Chapter III. Technology Transition
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

4. Roadmap for Mounted Forces Modernization

Table III-G-2 presents a summary of demonstrations and technologies. The road map in Figure III-G-1 portrays the progression of the Mounted Forces program to include Technology Demonstrations (TDs), ATDs, and SU/ACs.

Table III-G-2. Mounted Forces Demonstration and System Summary

Figure III-G-1. Roadmap for Mounted Forces Systems Modernization

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a. AVT Lethality Demonstration

Direct Fire Lethality ATD (96-01). This ATD will demonstrate promising technologies to enhance the hit and kill capabilities of armored vehicles. Technologies must be explored that provide a quantum leap in performance with little or no weight/volume burden on the vehicle. Emphasis will be placed on defeat of advanced appliqué armors utilizing precursors for Kinetic Energy (KE) penetrators. To provide improved weapon stabilization, technologies such as Distributed Direct (Gearless) Drives and Smart Barrel Actuators will be incorporated into the turret and main gun to increase the probability of a hit and kill. Supports: M1A2 Abrams System Enhancement Program (SEP and SEP+) and Future Combat System (FCS).

b. AVT Survivability and Protection Demonstrations

Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) ATD (94-98). The CAV ATD will demonstrate the feasibility of producing lighter weight ground combat vehicles manufactured from advanced composites. The CAV ATD will consist of an integrated demonstration of advanced composites and advanced lightweight armors on a C-130 air deployable 22-ton vehicle emphasizing manufacturability, repairability, non-destructive testing and structural integrity. The vehicle structure and armor will weigh at least 33 percent less than comparable steel or aluminum. CAV's operational advantages will improve survivability through inherent signature reduction of composite materials on vehicle shaping, and improve agility and deployability by reducing structure and armor weight. Supports: Crusader PIPs, Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS), Future Combat Systems Demos, and Future Infantry Vehicle (FIV).

Hit Avoidance ATD (95-97). Through BDS Warfighter experiments, the Hit Avoidance ATD will demonstrate the improved battlefield effectiveness, and develop battlefield tactics for integrated hit avoidance technology, to include sensors, countermeasures and active defenses, against both top attack and horizontal threats. The types of sensors considered for integration include laser warning, radar warning, and passive missile warning receivers. Countermeasure candidates include jammers, obscurants, false target generators, and counterfire.

The Hit Avoidance ATD will produce a Commander's Decision Aid (CDA) which can be battlefield tailored to a specific set of threats encountered; it can also be used horizontally across multiple combat and tactical vehicles. The CDA is a Hardware/Software Logic Module that fuses sensors with countermeasures for automated and/or aided crewman response. It is a key component of vehicle protection architecture. The ATD will also produce and field-demonstrate a low cost active protection system. Supports: Crusader, FSCS, M1A2 Abrams SEP/SEP+, and M2A3 Bradley.

c. AVT Mobility and Electronics Demonstrations

Target Acquisition ATD (95-98). This ATD will demonstrate automated wide-area search and target acquisition, prioritization, and tracking at extended ranges. Automation of these capabilities will reduce crew workload, shorten timelines to acquire targets, and as a result effectively direct fire. The ability to automatically acquire and hand over targets supports the design of a combat vehicle with fewer crew members, which is more lethal and more deployable, with improved situational awareness through the digitized battlefield.

The Target Acquisition ATD will be composed of a second generation thermal imaging sensor, a millimeter wave radar with Moving Target Indicator (MTI) capability, a multi-functional laser (rangefinding, laser designating, and high density profiling mode), and a day TV. The sensors will be complemented by the inclusion of aided target recognition algorithms and a high-density processor which will run the algorithms. Supports: FCS Demos, FSCS, FIV, and M1A2 Abrams SEP/SEP+.

Battlespace Command and Control ATD (97-00). This ATD will demonstrate the capability to integrate, distribute, and graphically display numerous types of digitized command and control information (e.g., terrain, pos/nav, weather, intelligence). For details see C4, Section E.

Intra-Vehicle Electronics Suite Technology Demonstration (97-00). This TD will develop and demonstrate a ground vehicle integrated electronic architecture. This effort complements the crewstation designs developed in the Crewman's Associate ATD, completed in FY96, by providing the required electronic architecture. Advanced Warfighting Experiments on the M1A1 Abrams will validate the real-time performance requirements of the Vetronics Open Systems Architecture (VOSA). Supports: FSCS, FCS Demos, and M1A2 Abrams SEP/SEP+.

Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite ATD (98-01). This ATD will demonstrate a modular, reconfigurable Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) that integrates multiple advanced sensor components including staring infrared imager, a multifunction laser, and acoustic arrays. The MFS3 will provide scout/cavalry vehicles and amphibious assault vehicles with a compact, affordable sensor suite for long-range noncooperative target identification, mortar/sniper fire location, and air defense against low signature targets. The infrared imaging system will be configured to accommodate either visible to mid infrared or far infrared focal plane arrays. As single focal planes capable of operating across the full optical spectrum mature, these may be inserted into the assembly. The staring infrared sensor will operate at high field rates to allow sniper and mortar detection in addition to the conventional target acquisition functions. Integration of a multifunction, multiwavelength laser system will incorporate ranging, range mapping, target profiling, and laser designation to support target location, target cueing, aided target identification, and target designation. The acoustic array will provide target cueing and location and will assist in automated targeting functions. Supports: FSCS, FIV, FCS.

