Chapter III. Technology Transition
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

4. Roadmaps for IEW Systems

Table III-F-2 presents a summary of IEW demonstrations, ACTDs, ATDs, and S/SU/ACs as found in the IEW roadmaps. Systems/System Upgrades are the first step in fulfilling the IEW strategy.

Table III-F-2. IEW Demonstration and System Summary

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These will evolve from current systems through the use of Product Improvement Programs (PIP) and Preplanned Product Improvements (P3I). Technology demonstrations and ATDs will be utilized to facilitate the transition of technology through block improvements to existing or new systems. The challenge is to field a family of IEW systems which use a common module open architecture, thus improving flexibility, reducing the logistics burden, and minimizing development costs.

For the far term, future systems planning is focused on the integration of IEW systems with command, control, and communication systems into one C3IEW "system-of-systems" which will carry out the presentation, management, collection, processing, dissemination, transport, and denial of battlespace information.

The following sections contain roadmaps which lay out the required program efforts in information collection (Figures III-F-1a and III-F-1b), information processing (Figure III-F-1c), and information denial (Figure III-F-1d). Each section contains descriptions of associated technology demonstrations which support IEW S/SU/ACs.

Most of the demonstrations directly support the systems that form the basis of the IEW Annex to the AMP. The remaining demonstrations represent initiatives that support a variety of IEW systems, or are technology programs supporting non-MI systems not specifically addressed in the IEW Annex to the AMP.

a. Technology Programs Leading to Information Collection for IEW Ground-Based Collection Systems

Ground-based collectors for IEW ground-based collection systems are targeted against multiple echelons. They embody modular, scaleable, multi-sensor capabilities that combine electronic intelligence (ELINT), communications intelligence (COMINT), and electronic attack (EA). The mix of systems ranges from transportable to manpack. Each provides surveillance, targeting, and intelligence data to be correlated with data provided by other sensors. The roadmap for ground-based collection systems is shown in Figure III-F-1a.

Figure III-F-1a. Roadmap for IEW (Information Collection) Modernization--Ground-Based

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Figure III-F-1b. Roadmap for IEW (Information Collection) Modernization--Airborne

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Figure III-F-1c. Roadmap for IEW (Information Processing) Modernization--Fusion

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Figure III-F-1d. Roadmap for IEW (Information Denial) Modernization

Rapid Force Projection Initiative (RFPI) ACTD (95-00). The RFPI ACTD will demonstrate automated target transfer from forward sensors to standoff killer weapon systems with the capability to engage high value targets beyond traditional direct fire ranges. Details of the RFPI ACTD can be found in Close Combat Light, Section H.

Hunter Sensor Suite ATD (94-97). This ATD will demonstrate the feasibility of a lightweight, deployable, and survivable hunter vehicle platform with an advanced, low observable, long-range hunter sensor system with aided target recognition and enhanced target handover. See section III-H, Close Combat Light, for more detailed information. The Hunter Sensor Suite ATD is an integral part of the RFPI ACTD.

Target Acquisition ATD (95-98). This ATD will develop, integrate, and demonstrate advanced target acquisition and identification sensors, and thermal driving technologies for future "heavy" force vehicles. See section III-G, Mounted Forces, for more detailed information. This ATD is a key element for the development of advanced target acquisition systems for the Advanced Tank Technology Program, Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS), Armored Gun System (AGS), and Future Tank.

Machine Vision for Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Technology Demonstration (96-99). Through this technology demonstration an autonomous navigation capability will be developed and demonstrated on a UGV that allows operation on or off roads, that can detect and circumnavigate obstacles, and that can autonomously re-plan its route if it becomes impassable for any reason. Landmark identification techniques, required for precision targeting applications, will also be demonstrated. This machine vision system makes use of artificial intelligence techniques (which includes neural network and fuzzy logic) and image processing to provide vehicle steering and velocity control command. In addition, the system will integrate GPS technology, imaging sensors, and advanced route/mission planning technology. The enhancement of machine vision for autonomous vehicles will reduce soldier risk and soldier burden. The application of this technology will transition on an individual basis. Supports: Joint UGV Project Office, Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD, Early Entry Lethality and Survivability, Dismounted Battle Space, Combat Service Support, and Depth and Simultaneous Attack Battle Labs.

Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Electronic Support (ES) (94-97). This effort will demonstrate the capability to intercept and geolocate current and emerging threat noncommunications emitters which use LPI technology. The objective is to develop a family of mini, modular, fully-automatic technologies for insertion into existing systems. The technology which is being investigated includes the development of processors using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) technology to perform onboard identification of noncommunication emitters and to obtain weight, size, and power reductions as well as increased processing speeds. Receiver developments will focus on increasing system sensitivity for operations in a dense signal environment. Advancements in antenna designs are being pursued for the development of a lightweight, wideband, circularly disposed conformal antenna to replace the high profile spinning dish antennas currently in use today. Supports: UAV equipment packages, Ground-Based Common Sensor (GBCS), IEW Common Sensor (IEWCS), Enhanced TRACKWOLF, and Advanced QUICKFIX.

Impulse/Wideband Electronic Support (ES) (97-01). This demonstration will focus on developing advanced techniques to detect, characterize, and geolocate impulse radars in the presence of conventional radars and communication signals. Impulse radars represent a significant advance in the state of the art for battlefield radars. Since they were developed to counter detection, location, and destruction, current countermeasures are ineffective against them. This work will involve a coordinated effort which includes tri-Service and international participation, as well as the use of the SBIR program. The objective of these programs is to develop technology for insertion into current and future ES systems to counter the emerging impulse radar threat. Supports: GBCS.

Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (93-98). The goal of the BCID ATD is to solve the combat identification (ID) problem experienced in Operation Desert Storm. It provides the Army's technology options for the Joint Combat ID ACTD. This ATD builds upon the Battlefield Combat Identification System (BCIS) near-term solution, presently being developed for vehicle platforms (a millimeter-wave, question-and-answer type target ID system), and validates the architecture for a comprehensive air-to-ground and ground-to-ground BCIS-compatible system that includes the dismounted soldier. Previous experiments and demonstrations assessed requirements and concepts for the dismounted soldier and provided the technical foundation for the Joint Combat ID ACTD and integrated air-to-ground and ground-to-ground applications, including situational awareness through the gunner's sight. FY97 efforts include constructive modeling and virtual simulation of air-to-ground combat ID systems, initial simulation of dismounted soldier CI systems, initial field experiments with advanced technologies for enhanced target ID and support of Force XXI. Future efforts will include demonstration of a lightweight combat ID capability for dismounted soldiers, integration into the Land Warrior equipment suite, analysis and development of target ID concepts for soldier-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-soldier, and helicopter-to-soldier applications and extension of the situational awareness through-the-site effort to include an enhanced version of BCIS, the digital Appliqué, and other acquisition and target ID systems. Supports: Armored Vehicles, the Integrated C3IEW System-of-Systems, and Land Warrior.

New Signals SIGINT/DF Development (94-01). This project will develop the technology necessary to provide non-cooperative intercept and geolocation of modern communication signals. Successful developments will be transitional into the tactical flagship systems as they mature. Supports: Enhanced TRACKWOLF, IEWCS.

Advanced Electronic Support (ES) Receiver (00-05). This program will demonstrate a digital reconfigurable receiver to accommodate a variety of missions. This digital channelized receiver is intended to upgrade the IEWCS front end to intercept very wide band signals in a single channel mode, as well as to spatially resolve narrow band signals in a multichannel mode. This ensures exploitation of modern communication signals and efficient allocation of system resources. Supports: IEWCS, GBCS.

