4. Roadmap for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers
Table III-E-2 is a summary of demonstrations and system upgrades/advanced concepts (SU/ACs) displayed on the Roadmap (Figure III-E-1) for C4 Modernization. The evolution of battlefield C4 into the 21st century begins with current C4 systems as a baseline. In order to preserve current investments, a step-by-step block improvement approach to modernizing legacy systems is utilized. ATDs and ACTDs support the development of SU/ACs. The flow of C4 modernization appears on the roadmap beginning with Command and Control and Communications system upgrades on the far left, followed by specific ATDs, ACTDs, and Technology Demonstrations leading to Force XXI.
Table III-E-2. C4 Demonstration and System Summary
Figure III-E-1. Roadmap for C4 Modernization
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a. Technology Programs Leading to Command and Control Modernization
This past year, the Combined Arms Command and Control (CAC2) ATD was completed. It was successful in demonstrating command and control functionality and shared situational awareness for brigade and below, to include Armor, Aviation, Mounted Forces, and Fire Support. This ATD forms the baseline for addressing some key command and control (C2) and operational battlefield dynamic issues. The following ATDs and technology demonstrations represent the Army's investment in modernizing its C2 capabilities.
Rapid Battlefield Visualization (RBV) ACTD (97-01). The goal of this ACTD is to demonstrate capabilities to collect source data and generate high resolution digital terrain data bases quickly to support crisis response and force projection operations within the timelines required by the Joint Force Commander. The Commander will be capable of integrating terrain data bases with current situation data, and can therefore manipulate and display the integrated databases in order to determine how to achieve operational objectives and visualize a desired end state. Source data collection, digital terrain database generation and tailoring, database dissemination, and applications software will be integrated and evaluated. Supports: JPSD/RFPI, Force XXI, and Vision 2010.
Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (93-98). The BCID addresses the mission need to develop effective and survivable ground-to-ground and air-to-ground combat identification capabilities to enhance warfighting capabilities and avoid engagement of friendly forces and noncombatants. The approach is based on a two-pronged concept that develops both positive Target Identification (TI) and Situation Awareness (SA) capabilities. It integrates both TI and SA at different echelons starting at the individual platform level. The PM-CI/PEO IEW owns this project. Management responsibilities lie with the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), Night Vision/Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). Further details on the BCID ATD may be found in Section F, IEW. Supports: Battlespace C2, Aviation platform upgrades, JPSD/RFPI, Force XXI.
Rapid Force Projection Command and Control (RFP C2) Technology Demonstration (95-98). This program will develop the command and control element for the RFPI ACTD. It consists of a reconfigurable Light Tactical Operation Center Testbed (LT2) and multiple communications interfaces. Digitized systems will link all battlefield elements from the individual soldier through the brigade while preventing communications systems information overload. The RFP C2 demonstration will provide real-time to near-real-time integration of ACTD task force "hunters," "killers," and organic weapons; commanders; and battlefield functional area (BFA) battlefield operating systems (BOS), i.e., ASAS and AFATDS. The LT2 will support target analysis, weapon-target pairings, engagement control, EFOGM fire direction, organic sensor management, commander's situation awareness, battle damage assessment, hunter-killer mission planning, near-real-time data fusion, vertical integration of command levels, and horizontal integration with other functional elements (i.e., intelligence, field artillery, air defense, armor, dismounted soldier). Supports: Force XXI.
Battlespace Command and Control (BC2) ATD (97-01). This ATD will develop and demonstrate information and knowledge based technology capabilities including provision of a common, integrated situation display with selectable detail and resolution providing battlefield visualization and supporting systems architectures. The BC2 ATD includes: intelligent agents for information retrieval, filtering, and deconfliction; intelligent products to support decision making; and development of systems architecture. Tri-Service C2 sources will be partitioned and distributed automatically across an integrated network of communications and computer medium to provide real-time targeting, target hand-over, mission planning, route planning, friendly and enemy picture. The BC2 multi-Service system architecture will interoperate with multiechelon Joint/Allied assets providing faster, more accurate, more intuitive, tailored battlespace information to the mobile strike force and Force XXI. This ATD is also an integral part of Defense Technology Objectives (DTOs) for Consistent Battlespace Understanding, Forecasting, Planning, and Resource Allocation, and Integrated Force Management. Supports: Force XXI, RBV ACTD.
Total Distribution ATD (95-97). The success of the Log Anchor Desk (LAD) in satisfying the logistics user's needs for decision support software, coupled with the advances made in the Common Operating Environment (COE) and in the architecture of the command and control system, has resulted in a merger of the LAD efforts with the Total Distribution (TD) ATD. The goal of the merger is to continue the development of the functionality of the LAD while integrating it with data sources as they are developed and integrated into the C2 system's architecture. For further details, see Logistics, Section O. Supports: Force XXI.