Tank Mobility Technology Demonstration (98-03). This effort will laboratory demonstrate critical engine, electronic drive, track and suspension technologies to support the mobility field demonstrations of the Future Combat System. The electronic drive technology will be developed through a joint effort (DARPA, DA, and USMC) and will produce generators, storage devices (flywheels, batteries, capacitors) and power electronic switching devices. Engine development work will focus on high power density, low heat rejection, single cylinder diesel engine technology efforts directed toward an extremely compact propulsion system. Track improvements will include advance track and track retention system. The suspension technology development will include semi-active/active hydropneumatic and active electric suspension systems. These mobility advancements will enhance system survivability and operational effectiveness through smaller and ligher systems, improved ride quality, increased agility, improved platform stability, reduced acoustic and IR signatures, and silent operations capability. Supports: Abrams Upgrades, FIV.

d. AVT Systems Integration Demonstrations

Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS) Advanced Technology Demonstration (98-02). The FSCS ATD will demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of an advanced lightweight vehicle chassis integrating Scout-specific and advanced vehicle technologies developed in other technology base programs. The effort will be fabricated and tested in virtual and real environments to both evaluate and validate sensors/situational awareness capabilities and develop scout tactics. Specific technologies which may be integrated into the Scout platform include: multifunction staring sensor suite, advanced lightweight structural materials and armors, electric drive, lightweight track, semi-active suspension, advanced crew stations, advanced command and control, medium-caliber weapon, and advanced survivability systems.

The FSCS ATD will develop and demonstrate Scout-specific mobility components such as electric drive, semi and fully active suspension, and band track. This effort will validate the inherent signature reduction of advanced mobility technologies. The FSCS ATD will transition in FY02 to the Future Scout and Combat System (FSCS), an EMD program. Supports: FSCS.

e. Demonstrations Supporting Future Combat System (FCS)

Advanced Electronics for Future Combat System (99-04). This effort will upgrade the VOSA developed under the Intra-Vehicle Electronics Suite ATD to support high-power electronic devices. Devices that will require such power include Electro-Magnetic Gun, Electro-Magnetic Armor, and Electric Drive. Testing, demonstration, and validation of the upgraded VOSA will be performed in a high-power electronics Vehicle Systems Integration Lab (VSIL) prior to integration on the Future Combat System Integrated Demo. This effort will also identify, develop, and demonstrate the required crewstation upgrades. Supports: FCS.

Future Combat System Integrated Technology Demonstrator (00-05). This effort will demonstrate the integration of the full suite of FCS technologies. It will include Distributed Defense, Advanced Mobility, and fully integrated electronics subsystems. The main thrust of this TD is to demonstrate the high-power electric technologies critical to the realiation of "leap ahead" capabilities as an integrated system within a combat vehicle. This TD will also demonstrate the integration and operation of these electrical components in a combat vehicle and will provide the basis for measuring component performance, evaluating electrical system architectures, and ensuring compatibility with other TDs. Supports: FCS.

Ground Vehicle Distributed Defense (01-04). This effort will demonstrate a distributed defense system that is capable of protecting armored forces against attack by smart and precision guided weapons. It will reduce cost and enhance force survivability by putting select sensors and countermeasures on some, rather than all, of the vehicles in the force. Sensors, electronic countermeasures, and active protection will be considered. Most, if not all, Sensor/CM/C2 technologies will either be COTS available or available from other DoD agencies. Supports: FCS, FSCS, Abrams, and Bradley.

Future Combat System Mobility (02-06). This effort will develop and demonstrate an advanced propulsion system which consists of a high power density, low heat rejection, engine (Diesel or Turbine); an electric drive and power conditioning system; an active suspension system; an automatic track tensioning system; and an advanced track. This propulsion system will meet the requirements of the Future Combat System and main weapon. Improvements in operational effectiveness will be field demonstrated.

Increased cross-country mobility and platform stabilization will be achieved with either a fully active suspension using electric actuators or a semiactive/active hydropneumatic suspension. Improved survivability and the silent operation capability of the electric drive system will be demonstrated.

The electric drive hardware to be integrated will be funded primarily by DARPA and managed jointly by the Army and Marines. The advanced engine, track, and suspension will be developed at TARDEC. By FY06, TARDEC will complete integrated mobility system and durability demonstrations. Supports: FCS.

f. Ground Vehicle AVT Demonstrations (Outside the AVT Umbrella)

Battlefield Combat ID ATD (93-98). This ATD's focus is on fratricide reduction and is discussed in the IEW Section of this chapter (Section III.F).

Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) Technology Demonstration (96-99).This TD will develop a lightweight miniature (35-40kg) hypervelocity KE missile, compatible with the LOSAT target acquisition and tracking system and could be compatible with the fire control system for close combat and short range air defense missions. It will demonstrate increased flight maneuverability against close-in airborne targets with continuous control actuation for significantly reduced minimum range and increased missile platform adaptability. Demonstration of this miniature hypervelocity missile concept will provide capability for a significant increase in lethality, survivability, and mobility of a dual role close combat and short range air defense KE weapon system that is easily stowable on tracked combat vehicles. Supports: FCS and FIV.