4. Roadmap For Close Combat Light
Table III-H-2 is a summary of Close Combat Light demonstrations and systems.
Table III-H-2. Close Combat Light Demonstration and System Summary
Because Close Combat Light is primarily an integration plan, the applicable S/SU/ACs along with the majority of appropriate ATDs and technology demonstrations which provide capabilities to the Close Combat Light mission are shown on the existing roadmaps throughout the rest of Chapter III, and are not repeated here.
The Rapid Force Projection Initiative (RFPI), however, is unique to Close Combat Light and is displayed in Figure III-H-1a. It depicts the Army ATDs and technology demonstrations that support the RFPI ACTD in the form of capabilities provided by systems or system upgrades.
Figure III-H-1a. Close Combat Light Roadmap for Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD
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In addition to the RFPI demonstrations, there are other technology demonstrations that are unique to the Close Combat Light Mission area, to include non-lethal weapons. These are shown in the roadmap on Figures III-H-1b and III-H-1c.
Figure III-H-1b. Roadmap for Demonstrations Unique to Close Combat Light
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Figure III-H-1c. Roadmap for Non-Lethal Demonstrations
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a. RFPI Sensor Demonstrations
Aerial Scout Sensor Integration Technology Demonstration (95-98). This TD will demonstrate technology to provide light forces with accurate, timely, "over-the-hill" reconnaissance, surveillance and battle damage assessment capability through use of aerial sensors enhanced with aided target recognition and smart workstation technologies. A variety of imaging sensors will be used on a surrogate aerial platform as well as a ground-based image exploitation workstation. Candidate sensors include FLIR, infrared linescanner, day TV and MTI radar. The goal is to demonstrate a reduction in data timelines, from tasking to output of tactical information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Hunter Sensor Suite ATD (94-97). This ATD will demonstrate the feasibility of a lightweight, deployable, and survivable Hunter Vehicle platform with an advanced long-range sensor suite for a lightweight, deployable vehicle. Aided target recognition for acquiring multiple targets and enhanced target handoff will result from this demonstration. The suite will combine a second generation thermal imager, day TV, eyesafe laser rangefinder and imbedded ATR processor, video compression and communications interface for linkage into a C3 net. This effort will develop and demonstrate the communications data compression techniques/technologies to permit transmission of the imagery over existing combat net radio systems. A Hunter Vehicle (HV) will be designed to accept the integration of signature management technologies and the Hunter sensor suite. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Integrated Acoustic System (IAS) (96-99). This TD will demonstrate acoustic sensor technology in both hand-emplaced and air-droppable variants. Advanced acoustic sensor efforts ongoing in the Intelligent Minefield ATD (see EMU, Section M) will provide the hand-emplaced system. The Air Deployable Acoustic Sensor (ADAS) system will be developed to provide a helicopter-deployable variant. Both systems will be demonstrated during the RFPI ACTD large-scale field experiment. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Autonomous Intelligent Submunition (AIS) (94-97). See Fire Support section, III-N. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
b. RFPI Command and Control Demonstration
RFPI Command and Control (C2) Technology Demonstration (94-97). The RFPI program of Advanced Land Combat will demonstrate enhanced capabilities which address the strategy of Close Combat Light with respect to the rapidly deployable force. The C2 portion of this program will demonstrate the integration of rapid force projection remote scout and sensor reconnaissance information into the Battlespace C2 concept, providing commanders with the ability to integrate data into the overall battlefield picture, set target priorities, determine target weapon pairings, and perform target handover to non-line-of-sight, air attack, or close weapon systems. Demonstrations will encompass the data links required to transport targeting data from remote sensors to an operations center, and the ability to redistribute the correlated targeting data to a decision point and to various weapon platforms which would bring fire on given targets. Various transmission technologies will be investigated: wide band data links, packet techniques, bandwidth compression, and alternate frequency bands. Supports: Battlespace C2 and RFPI ACTD.