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) C4I Technology Demonstration (96-00). The goal is to demonstrate robust, scalable C4I and advanced sensor capabilities that provide commanders and warfighters with seamless, nonhierarchical adaptive networks for multimedia communications in a highly dynamic MOUT environment. The objective is to evolve an integrated communications infrastructure that leverages commercial protocols, formats, waveforms, and standards to achieve global tri-Service interoperability through integration of mobile IP tactical networks into global infrastructure. MOUT C4I will demonstrate near-real-time vertical and horizontal command and control from the battalion down to the individual combatant. Supports: Force XXI Land Warrior.
Advanced Manportable Sensors for the Dismounted Warrior Technology Demonstration (94-98). This effort will develop and demonstrate optimum components and integration of thermal imagery, laser rangefinder, electronic compass, and near IR pointer into a compact sighting system. Imagery and data will be output to the Land Warrior head mounted display and soldier's computer. These technologies will provide the soldier with extended range and automated targeting capabilities. Further details are found in Soldier, Section I. Supports: Lightweight Laser Designator/Rangefinder, Force XXI Land Warrior.
Precision Navigation (94-98). This program provides accurate, robust, worldwide positioning through Global Positioning System (GPS) enhancements, advanced navigation sensors, and digital terrain data bases using advanced algorithms and integration concepts. The intent is to make maximum use of an integrated GPS capability while conducting nap-of-the-earth flight and precision approach/landing demonstrations as well as improving pos/nav capabilities of soldier and ground-based platforms. Precision Navigation integrated with a high integrity digital terrain data base provides the capability required to demonstrate platform positioning accuracies of 1 to 3 meters, enhancing situation awareness in all environments. Supports: Digitization of the Battlefield, Navigation Warfare, Battlespace C2, Precision Strike, RPA, Comanche, Soldier system upgrades, and Ground and Air Vehicles.
b. Technology Programs Leading to Communications Modernization
Communications, specifically seamless communications, facilitates command and control. Command and Control would be impossible without the ability to communicate, i.e., transmit and receive strategic, tactical, and operational information in a timely manner to the Commander and associated staff. Several 6.2 programs are under way to facilitate and implement Army 6.3 communications efforts, including a Personal Communications System, Antennas for Communications Across the Spectrum, and Advanced Modeling and Simulation. Please refer to Chapter IV for details. The following ATDs and technology demonstrations reflect the Army's current strategic plan for Communications modernization.
Digital Battlefield Communications (BC) ATD (95-99). This ATD will exploit emerging commercial communications technologies to support multimedia communications in a highly mobile dynamic battlefield environment and will support Digitized Battlefield and split-based operations. It will evolve into an integrated communications infrastructure that utilizes commercial protocols and standards to achieve global interoperability. Commercial Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology will be integrated into actual tactical communications networks to provide "bandwidth on demand" to support multimedia information requirements. In order to extend ATM services to forward tactical units, a Radio Access Point (RAP) will be prototyped and tested. The RAP utilizes a high capacity on-the-move trunk radio to feed a variety of mobile subscriber services. Both manned and unmanned aerial platforms will be fitted with wideband relay packages to support on-the-move (OTM) tactical operations, supporting bandwidths of up to 155 Mbps. This ATD will conclude in FY99 with the insertion of appropriate technology products (high capacity digitized communications and split-based operations) in CORPS XXI AWE. A parallel effort, DBC Enhancements (96-99), includes an earlier demonstration of the Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) technology (in support of JWID 96 and Task Force XXI). An effort to exploit terrestrial PCS was added to the program at the request of the Army Digitization Office, and will be used to exploit commercial CDMA and BCDMA technology as a wireless PBX off an MSE switch for command post voice and data subscribers. Multilevel security requirements for Force XXI will be addressed by the insertion of Tactical End-to-End Encryption Device (TEED) hardware. Wideband HF technology will be evaluated, tested in the U.S. Army CECOM Digital Integrated Laboratory, and inserted into Division XXI AWE. Supports: All Transport Systems, FORCE XXI, Future Digital Radio (FDR).
Improved Spectrum Efficiency Modeling and Simulation (ISEMS) Technology Demonstration (95-97). This program focuses efforts in support of Winning the Information War and Digitization of the Battlefield. The challenge is to develop an enhanced communication modeling and simulation environment that provides real-time, flexible, DIS-compatible, and cost-effective capabilities for resolving complex operational problems. The emphasis is on real-time descriptions of environment phenomena for applications to modeling of dynamic network and communication system performance management, communication equipment characteristics, communications realism and propagation reliability algorithms, spectrum use efficiency, and frequency management techniques. Software capable of modeling communications system capacity and performance and dynamic battlefield environments in support of future global deployment of communication technology will be available in FY97. ISEMS transitions key technologies to BC2, DBC, and other ATDs. Supports: DBC and DBC Enhancements.
Universal Transaction Communications Technology Demonstration (96-03). This demo will provide seamless connectivity and integration across communications media. The goal is to provide the commander the ability to exchange and understand information unimpeded by differences in connectivity, processing, or systems interface characteristics. It will allow information to flow from wherever it exists, in whatever form, to wherever it is needed in whatever form it is needed. Attributes include: automated interfaces; techniques for enhancing the commercially available signal conditioning; provision of dynamic profiles and adaptive conditioning; and automatic, adaptive addressing to allow connections to users completely independent of any knowledge of location. Supports: All tactical communications and the tactical internet, Force XXI.
