Chapter III. Technology Transition
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

4. Roadmap for Army Aviation

Table III-D-2 presents a summary S/SU/ACs and demonstrations in the Army Aviation S&T program that support the AMP.

Table III-D-2. Aviation Demonstration and System Summary

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The roadmap for Aviation (Figure III-D-1) portrays the Army's use of Technology Demonstrations (TDs) and Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATDs) to support the development of its future aviation systems, and dual use technology for the nation's rotorcraft industry. The aviation S/SU/ACs are shown at the top of the figure. The lower half of the figure shows the substantial block of aviation technology demonstrations that support the S/SU/ACs and provide the opportunity for technology upgrades of fielded systems. These demonstrations are designed to establish a "Proof-of-principle," i.e., to serve as a test bed, validate feasibility, and reduce cost and risk for entering engineering and manufacturing development (EMD).

Figure III-D-1. Roadmap for Army Aviation

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The roadmap shows two "Technology insertion windows" which offer opportunities for technology application to aircraft S/SU/ACs. Technology insertions which may occur through modification programs for fielded systems, such as AH-64 Apache, UH-60 Blackhawk, CH-47 Chinook, OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, and SOA, are not shown.

The following subsections provide descriptions of the Aviation demonstrations categorized on the roadmap as Mission Equipment, Advanced Platforms, Propulsion, and Logistics/ Maintenance.

a. Mission Equipment

Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate (RPA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) (93-99). The primary thrust of the Aviation S&T mission equipment area is the RPA ATD. The objective of this program is to establish revolutionary improvements in combat helicopter mission effectiveness through the application of artificial intelligence for cognitive decision aiding and the integration of advanced pilotage sensors, target acquisition, armament and fire control, communications, cockpit controls and displays, navigation, survivability, and flight control technologies. Next generation mission equipment technologies will be integrated with high speed data fusion processing and cognitive decision aiding expert systems to achieve maximum effectiveness and survivability for our combat helicopter forces.

This increased system effectiveness will enable Army Aviation to be more responsive to battle commanders at all levels. RPA will expand aviation's freedom of operation, improve response time for quick reaction and mission redirect events, increase the precision strike capability for high value/short dwell-time targets, and increase day/night, all weather operational capability. RPA will contribute greatly to the pilot's ability to "see and assimilate the battlefield" in all conditions; to rapidly collect, synthesize, and disseminate battlefield information; and to take immediate and effective actions. These developments will enable the full use of the crew's perceptual, judgmental, and creative skills to capitalize on their own strengths and to exploit the adversary's weaknesses.

The Defense Simulation Internet (DSI), through the Army's Battlefield Distributed Simulation--Developmental (BDS-D) program capabilities, will be utilized in the RPA program to perform Measures of Performance (MOPs) validation. The RPA ATD will achieve the following quantitative MOPs relative to Comanche-like performance during 24-hour, all weather battlefield conditions: 30 to 60 percent reduction in mission losses, 50 to 150 percent increase in targets destroyed, and a 20 to 30 percent reduction in mission timelines. Flight test experiments conducted during the RPA program will provide a measure of simulation validation, evaluate the impact of real world stimulus, and provide the confidence that technologies are ready to transition into systems, system upgrades, and advanced concepts. Supports: Comanche, Apache, SOA, Army Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S), dual use potential.

Advanced Helicopter Pilotage (AHP) Technology Demonstration (94-98). The Advanced Helicopter Pilotage technology demonstration supports the RPA ATD. The AHP TD will develop and demonstrate a night/adverse weather pilotage system to visually couple the pilot to the terrain flight environment using advanced thermal and image intensifier sensors and a very-wide-field-of-view, helmet-mounted display. The AHP display system will provide current and future Army aircraft with increased safety and situational awareness, reduced pilot cognitive workload, increased mission launch rates, and enhanced terrain flight operations. Supports: RPA ATD, Comanche, Apache, and SOA.

Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (93-98). This ATD will demonstrate target ID techniques together with situational awareness information which will prevent fratricide during ground-to-ground and air-to-ground engagements. It is discussed in detail in IEW, Section F. Supports: Scout and Attack Aircraft, ACT/JTR, ICH.

Multispectral Countermeasures (MSCM) ATD (97-99). The purpose of the Multispectral Countermeasures ATD is to develop prototype hardware for an advanced technology, low cost coherent jammer to protect Army helicopters from imaging infrared surface-to-air missiles. The integration of a missile detector, high accuracy point/track subsystem, and an IR laser with fiber-optic coupling and advanced expendables will be demonstrated. A multi-line or wavelength agile source will be used to improve its effectiveness against missiles with counter-countermeasures and to develop a capability against infrared imaging seekers. Supports: All fielded aircraft and ICH.

Integrated Situational Awareness and Countermeasures (ISACM) Technology Demonstration (00-02). This TD will demonstrate integrated RF/IR/IO Laser Electronic Combat Suite for situational awareness, targeting, and protection against multispectral missiles and smart munitions. Geolocate emitters 1 percent of range, 98 percent of effectiveness vs. advanced SAMs and ATG. Supports: ICH.

Air/Land Enhanced Reconnaissance and Targeting (ALERT) ATD (97-00). The purpose of this ATD is to demonstrate automatic target acquisition and enhanced target identification via a 2nd generation FLIR/Multifunction Laser Sensor suite for rapid wide area surveillance and targeting. ALERT will leverage ongoing Air Force and DARPA developments for search on-the-move Aided Target Recognition. Second Generation FLIR and multifunction laser data will be fused to allow large search areas to be covered with high targeting accuracy while at low depression angles and high platform motion. Range profiling of the highest priority targets will provide target identification. Supports: Comanche and Apache Improvements.

I2/FLIR Fusion Pilotage Technology Demonstration (00-03). This TD will demonstrate image fusion upgrades to the baseline Comanche dual spectrum (I2/IR) pilotage system to increase mission effectiveness and survivability for future high performance rotorcraft. Knowledge-based image fusion algorithms will significantly enhance image resolution and will support concurrent demonstration of aided nap-of-the-earth pilotage technology. Supports: Future Comanche/Apache Upgrades.

Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) Technology Demonstration (94-98). FMTI TD will demonstrate the integration on a rotorcraft of a lightweight, fire-and-forget, multi-role missile system for air-to-air and air-to-ground engagements. It includes the integration of command guidance, control, propulsion, airframe, and warhead technologies capable of performing in high clutter/obscurants, adverse weather environments, and under countermeasure conditions. Missile control and guidance system technology will explore capabilities such as lock-on before/lock-on after launch, fire-and-forget, command guidance, signal and image processing, and wide band secure data links. Demonstrated missile system performance (i.e., weight, range, kill ratio, speed, lethality) will be optimized to exceed current baseline parameters of air-to-air Stinger, air-to-ground Hellfire, ground-to-ground Tube-Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire Command-Link Guided (TOW), and ground-to-air Stinger. Supports: HMMWV, M2 Bradley, follow-on to TOW, Block II Stinger, Hellfire III, EFOGM.

Survivability/Lethality Advanced Integration in Rotorcraft (SLAIR) Technology Demonstration (00-04). The SLAIR TD will integrate, simulate, and flight demonstrate the next generation mission equipment technologies necessary for attack and scout helicopters to fight effectively and survive in Force XXI. Candidate technologies under development by many RDECs include advanced weapon technology (lelthal and non-lethal), automatic target acquisition/combat identification, advanced fire control, survivability, C3, and the next generation of cognitive decision aiding beyond the RPA. The SLAIR TD will synergistically demonstrate the capabilities of combat versatility, tailorable kill levels, reduced engagement timelines, increased survivability, and reduced fratricide. Supports: AH-64D Apache Longbow Modernization, RAH-66 Comanche, potential improvement to Marine AH-1W Super Cobra, dual-use potential (non-lethal).

