operational enhancements. This strategy will accelerate the fielding of technology upgrades and ensure the U.S. maintains a global technology overmatch for dismounted warrior combat systems.
b. Lethality Demonstrations
The lethality demonstrations will focus on weapons, munitions, and target detection and acquisition.
Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) ATD (94-99). The OICW, as defined in the Joint Service Small Arms Master Plan (JSSAMP) and the approved Mission Need Statement (MNS), is the next generation "individual" weapon envisioned to replace some of the current inventory of small arms weapon systems. Two OICW concepts are being developed by competing contractor teams. Both concepts include kinetic energy (5.56 mm) and airburst (20 mm) munitions. A significant new capability afforded by OICW will be the ability to defeat targets in defilade using bursting munitions. This ATD will demonstrate the potential of the OICW to provide an overmatch against threat infantry soldiers, as required in the JSSAMP. It will involve realistic operational assessments with troops and key on the soldier's ability to acquire and defeat targets. The performance potential of the OICW will be assessed against the baseline M16A2/M203 and the modular weapon. Measures of effectiveness include probability of hit, probability of incapacitation, kills per combat load, and cost per kill. The significant potential of the OICW in an urban environment will be demonstrated in the Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) ACTD. The technologies exploited to achieve the overmatch capability include high strength, ultralightweight materials, high tech miniaturized fuzing, high explosive air bursting projectiles, electronic ranging, ballistic computation, reticle displacement, video sighting and sophisticated fire control devices. Supports: OICW and MOUT ACTD.
Multipurpose Individual Munition/SRAW (MPIM/SRAW) Technology Demonstration (95-97). This effort provides for a technology demonstration of a lightweight, shoulder-fired, multiple purpose weapon. The objective of the demonstration is to integrate the MPIM warhead with the USMC SRAW system and demonstrate the capability to defeat a variety of targets while also being able to be safely fired from an enclosure. It will enhance soldier lethality by providing the infantry with one weapon capable of defeating enemy forces in buildings, bunkers, and lightly armored vehicles. The system will have tremendously increased lethality over the current shoulder-fired systems as well as being multiple target capable. System design will allow for growth, service life extension, and technology insertion to support the U.S. Army mission of crisis response to regionally based threat. Assessments will use MPIM/SRAW in appropriate scenarios (e.g., MOUT). Supports: MOUT ACTD.
The Objective Crew-Served Weapon (OCSW) Technology Demonstration (96-00). Part of the Objective Family of Small Arms, the OCSW demo will support the two-man, crew-served weapon outlined in the JSSAMP. This demonstration will establish the feasibility of a lightweight, two-man portable crew-served weapon system capable of defeating personnel and light vehicle targets to 2000 meters. This TD is discussed in further detail in Section H, Close Combat Light. Supports: MOUT ACTD.
Integrated Sight (IS) Technology Demonstration (94-98). The IS TD will develop and demonstrate optimum components and integration of a thermal imager, laser rangefinder, electronic compass, and near IR pointer into a compact sighting system. Imagery and data will be output to the LW HMD and soldier's computer. These technologies will provide the soldier with extended range and automated targeting capabilities. IS also supports advanced weapons, including the OICW and OCSW. Supports: Lightweight Laser Designator/Rangefinder (which incorporates IS technologies and/or components in their fire control).
c. Survivability Demonstrations
Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) (96-98). FXXI LW encompasses inherent survivability enhancements, as well as the integration of several survivability components. Inherent enhancements include advanced, lightweight body armor providing small arms and fragmentation protection in the ballistic helmet shell, and system signature reduction/control (e.g., visual, near IR, thermal, electronic). Other survivability enhancement components include the Personnel Status Monitor (DARPA) and the Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector. The Personnel Status Monitor consists of a suite of non-invasive biosensors linked to the LW computer/radio, providing the capability to rapidly prioritize and locate combat casualties (via the computer-embedded GPS and linkage to the digital net), as well as improving casualty care via access to the biomedical data saved in the computer/radio. The Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector will link to the LW computer/radio and helmet, delivering a warning to the soldier that a contaminated area had been entered. The linkage to the digital net will, in turn, provide a warning to higher echelons of the coordinates of the contaminated area to allow other units to avoid that area.
d. Other Soldier Systems Demonstrations
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) ACTD (98-02). The MOUT ACTD is a joint (Army/Marine Corps) program that encompasses a breadth of technologies ranging from an advanced soldier system, advanced individual precision weapons, combat identification, counter-sniper, non-lethal weapons, advanced sensors, situational awareness, and personal protection. The core capability that will be generated via the ACTD is a linkage of a series of advanced systems/components into a MOUT "System of Systems" whereby the components are interfaced, integrated, or linked in an architecture to ensure their effective interoperability and functionality in the challenging MOUT environment. The integrated MOUT System of Systems will provide a robust and enhanced joint operational capability encompassing the areas of urban command, control, communication, computers, and intelligence (C4I); engagement; and force projection. Supports: Upgrades to Force XXI Land Warrior.
High Heat Food Stabilization Demonstrations (94-97). To enhance high heat stability and quality of individual rations, technology insertions are planned to include: reformulation using heat-tolerant ingredients; raising microviscosity by manipulating glass transition temperature to minimize deteriorative physical and chemical reactions, and improve nutrient bioavailability at high temperatures. State-of-the-art shelf-life indicators and rapid quantitative food quality prediction and assessment methods/kits are being developed to ensure that only high quality rations reach the individual soldier on the battlefield. Supports: Army Field Feeding Future.
Performance Enhancing Demonstrations (95-98). Special supplemental components containing performance enhancing ingredients will be developed and demonstrated to enhance performance under stressful conditions during sustained operations. These components will supplement the Individual Combat Ration to heighten alertness, extend endurance, and reduce the effects of high altitude sickness. Supports: Army Field Feeding Future.
Objective Personal Weapon (OPW) (04-09). The OPW is the side arm of the future. It will provide increased accuracy and incapacitation for close-in self-defense in last ditch combat situations, as well as some extended offensive capability in special operations, military police operations, and dignitary protection. The envisioned OPW will employ technically advanced, leap-ahead concepts, and technologies that span the entire electromagnetic spectrum, yielding incapacitating mechanisms of a non-conventional nature. It will be capable of immediate incapacitation (target ceases to remain a threat) out to 50 meters against personnel with body armor. It will have substantially increased accuracy, hit probability, and target effects. This lightweight system will not exceed 3 pounds and will be user friendly with hands-free carry. It will provide multiple engagement capability and be operational day or night, in all weather conditions, on land/sea/surf/air. Supports: Objective Family of Small Arms.
Objective Sniper Weapon (OSW) Technology Demonstration (97-02). The OSW is the single sniper weapon which will achieve the required future capabilities of the joint sniper communities, to include conventional military, special operations forces, and law enforcement. Its increased precision and range will enable the sniper to more effectively engage targets, human (protected or unprotected), and light materiel, out to 2,000 meters. It will have increased accuracy and hit probability. This lightweight system will be operational day or night; in all weather conditions; on land, sea, or air; and will weigh 10 to 15 pounds. Supports: Objective Sniper Weapon.