D. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense
Contamination avoidance is the highest priority of the DOD chemical and biological (CB) defense program. The program also includes force protection (individual and collective) medical (see Subsection II.P of this Annex) and decontamination. The past two years have been marked by growing interest in, and rapid advances in and proliferation of biosensing technology for environmental, industrial, and medical applications. While these technologies are dual-use in nature, the growing threat of CB weapons of mass destruction has focused continued attention on development of operational sensors to meet military requirements. Table E.II-3 below indicates areas of capability and trends. The UK, France, Germany, and Japan, all have strong capabilities in sensors, with France having particular strengths in remote sensing. Germany and Israel have strengths in individual and collective protection with Germany identified as particularly capable in collective protection for military vehicles.
Reliable detection of BW agents is particularly difficult, due to the high background and diversity of naturally occurring organisms. Canada, the U.K., and the U.S. participate in ITF24 which oversees cooperation in this area. Other countries, including Israel, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and Russia, have significant work in various methods of biodetection. Singapore has, in recent years, made a significant national investment in a world class facility, and may offer future capabilities in sensors and materials for personnel protection and decontamination.
Modeling and simulation capabilities relate to, and parallel, capabilities in meteorology and prediction of atmospheric transport effects, and sensor performance modeling.
Remote and real-time point detection of CB agents are prominently identified in the Joint Warfighting S&T Plan (JWSTP), as are models and simulations to support processing and dissemination of real-time warning and reporting data. The ASTMP Chapter IV.E includes milestones for these, and identifies additional requirements for individual and collective protection and decontamination. The table below summarizes potential prospects.
Table E.II-3. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense
|D. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL DEFENSE||UNITED KINGDOM||FRANCE||GERMANY||OTHER COUNTRIES||JAPAN||PACIFIC RIM||FSU|
|ELECTROMAGNETIC (EME) ENVIRONMENT SURVIVABILITY||Propagation and EMP effects||Propagation and EMP effects||Propagation and EMP effects||Israel Propagation
India Propagation and HEMP
Russia EMP effects
|RADIATION, BLAST, AND THERMAL PROTECTION||All aspects||Blast and Thermal||All Aspects||Israel
|DETECTION||Chemical agent point sensors||CBW agent point and remote sensing||Detection systems||Canada Detection systems
Switzerland Detection sensors
|Singapore||Russia BW detection sensors|
|COLLECTIVE PROTECTION||Vehicle systems||Israel||Russia|
|MODELING AND SIMULATION||Canada
Israel Atmospheric transport effects
The following highlight specific areas where existing or near-term pending agreements offer significant opportunities for advances in each of these areas.