High Frequency (HF) Antenna (00-05). This program will demonstrate high frequency antenna and antenna coupler components based on high temperature super conductive technology to reduce size and weight on IEWCS platforms and allow tactical HF Electronic Warfare. Supports: IEWCS, GBCS.

Modern Communications Analog/Digital Beamformer Electronic Support/Electronic Attack (ES/EA) (00-04). The ability to spatially resolve targets using beamforming developments will increase the stand-off ranges in which communications collection can occur or provide greater system sensitivity for signals at lower signal-to-noise ratios at current stand-off ranges. This program will demonstrate the effective use of this technology to address the frequency re-use or co-channel interference problem in modern communications collection and identification to support electronic attack issues. Supports: IEWCS, GBCS.

Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) (98-01). This ATD will focus on a modular, reconfigurable MFS3 that integrates multiple advanced sensor components including staring infrared arrays, multifunction laser, and acoustic arrays. For further details, see Mounted Forces, Section G. Supports: Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS), Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle-Enhanced (Linebacker), Force XXI.

b. Technology Programs Leading to Information Collection Modernization for IEW Airborne Collection Systems

The roadmap for airborne information collection shows a mix of manned and unmanned platforms. The manned aircraft will undergo preplanned product improvements which will add required capabilities on an incremental basis. Unmanned airborne vehicles will carry a variety of IEW sensor packages. The roadmap is shown in Figure III-F-1b.

Air/Land Enhanced Reconnaissance and Targeting (ALERT) ATD (97-00). The purpose of this ATD is to demonstrate automatic target acquisition and enhanced target identification, to cover large search areas with high targeting accuracy while at low depression angles and high platform motion. See Aviation, Section D, for further details. Supports: Comanche Improvements, AH-64 C/D Apache.

JPSD Precision/Rapid Counter MRL ACTD (95-98). This ACTD will demonstrate a significantly enhanced capability for U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) to neutralize the newly deployed North Korean 240mm multiple rocket launcher (MRL) system. Because of the brief time in which this target is expected to be exposed and vulnerable to counterfire, near continuous surveillance and near instantaneous target acquisition will be required. The terrain problems require that a sensor be overhead and that Division-level access be available. A second generation infrared linescanner called the Reconnaissance Infrared Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RISTA II for second generation) was developed with an Aided Target Recognizer And Processor (AiTRAP). This system provides high resolution, wide area coverage, and automatic target chip presentation to a targeteer. The system was proven in FY96 at a demonstration at Fort AP Hill. Following review by SARDA and OSD(AT), the system will be transitioned to the Multi-Sensor Test Bed and Sherpa aircraft assigned to PM-TESAR for further demonstration and operational evaluation. The sensor leave-behind for the CMRL problem is an Aided Target Recognizer for application to TESAR. The AiTR will cue the targeteer to 240 MRL targets. A preliminary demonstration of this capability was shown in FY96 at Fort AP Hill. The first leave-behind will be a Challenger-based system for CONUS Predator systems in FY97 and the second leave-behind will be a COTS processor in the Predator GCS for OCONUS deployment. Supports: Joint Precision Strike.

Rapid Battlefield Visualization (RBV) ACTD (97-01). This ACTD will demonstrate capabilities to rapidly collect source data and generate high resolution digital terrain databases to support crisis response and force projection operations within the timelines required by the joint force commander. It will demonstrate capabilities for the commander to integrate these terrain data bases with current situation data, and manipulate and display the integrated data bases to determine how to achieve objectives and visualize the desired end state. The RBV ACTD will leave behind with the XVIII Airborne Corps the computer workstations and applications software to (1) generate high resolution terrain data bases; and (2) analyze courses of action using mission planning and embedded wargaming software and conduct mission rehearsals. This ACTD will leverage the Battlefield Awareness and Data Dissemination (BADD) ACTD for data dissemination and tactical communications; the Battlespace Command and Control (BC2) ATD for applications software and communications architectures; and enhanced terrain representation programs conducted by the Terrain Modeling Project Office of the Defense Mapping Agency. Supports: Force XXI, Army Battle Command System (ABCS), Division '98 AWE, and Intel XXI.