c. RFPI Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration
RFPI ACTD (95-00). The RFPI ACTD will demonstrate a highly lethal, survivable, and rapidly air deployable enhancement to the Early Entry Task Force. This enhancement will provide automated target transfer from forward sensors to an indirect fire weapon system with the capability to engage high value targets beyond traditional direct fire ranges. The ACTD provides an opportunity for extensive user interaction with the new RFPI hunter-standoff killer concept and its emerging technologies. A selected light, air assault, or airborne unit from Forces Command (FORSCOM) will demonstrate the RFPI ACTD concept, and will retain selected equipment for at least a 2-year extended demonstration period to provide residual capabilities and allow arrangements for long-term retention. The ACTD leverages maturing RFPI sensor technologies and an advanced command and control element. The ACTD includes automated Fire Control System (FCS) for selected Howitzers, the Enhanced Fiber-Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM) non-line-of-sight weapon system, and the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS). It encourages user exploration of a variety of baseline procedures to optimize utility of the new hunter standoff killer concept. Supports: RFPI.
d. RFPI Weapons Demonstrations
The RFPI Large Scale Field Experiment includes several advanced concepts which will demonstrate the System of Systems concept of hunters and standoff killers. During this timeframe, the newly configured and upgraded EFOGM and 155mm Automated Howitzer (with automated fire control system) will be demonstrated. Other new hunter or killer technologies will be considered during this phase.
Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM) ATD (94-99). This ATD will develop and demonstrate a remotely directed (fiber optically guided) missile system (EFOGM), modified with an Imaging IR (I2R) seeker, Inertial Navigational System, and other data link modifications. It will defeat armor out to ranges of 15 km and permit the operator, through a fiber-optic guidance link to the missile seeker, to search for targets in the extended close battle area. The system has the unique ability to operate from defilade and to engage targets which are also in defilade. Friendly target recognition capability and fratricide avoidance is enhanced with a gunner operator in the loop. The EFOGM ATD will provide the advanced, non-line-of-sight weapon to be demonstrated under the RFPI ACTD. This ACTD will integrate light force organic weapons, the EFOGM, RFPI sensors, other RFPI standoff killers, and C2. Supports: RFPI and JPSD Precision/Rapid Counter MRL ACTDs.
Intelligent Minefield ATD (93-97). This ATD will demonstrate an integrated, cooperative smart (advanced sensors and controls) minefield. See Engineer and Mine Warfare (Section III-M) for more detailed information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
155mm Automated Howitzer Technology Demonstration (94-01). The program will develop an advanced digital fire control system for towed artillery. See Fire Support (Section III-N) for more detailed information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Precision Guided Mortar Munition (PGMM) ATD (94-99). The ATD will demonstrate, through live fire and simulation, the ability of a guided mortar munition to defeat armored as well as high value point targets. It will also demonstrate longer range, more accurate, and timely response to requests for fire, through the integration of a lightweight fire control system. As part of the RFPI, the PGMM and fire control will be an advanced concept stand-off killer in the RFPI ACTD. The ATD program consists of a 120mm PGMM capable of finding and defeating enemy armor and other high priority targets in an autonomous role, and a lightweight fire control to improve the accuracy and response time of fielded mortar systems. An initial test bed is being integrated on a HMMWV, with a follow-on effort to reduce the size and weight of the components. The program will focus on the azimuth reference unit and the software required to completely integrate the components and fire a PGMM against moving targets. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Guided MLRS ATD (95-98). This ATD is discussed in detail in Fire Support, Section III-N.
High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) Technology Demonstration (95-99). The HIMARS TD will provide a lightweight, C-130 transportable version of the M-270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) launcher. Mounted on a 5-ton Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) truck chassis, it will fire any rocket or missile in the MLRS Family of Munitions. The HIMARS uses the same command, control, and communications, as well as the same crew as the MLRS launcher, but carries only one rocket or missile pod. It will roll on and off of a C-130 transport aircraft and, when carried with a combat load, will be ready to operate within minutes of landing. Supports: RFPI ACTD and MLRS Family of Munitions.
Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) Technology Demonstration (94-98). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Aviation, Section III-D.
e. Close Combat Light Unique Demonstrations
(Outside of the RFPI Umbrella.)