Joint Speakeasy/Multiband Multimode Radio Technology Demonstration (95-99). The Speakeasy Multiband Multimode Radio (MBMMR) is a Joint Service Program to develop the baseline architecture and technology for the objective MBMMR, meeting the requirements of the Future Digital Radio (FDR). MBMMR will demonstrate a highly flexible radio architecture, allowing rapid waveform reprogrammabililty/reconfigurability to support the rapidly changing mission requirement of EW threats, interoperability, net- working, traffic load, frequency assignment, and general modes of operation. Technology insertion includes the use of advanced digital signal processor (DSPs), programmable four- channel CYPRIS chip INFOSEC modules, and interference cancellation (Cosite) circuitry. The MBMMR will utilize an "open" (industry releasable) system architecture. A highly software reprogrammable (waveform and INFOSEC) radio will provide four simultaneous multiband multimode radio channels, networking functions, and minimize the required number of antennas. Supports: Future Digital Radio, Force XXI.
Communications Integration and Cosite Mitigation Technology Demonstration (97-01). The objective of this demonstration is to reduce the size, weight, power, and cosite interference problems that occur when multiple radios in either the same or dissimilar frequency bands are integrated within a communications system. The physical space constraints of mobile platforms cause these problems to be even worse. Technology from ongoing developments will be coupled with new efforts to address the problem within the continuous frequency band from 2 MHz to 2 GHz while also attacking the cosite interference in the HF, VHF, and UHF bands. Development efforts include VHF and UHF multiport antenna multiplexers, ancillary cosite mitigation devices, and wideband linear power amplifiers. Additionally, a multiband communications system will be integrated within a typical Army SICPS shelter mounted on a HMMWV and tests performed to evaluate the resultant performance and enhancements. This testbed will be exercised throughout the FY99-FY01 period, for evaluation of the individually developed items. Supports: All mobile multiband communications systems and Force XXI.
Information Warfare/Protect Technology Demonstration (96-02). This program will develop and demonstrate (through experimentation and field testing) techniques for the protection of tactical information systems and communications networks. These techniques will validate Information Security, Information Integrity, Attack Detection, Restoration, and recommend real-time countermeasures to limit network damage. This demonstration will tie together various information systems' protect mechanisms including encryption, AJ/LPI (frequency hopping/direct sequence spreading), error detection/correction, and authentication (both parity and key); and automation protect mechanisms such as virus/malicious code (detection and prevention of infiltration), authentication (parity, digital signature), access control (authorization lists/certificates), security audits, man in the loop, firewalls, and air gaps. Numerous IW protect mechanisms will be used to secure the tested unit's weapons systems against known vulnerabilities. Maximum use of exiting COTS and GOTS software products will minimize R&D of new products. Technology to be used includes secure firewalls, automated intrusion detection and response capabilities trusted operating systems, malicious code detection, and security and analysis tools procedures. Supports: Force XXI, JWSTP/Information Warfare.
Range Extension Technology Demonstration (97-99). This program directly supports the Army C4 modernization "key azimuth" of Range Extension through the development and integration of a multitude of SATCOM and related technologies. It will identify and develop key technologies required for airborne applications of a suite of communications packages, design and integrate specific systems, and conduct system tests and demonstrations of intratheater communications range extension at a variety of data rates. Major technology areas to be addressed are airborne payload (including antennas) designs, ground terminal adaptations, interoperability/compatibility, and simulation. These technologies will be used to supplement current (and programmed) SATCOM resources at all frequency bands. SATCOM terminals will be augmented and enhanced to provide the capability of communicating via satellite and/or airborne platforms. The utility of SATCOM terminals will be extended by improvements to reduce size and weight, increasing throughput and mobility and implementing emerging techniques such as Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA). An SHF "Surrogate Satellite System" will be demonstrated in FY98. In FY99, a UAV-based EHF and airborne battlefield paging capability will be demonstrated. Supports: JPO UAV TIER II Program, Goldenhawk, and Joint Precision Strike .
Integrated Photonics Technology Demonstration (00). This effort will develop integrated photonic subsystems for application to optical control of single beam phased array antennas and fiber optic point-to-point links, local area networks, and antenna remoting systems. Subsystems will be developed for optical control of multi-beam phased array antennas. These subsystems will reduce size, cost, and power consumption while increasing the performance of high speed fiber optic systems. Demonstration of a photonically controlled multipanel phased array antenna will be conducted during FY00. Supports: SATCOM on-the-move.
SATCOM Technology Demonstration (00-02). This technology effort will extend the applications and capabilities of SATCOM terminals by providing higher data rates, improvements in throughput, and reduce life cycle costs. Throughput improvement will utilize emerging techniques and architectures such as DAMA, on a per call basis. Overall improvements to systems and equipment will reduce size and increase mobility for military and commercial SATCOM terminals. Supports: SATCOM Upgrades.