I. Electronic Devices
The US and Japan generally share a commanding world lead in most aspects of electronic componentry and packaging, with the UK, France, Germany, and Russia having strong capabilities in the subareas identified in Chapter IV of the ASTMP, Volume I and summarized in Table E.II-8 below.
Table E.II-8. Electronic Devices
|I. ELECTRONIC DEVICES||UNITED KINGDOM||FRANCE||GERMANY||OTHER COUNTRIES||JAPAN||PACIFIC RIM||FSU|
|ELECTROOPTICS||Photonics signal processing||IR FPA||Photonics signal processing||Israel
|MILLIMETER WAVE COMPONENTS||MMIC||MMIC, compound semiconductors||MMIC, compound semiconductors||Israel||MMIC, acoustic wave devices, compound semiconductors|
|NANOELECTRONICS||Microscopy||Molecular chemistry||Submicron devices||All aspects||Russia molecular electronics|
|PORTABLE ELECTRICAL POWER||Batteries||Small engines||Switzerland||All aspects||Russia rechargeable batteries, power switching|
France has a strong capability in photonics and microwave tubes, and is doing innovative work in optical switching and distribution of microwaves that may lend itself to conformal phased array radar and smart-skin applications. France, Germany, and Japan all have strong capabilities in millimeter waves, and in the underlying compound semiconductor processing required. An area of interest is German exploration of the potential use of indium phosphide as an alternative to GaAs. The promise of indium compounds has yet to be realized in production devices, a breakthrough in processing, leading to more economical production of MIMIC/MMICs would be significant. In nanoelectronics, the countries listed have had strong efforts in molecular electronics, and in areas of biotechnology that should support advances in the kind of self-assembling nanostructures that are now envisioned for nanoelectronics. The FSU had developed a well organized infrastructure in molecular electronics, potentially applicable to a variety of nanoelectronic devices. While the effect of the break-up of the FSU is difficult to estimate, significant residual capability in this area may still exist. Recent advances in biotechnology and advanced microscopy are also likely to increase the general worldwide level of activity and capability in this area.
In portable power, Japan is a world leader in virtually all aspects, with strength in batteries, fuel cells, power control and switching components. France is strong in batteries, and Russia has strengths in certain types of rechargeable batteries and in power switching components, Switzerland is a leader in capacitive storage, and German and Japanese work on small fossil-fueled rotating engines for power generation may ultimately provide a practical solution to soldier power and sustainability (See also E-II.E.)
The following subsections identify specific opportunities where existing or near-term pending agreements offer significant potential benefits.