The Objective Crew-Served Weapon Technology Demonstration (96-00) (part of the Objective Family of Small Arms described in section I, Soldier) is unique to the Close Combat Light Section. It will support the two-man, crew-served weapon outlined in the Army Small Arms Master Plan and the Joint Service Small Arms Master Plan. This demonstration will establish the feasibility of a lightweight two-man portable crew-served weapon system with a high probability of incapacitation and suppression out to 2000 meters, against protected personnel targets. It will also have a high potential to damage light vehicles, lightly armored vehicles, water craft, and slow moving aircraft beyond 1000 meters. The fire control system will include a laser range finder, environmental sensors, ballistic computer, day and night channel, and adjusted aimpoint to provide the full ballistic solution. The weapon will fire bursting ammunition to provide decisively violent target effects to overmatch threat systems and will have the ability to defeat defilade or non-line-of-sight personnel targets. The fire control system will be modular in design, eliminate the need to estimate range, provide a full solution aimpoint, and embedded training. This weapon would be utilized by mounted and dismounted combat soldiers. Supports: Objective Crew Served Weapon.
Precision Offset, High Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment Technology Demonstration (94-99). This will demonstrate revolutionary technologies for the reliable precision guided delivery of combat essential munitions and equipment using high glide wing technology and incorporating a low cost, modular GPS guidance and control system. This technology will provide a 6:1 or better glide ratio. A modular GPS guidance package was developed and a precision high glide capability of 500-pound payload using semi-rigid wing technology was demonstrated in FY96. By the end of FY99 it will demonstrate precision high glide of a 5,000-pound payload, with a goal of a 10,000-pound payload, using an advanced guidance package and high glide wing. High glide technology will significantly enhance the military aerial delivery capability through substantially higher glide ratios than are possible with ram air parachutes and will directly benefit the initial deployment of Early Entry Forces. Supports: RFPI ACTD, EELS and DSA Battle Labs, and Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System.
Counter Active Protection Systems (CAPS) Technology Demonstration (96-99). The CAPS TD will develop and demonstrate technologies/methods which can be applied to Anti-Tank Guided Weapons (ATGW) for improving effectiveness against threat armor equipped with Active Protection Systems (APS). Current technology development is concentrated in the following three areas:
- RF Countermeasure (RFCM) technology for jamming or deceiving APS sensors used for detection, acquisition, and tracking.
- Long standoff warheads for shooting from beyond the range of APS fragment-producing countermunitions.
- Ballistic hardening of ATGW to reduce vulnerability to fragment impact.
Supports: Close Combat Anti-Armor Weapon System (CCAWS), Advanced Missile System-Heavy (AMS-H), Javelin, and BAT.
f. Non-Lethal Weapons Technology Demonstrations
Defense Planning Guidance, FY 1995-1999, requires Non-lethal weapons capabilities for light forces. Non-lethal weapons are intended to minimize fatalities and collateral damage to property and the environment. These weapons add engagement options between lethal response and show of force/demonstrations. Because of the increasing trend of U.S. military involvement in OOTW, e.g., Operation United Shield, Military Operations in Built-Up Areas (MOBA), and Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT), there is a need to enhance effectiveness and survivability of U.S. forces engaged in these operations through the application of advanced non-lethal technologies.
The Non-Lethal Technology Demonstrations will provide weapon options which will make the early entry light force significantly more effective against the changing threats. This can be accomplished by adapting advanced technologies for insertion into existing weapons platforms. The use of non-lethal weapons is situation dependent and must be integrated into and support all combat and non-combat functions.
Figure III-H-1c depicts the Army technology demonstrations that support the development of non-lethal weapons and related capabilities provided by the insertion of these weapons into the force structure.
Non-Lethal Marker Munition Technology Demonstration (96-97). This TD will evaluate candidates for dispensability, select dye candidates, and complete munition integration. In FY98, actual firing tests at 50 meters using a 40mm M203 grenade launcher will take place combining less than lethal and dye marking capability upon impact with target personnel. This munition will immobilize personnel while clandestinely marking them for subsequent identification. Supports: Dismounted Battlespace Battle Lab (DBBL) and Early Entry Lethality and Survivability Battle Lab (EELS).