Low Cost Precision Kill (LCPK) Air-to-Ground, Ground-to-Ground (ATG/GTG) 2.75-inch Guided Rocket Technology Demonstration (96-98). The LCPK ATG/GTG 2.75-inch Guided Rocket TD seeks to demonstrate, through hardware in the loop (HITL) simulation, a low-cost, standoff range, precision guidance and control package for the 2.75-inch rocket. In current operations, large numbers of unguided 2.75-inch rockets would be required to achieve high probability of kill against point and non-heavy targets at standoff ranges, resulting in unacceptable collateral damage and creating a significant logistics burden. With the addition of a retrofit guidance and control package, accuracy comparable to current guided munitions can be obtained. This greatly improved accuracy will reduce the number of rockets required to defeat non-heavy armor point targets by up to 2 orders of magnitude, thereby providing a 4:1 increase in stowed kills at one-third the cost compared to current guided missiles. Supports: 2.75-inch Rocket System, Future Missile Systems, AH-64 Apache, OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, SOF Avenger, Bradley Fighting Vehicle, HWMMV, AWIP TD.

Low Cost Precision Kill (LCPK) Airborne Technology Demonstration (99-01). The LCPK Airborne TD will flight demonstrate the helicopter integration of the LCPK 2.75-inch guided rocket. The LCPK technology, developed to meet the objectives of the LCPK STO, will be evaluated from a helicopter system perspective to assure aircraft compatibility and performance effectiveness. Supports: AH-64 Apache Longbow Modernization, RAH-66 Comanche, and OH-58D Kiowa Warrior.

Brilliant Helicopter Advanced Weapons (BHAW) TD (06-10). The BHAW TD will integrate and demonstrate, through simulation and ground/flight test, future combined arms interoperable advanced aviation weapons, target acquisition and fire control technologies, and aviation platforms and will quantify resulting increases in aviation mission effectiveness. Full spectrum lethality will be demonstrated from "less than lethal" tailorable up to conventional lethal kill mechanisms. Technology candidates for the BHAW TD include:

Supports: Comanche and Apache.

Rotorcraft Air Combat Enhancement (RACE) Technology Demonstration (00-04). The probability is increasing that Army helicopters will encounter airborne threats in future conflicts. There is a need to develop an air-to-air capability for Army aviation to defeat the threat and protect itself and friendly forces. The RACE TD will develop, integrate, and airborne demonstrate the technologies necessary for the Army's existing and future helicopters to meet the need. Technology candidates include improvements to gun, rockets/missiles, target acquisition and fire control systems, and other aircraft system technology necessary to achieve an air-to-air system solution. Supports: AH-64D Apache Longbow Modernization and RAH-66 Comanche.

Full Spectrum Threat Protection Technology Demonstration (02-05). This TD demonstrates balanced integration of rotorcraft survivability for the most effective combinations of active countermeasures and susceptibility reduction features for full spectrum, i.e., radar, acoustics, infrared, and visual. It will demonstrate survivability against advanced threat sensors and smart weapons and munitions. The survivability codes will be validated and verified by installing equipment on aircraft with known signature and flight testing against various threats. Enhanced survivability and system performance features for aircraft, to include S/SU/ACs and UAVs, tailored for specific warfighting situations by minimizing weight and aerodynamic impact while maintaining low observable cross section, minimizing threat detection of active countermeasures, increasing jammer effectiveness, optimizing mission routes and tactics, and reducing production costs. Supports: TRADOC Battle Labs, Force XXI, Project Reliance, and Multi-Service applications.

Covert Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) Pilotage System Technology Demonstration (02-05). This TD will demonstrate an advanced, effective, and highly integrated rotorcraft pilotage system to operate covertly NOE and unobstrusively in urban areas with increased survival in hazardous flight environments or emergency situations with reduced crew workload during day, night, and adverse weather. Reduced crew workload, aided precision flight path control, and increased safety will enable crew members to focus on mission level functions while maintaining full vehicle and flight path control. The TD will demonstrate a comprehensive air vehicle management system for pilotage; a large-scale integrated mission equipment suite; automated protection from obstacles, terrain, and other inflight hazards; and increase capability for rotorcraft operations avoiding and using obstacles, terrain and threats for military operations; and increased safety for military and commercial rotorcraft operating in hazardous flight environments. Supports: JTR, ICH, Enhanced Apache, far-term manned and unmanned rotorcraft.