Aerial Scout Sensor Integration Technology Demonstration (95-98). This program will demonstrate UAV-mounted imaging sensors and ground-based image exploitation work-station capable of high resolution, wide-area coverage for battlefield reconnaissance, surveillance, non-line-of-sight targeting, and battle damage assessment. See section III-H, Close Combat Light, for more detailed information. Supports: Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD.

Multimission/Common Modular UAV Sensors (97-00). This technology demonstration will provide a low cost, lightweight, EO/IR integrated MTI Radar/SAR payload for integration on future tactical UAVs. The radar payload will build upon successes in the current low cost radar development program and will likely utilize MMIC. The FLIR will take advantage of high quantum efficiency, 3­5 micron staring arrays. These sensor payloads will provide enhanced reconnaissance, surveillance, battle damage assessment, and targeting for non-line-of-sight weapons. Demonstrations will focus on multiple mission flexibility in support of early entry and deep attack forces. Supports: Tactical UAV.

LPI ES and Impulse Wideband ES. See description in Ground-Based Collection Systems section (above).

ORION (95-98). This program will demonstrate the operational effectiveness of a wide bandwidth SIGINT Electronic Support (ES) package on a surrogate UAV platform operating in conjunction with a ground-based IEW Common Sensor which receives the UAV ES detected signals and performs the intercept/processing task to locate high value C2 targets, thus enhancing the capabilities of the IEW Common Sensor by allowing deeper penetration of the enemy's communications space to detect even low signal levels from directional systems such as multichannel. The system will also allow the intercept of modern low power communications. Collection of these signals is difficult due to low radiated power. ORION provides needed access to these signals. There are also plans to include Electronic Attack into the package to provide a unique capability to attack deep targets and assist in the execution of Information Warfare missions against critical deep targets. Supports: UAV Intell Package.

Advanced ES Receiver Demo and Modern Communications Beamformer ES/EA Demo (00-05). See description in Ground-Based Collection System section (above).

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Target Recognition and Location System (STARLOS) (94-99). This program will develop real-time Aided/Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) capabilities and demonstrate their functionality in a number of different platforms using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) as sensor. The ATR capabilities will be demonstrated in the ground station for the aerial platforms and will concentrate on the detection, classification, recognition, and identification of high value/payoff targets. The program will provide location of time critical targets in day/night and most weather conditions using wide area coverage rates. Since multiple platforms will be addressed, the ATR algorithms will be implemented using scalable common ATR hardware which is anticipated to be completely COTS by FY97. In addition, the scalable hardware will be used to execute algorithms for other sensors including 2nd Gen FLIR/LS, thus allowing more platforms (both intelligence and combat weapon) to be considered for potential ATR insertion using the principles of Horizontal Technology Integration (HTI). Supports: Precision Strike, Medium Altitude Endurance UAV.

c. Technology Programs Leading to Intelligence Processing and Fusion Modernization

The objective of intelligence fusion and processing modernization is the development and fielding of common hardware and software for intelligence analysis centers. The goal is to shorten timelines for supplying intelligence to the commander and to provide real time target information to weapon systems. The roadmap is shown in Figure III-F-1c.

Multiple Source Correlated Intelligence Fusion Demonstration (96-01). This effort will demonstrate a fully integrated tactical intelligence data fusion module at Corps and Division levels. The module will be stimulated with diverse inputs and perform various fusing functions to provide the commander with a comprehensive visualization of the battlefield using advanced, multi-media display techniques to provide complete status of the situation in an easily viewed and understandable format (status at a glance). Inputs to the module will be from the entire suite of battlefield sensors and both tactical and strategic intelligence sources. Sensors will be queued, and remote resources queried, to synchronize the fusion effort with the supported tactical operation. Data will be correlated using advanced fusion techniques such as automated terrain reasoning for location and movement analysis and amalgamated into intelligence products. This module will support functions from the initial Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield to final battle damage assessments and will also assist in fratricide prevention. Supports: ASAS and IEWCS.