12 Gauge Round Technology Demonstration (96-98). Dispensed from a 12 gauge shotgun, numerous rounds exist which will be demonstrated. They include a Rubber Pellet Round, the Single Ball Round, and the Bean Bag Round. The Rubber Pellet Round is effective in crowd control situations where chemical munitions cannot be utilized. It is effective against individually selected targets or small groups who are not in possession of a firearm and who demonstrate violence or aggression against responding soldiers. The Single Ball Round consists of a single rubber ball, expelled down range toward the target and is intended to be used as a skip-fire munition. This single projectile could be used in crowd control situations and special arrests of violent suspects who are not in possession of a firearm. The Bean Bag Round is a bean bag projectile which is launched down range to the target and is intended to be direct fired. It is effective against individually selected targets or subjects who are not in possession of a firearm and who demonstrate violence or aggression. These weapons could be utilized by dismounted combat soldiers and the U.S. Army Military Police School (USAMPS). Supports: USAMPS, DBBL and EELS Battle Labs, dual use (law enforcement) applications.
Electric Water Cannon Technology Demonstration (94-97). The objective is to build and successfully demonstrate the non-lethal capability of electric water cannon devices which can be manportable or vehicle mounted. The device has been demonstrated at ranges out to 18 feet. The environmentally safe chemical additive for increasing laminar flow has been selected. The device would be effective for personnel immobilization and crowd control as well as in setting up a barrier or barricade. A threatening visible arc can be created to increase the deterrent value of this device. Supports: USAMPS, DBBL and EELS Battle labs, dual use (law enforcement) applications.
Mid-Sized Riot Control Dispenser Technology Demonstration (95-97). The USAMPS identified the need for a mid-sized riot control dispenser to fill the size gap between the existing, large M33A1 and the hand-held M36 dispersers. The mid-sized disperser will complement rather than replace these type classified dispersers. Objectives of the program will be to optimize nozzle design, payload capacity, and pressurizing to achieve the range, operation time, and weight of the system per the USAMPS requirements. Supports: USAMPS, DBBL and EELS Battle Labs.
Non-Lethal Entanglement Technology Demonstration (95-98). The purpose is to provide a less than lethal entanglement (and perhaps stun) capability for the 40mm M203 Grenade Launcher, while simultaneously retaining "standby" lethal capability of the M16 Rifle. Basic entanglement munition concept has applications to other large caliber and self-protection systems, and can be fielded in simple net, sticky net, or sting-net configurations. This projectile's effective range is 0 to 30 meters against personnel. Supports: USAMPS, DBBL and EELS Battle Labs, dual use (law enforcement) applications.
Electric Vehicle Stopper Technology Demonstration (94-97). The goal of the Electric Vehicle Stopper is to selectively stop moving vehicles at a distance while minimizing injuries to occupants and bystanders. This stopper is an emplaced device which can be remotely activated. Coupling mechanisms and triggering have been investigated. The effects of various waveforms for different vehicles is ongoing research. Supports: DBBL and EELS Battle Labs, USAMPS, dual use (law enforcement) applications.
Combustion Engine Defeat Mechanism Technology Demonstration (96-98). This TD demonstrates the feasibility of using a missile as a platform to deliver non-toxic, environmentally friendly, less-than-lethal agents to obstruct the filters of air-breathing mechanisms resulting in operational failure of the mechanism. This device would allow for reuse of the engine after replacing the filters. A scaled demonstration of the mechanism shutdown was successful without damage to the internal parts of the mechanism. Static tests with actual warheads and representative threat targets will be used to fully determine the feasibility of dispensing the agent and detecting the target within operational parameters followed by actual flight tests to check out the concept. This warhead could be integrated into most missile systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and unmanned ground vehicles, limited only by targets of interest and engagement rates. This defeat mechanism will provide special operations forces with multiple low-intensity conflict/peacekeeping capabilities as well as dual-purpose options to support law enforcement. Supports: Current and future missile systems, EELS and DBBL Battle Labs, OOTW.