4th Generation Crew Station Technology Demonstration (04-07). This TD will demonstrate the next generation of air vehicle crew station architecture. The effort will develop/incorporate advanced displays for full glass cockpit/crew station; three-dimensional display technology; selectable touch, cyclic grip cursor, or pupil tracked cursor information access capability; rapid pilot-reconfigurable information layout on displays; automated artificial intelligence (AI) "Advisor" aiding; intelligent, adaptive interfaces; advanced selectable "windowless" cockpit synthetic vision systems; advanced information display symbology; and advanced flight control designs. Displays, AI, and crew station technology from Air Force, Navy, and NASA programs will be incorporated into system design. The TD will demonstrate: increased pilot performance and overall mission and reduced pilot susceptibility to injury by laser, directed energy, or other sources in hostile electromagnetic environments. Supports: JTR, ICH, Enhanced Apache, MRMAAV TD, and advanced ground vehicle crew stations.

Subsystems Technology for Infrared Reductions (STIRR) (97-01). The focus of STIRR is IR technology development, integration, and demonstration to improve the survivability of Army rotary-wing vehicles. The primary goal of increased survivability will be addressed via aggressive efforts to synergistically reduce the thermal emissions from helicopter airframes while developing and improving systems designed to cool plume and engine contributors. STIRR will achieve development of advanced, multi-spectral (visual through far-IR) airframe coatings that are compatible with radar absorbing materials/structures and development of state-of-the-art, low cost, lightweight thermal insulative materials. STIRR will support validation of advanced computational aero/thermo M&S tools which will be used to develop innovative engine IR suppression techniques. Additional quantifiable payoffs of passive signature reduction are direct improvements in active countermeasures performance through increased J/S ratios and improved decoy effectiveness. Supports: Current and future rotary-wing system upgrades, JTR, Comanche, USAF, USN, and USMC vertical life air vehicles, AH-64, UH-60, RAH-66 upgrades, ICH, other Services fleets.

b. Advanced Platforms

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) II Technology Demonstration (97-00). The ART TD incorporates key emerging material and component technologies for advanced rotorcraft transmissions and makes a quantum jump in the state of the art. The ART-II TD will survey the applicable ART-I (completed in FY92) component technologies and proposed concepts and will integrate the more promising ones into selected transmission/drive subsystem demonstrators. Advanced concepts such as split torque, split path, and single planetary transmissions will be considered with advanced material applications/component designs to demonstrate lighter, quieter, threat tolerant, more durable, reliable, and efficient drivetrain subsystems. Supports: JTR, ICH, Apache, dual use potential.

Helicopter Active Control Technology (HACT) Technology Demonstration (98-02). The HACT TD will demonstrate a second generation fly-by-light technology and integration of flight control and mission functions into a Vehicle Management System (VMS). Advanced processing for fault-tolerant systems, individual blade/higher harmonic control, smart actuation concepts will be considered. It will demonstrate high bandwidth active control technologies, multimode stabilization, and carefree maneuvering and robust control law design methodologies for affordable high performance helicopter control systems.

The HACT will provide enhanced mission effectiveness during night adverse weather, increased confined or terminal area operations capability, reduced workload, and improved crew endurance. It will maximize ability of the flight crew to exploit inherent vehicle performance, maintain safety and reliability while improving affordability and O&S costs, simplify maintenance, and reduce fleet attrition. Supports: Comanche, Apache, JTR, ICH.