Owning the Weather (96-02).This program consists of three interrelated technology demonstrations that will transition directly from 6.2 into the Integrated Meteorological System (IMETS) block upgrades, artillery fire control and meteorological systems, Army Battle Command System (ABCS), Battlefield Automated Systems (BAS), and the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) community. The first, Target Area Meteorology, is aimed at developing Computer Assisted Artillery Meteorology software and battlescale weather forecasting techniques. It will receive input from mobile atmospheric profilers and weather satellites to improve precision strike and artillery firing accuracy through better knowledge and application of battlefield and target area meteorological conditions. The second, Automated Weather Decision Aids, will enable commanders to apply this improved knowledge of battlefield weather to compare weather-based advantages/disadvantages of friendly and threat systems using automated decision aid client applications on ABCS BASs served by the IMETS through a Distributed Computing Environment. The third, Owning the Weather, extends the target area meteorology and decision aid technology to the M&S environment so that realistic operational battlescale forecast weather and predicted impacts on systems and operations are also useable in mission rehearsal, training, and combat simulations. Supports: IMETS, ABCS, and Distributed Interactive Simulation.

d. Technology Programs Leading to Denial Systems Modernization

Denial systems are categorized into three main areas: jamming systems, deception systems, and self-protection systems. The objective of these systems is to deny the enemy vital information and to deceive and disrupt his command and control and weapon systems. The roadmap is shown in Figure III-F-1d.

Multispectral Countermeasures ATD (97-99). The purpose of the Multispectral Countermeasures ATD is to develop prototype hardware for advanced technology, countermeasures to protect Army helicopters from imaging surface-to-air missiles. See Aviation (Section III-D) for more detailed information. Supports: Suite of Integrated IR Countermeasures, RF Countermeasures.

C2 Attack and Protect Technology Demonstration (98-02). This TD will demonstrate the ability to launch effective Command and Control (C2) Attack against Integrated Battlefield Area Communications Systems (IBACS) (threat information systems). It will also demonstrate the ability to protect the Army's Tactical information systems, components, and data from modern network attacks. The demonstration will leverage existing technology, exploit modeling and simulation methods for concept exploration and definition, and use C2 attack capabilities against Tactical Internet (TI) information systems and components. For each C2 attack method a countercapability (C2 Protect) will be incorporated. The demo will provide the ability to selectively control an adversary's use of information, information-based processes, and information systems through the application of offensive capabilities that deny, disrupt, or degrade operations or capabilities. Supports: RF Countermeasures, TI C2 Components and Networks.

Advanced Digital Electronic Attack (EA) (95-00). This demonstration will establish the effectiveness of exploitation and jamming techniques based on vulnerabilities of various format modern analog and digital communications systems. A prototype system for detecting and collecting analog and digital signals will be fabricated to allow for demonstration of proof of concept countermeasures techniques. Supports: IEWCS, GBCS.

New Threat Electronic Attack (EA) (00-03). This program will demonstrate the ability to intercept, locate, and disrupt emerging high priority threat systems utilizing advanced communications technologies. This program will also investigate the advanced digital signal processing, encryption, and complex modulation techniques being incorporated into many of the commercial systems proliferating throughout the world. Supports: IEWCS, GBCS.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Deception Techniques (97-02). This exploratory development project will yield components to counter, through deception techniques, the SAR threat. These components include hardware, software, and associated techniques, as well as ancillary equipment. The requirements to deceive and jam air defense and surveillance radar will continue to increase as new threat radars are developed that use bistatic and other advanced techniques to avoid destruction and to counter low observables. Supports: IEWCS.