3rd Generation Advanced Rotor Demonstration (3rd GARD) Technology Demonstration (01-04). The 3rd GARD TD will demonstrate advanced rotors/concepts to enhance current performance ceilings through high lift airfoils/devices, tailored planforms and tip shapes, elastic/dynamic tailoring methods, active on-blade control methods, acoustic signature reduction techniques and integration of advanced rotors/concepts with advanced active control systems. 3rd GARD technology will provide for increased survivability via reduced acoustic signature and increased maneuverability/agility, increased rotorcraft speed capability, increased range and payload, reduced O&S cost via reduced vibration and loads. Supports: Far-term Advanced Rotorcraft Concepts.

Aircraft System Self-Healing (ASSH) Technology Demonstration (05-07). The ASSH TD will demonstrate a self-healing flight control system for rotorcraft that automatically reconfigures remaining air vehicle lift, control, and applicable mission equipment assets to compensate for the degradation of vehicle control when damaged by battle, obstacle strike, or premature subsystem or component failure, and will advise the crew for appropriate action. The TD will demonstrate robust fault detection and identification of critical failures through onboard expert system diagnostics, compensation strategies for damaged aircraft subsystems, and smart flight control component technology. ASSH technology improves the survivability of crew and aircraft by providing a return-home capability for damaged aircraft, reduced aircraft losses, increased operational flexibility, productivity during all mission phases, and mobility of damaged assets. Supports: Far-term advanced concepts.

Multirole Mission Adaptable Air Vehicle (MRMAAV) Technology Demonstration (08-11). The MRMAAV TD will demonstrate the feasibility of using a common airframe and power plant(s) to conduct multiple different primary mission roles with the same aircraft with minimal impact on equipment interchanges (e.g., avionics, weapons, survivability packages). Common dynamics and aeromechanics components would be incorporated to support development of manned and unmanned systems. The MRMAAV concept offers battlefield commanders unprecedented mission flexibility to reconfigure aircraft in the field for various mission roles. Fewer numbers of aircraft and crews will be required to perform multiple different missions. Supports: Far-term advanced concepts.

Structural Crash Dynamics Modeling and Simulation (SCDMS) Technology Demonstration (97-00). SCDMS will establish a structural crash dynamics modeling and simulation (M&S) capability from a single selected off-the-shelf computer code that can satisfy the need for a design and performance evaluation tool to be optimized for helicopter crashworthy systems or materials, and for scenarios common to helicopter crashes. A uniform standard approach to computer modeling of global helicopter crash dynamics will be established. SCDMS will utilize ARL-VSD (NASA LaRC) modeling and testing expertise in support of the four-phase effort, evaluating state-of-the-art M&S codes to determine strengths and weaknesses and to select code with most strengths. Supports: ICH.

Rotary Wing Structures Technology (RWST) (97-01). RWST will fabricate and demonstrate advanced lightweight, tailorable structures and ballistically tolerant airframe configurations that incorporate state-of-the-art computer design/analysis techniques, improved test methods, and affordable fabrication processes. The technology objectives are to increase structural efficiency by 15 percent, improve structural loads prediction accuracy to 75 percent, and reduce costs by 25 percent without adversely impacting airframe signature. Supports: Battle Labs, JTR, ICH, UH-60 upgrades, collaborative technology.

Advanced Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Technologies (ARCAT) (97-00). ARCAT will develop and demonstrate critical technologies in rotorcraft aeromechanics to contribute to enhanced warfighting needs for fielded and next generation systems. Research and development will be conducted to achieve technical objectives by increasing maximum blade loading, increasing rotor aerodynamic efficiency and adverse forces, reducing aircraft loads and vibration loads, reducing acoustic radiation, increasing inherent rotor lag damping, and increasing rotorcraft aeromechanics predictive effectiveness. Achievement of aeromechanics technology objectives will contribute to rotorcraft system payoffs in range, payload, cruise speed, maneuverability/agility, reliability, maintainability and reduced RDT&E, procurement, and O&S costs. Supports: Battle Labs, Force XXI.

c. Propulsion

Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program [Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator (JTAGG)] Demonstration (91-03). JTAGG is a tri-Service effort which is structured to be compatible with the goals of the IHPTET initiative. IHPTET is a three-phased tri-Service/DARPA/NASA effort with major milestones in 1991, 1997, and 2003. The JTAGG I+ was completed in 1994. Specific JTAGG I+ goals included a 25 percent reduction in fuel consumption and a 60 percent increase in power-to-weight ratio. Follow-on JTAGG II and III efforts are addressing the 1997/2003 IHPTET goals. A full engine demonstration of the improvements in gas turbine technology resulting from the JTAGG program will be conducted as required to be compatible with S/SU/AC requirements. Results will be improvements in performance, efficiency, and power-to-weight ratio over current production engines. The demonstration will incorporate advanced materials and materials processing, simulation and modeling, computational fluid dynamics, and manufacturing science. Supports: JTR, ICH, Apache, all rotorcraft, dual use potential.

Alternate Propulsion Sources (APS) Technology Demonstration (04-10). The APS will explore advanced propulsion concepts beyond air-breathing propulsion. This program will consist of proof-of-principle technology demonstrations for propulsion concepts with potential application initially to a UAV with VTOL capability. The technology focus will explore the potential of utilizing such power sources as solar, high power microwaves, fly wheel generators, and hybrids. Supports: UAV application.

d. Logistics/Maintenance

Survivable, Affordable, Repairable Airframe Program (SARAP) Technology Demonstration (05-08). SARAP will develop, integrate, and demonstrate efforts to provide efficient and affordable airframe structures, diagnostic and repair concepts that address tolerance to such high intensity combat threats as NBC, DEW, mines, and ballistics to improve survivability, performance, durability, sustainability, and serviceability of current and future VTOL aircraft. Emerging technologies in materials, smart structures, manufacturing methods, diagnostics, and tools will be used to the fullest to obtain optimum hardening and repairability. SARAP will use Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD), concurrent engineering, virtual prototyping, and synergistically integrated technologies to the maximum extent practicable. Some of the overall enhancements to be realized include a 50 percent improvement in high intensity conflict survivability, a 30 percent reduction in repair times, and a 60 percent increase in aircraft combat life. Supports: Far-term advanced concepts and material changes to fielded systems.

On-Board Integrated Diagnostic Systems (OBIDS) Technology Demonstration (00-04). The OBIDS is a showcase platform to demonstrate advanced diagnostics and prognostics. Technologies to measure, track, and analyze aircraft vibrations, stresses, pressures, temperatures, and other critical parameters necessary to assess aircraft and subsystem health and usage and will be integrated into the airframe. These improved diagnostic and prognostic capabilities will be measured for O&S cost benefits and enhanced aircraft safety. The man-machine interfaces needed to present data and generate information leading to corrective maintenance and early failure detection will be a principal focus. Technology demonstrations may encompass the design and integration of systems needed to promote the health and proper functioning of structures and dynamic components. Emphasis will be placed on improvements in maintainability and availability. Supports: All aircraft SU/AC.

Subsystems Technology for Affordability and Supportability (STAS) (97-00). The focus of STAS is on those subsystems technologies directly affecting the affordability and supportability of Army Aviation. It addresses technical barriers associated with advanced, digitized maintenance concepts, and real-time, on-board integrated diagnostics. The expected benefits from STAS are reductions in Mean Time to Repair (MTTR), No Evidence of Failure (NEOF) removals, and spare parts consumption resulting in overall reductions in system life cycle cost and enhanced mission effectiveness. Pursuits include on-board as well as ground-based hardware and software concepts designed to assist the maintainer in diagnosing system faults and recording and analyzing maintenance data and information. On-aircraft technologies will include advanced diagnostic sensors, signal processing algorithms, high density storage, and intelligent decision aids. Ship-side diagnostic and maintenance actions will integrate laptop and body-worn electronic aids, advanced displays, knowledge-based software systems, personal viewing devices, voice recognition technologies, and tele-maintenance networks. Supports: Battle Labs, AH-64, UH-60, RAH-66 upgrades, ICH, JTR, other Services, and civil rotorcraft fleets.