Annex C. Interaction With TRADOC
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

2. Mounted Battle Space Operational Capability Requirements

MTD01: Firepower. Future systems must provide overmatching lethality against current and future systems of potential adversaries. Systems must be capable of firing on-the-move and operating effectively day or night in adverse weather conditions, in cluttered background environments, and in the presence of threat countermeasures, to include jamming, screening, and use of low observable and active defense systems. Advanced fire control systems are required which improve probability of hit, allow rapid tracking/engagement of multiple targets, and allow munitions firing inside the threat’s reaction time. Require improved mines and mine delivery techniques which will restrict the mobility of the threat. Lethality must be enhanced and range increased, either through the development of capabilities such as improved kinetic energy kill mechanisms, mine disbursement munitions, chemical energy munitions designs, smart munitions, and fuel air explosives, or through the development of new types of weapons such as electro-magnetic launch, directed energy, lasers, microwave, and particle beams. Targets include armored vehicles and all ground threats as well as fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Systems must have the capability to operate with increased distance between them and yet maintain the effect of mass. Weapons and/or their platforms must have the capability to be networked, integrated, and synchronized into digitized fire support and situational awareness systems. Future enhancements to these systems must incorporate spoken human-machine dialogue which will measurably accelerate information acquisition, input, translation, distribution, and output of various forms.

MTD02: Target Acquisition. Require improved target acquisition capability to include information awareness, intelligence awareness, and advanced fire control with a reduction in manpower intensive tasks. Spoken human-machine dialogue will be required to minimize manpower intensive tasks, accelerate flow of information, and to minimize target acquisition time. Must have the capability to operate from moving platforms and to engage and kill moving and stationary targets, with direct and indirect fire out to the extent of the brigade commander’s battle space. Targets include personnel, bunkers, armor, thin-skinned vehicles, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and indirect fire systems. Essential that low profile targets with sophisticated countermeasures can be acquired in all weather conditions, day or night, and in the most cluttered battlefield environments. Mounted aerial and ground platforms will require targeting, location, and acquisition systems, both manned and unmanned, from ground, air, and space-based systems capable of rapid detection, recognition, identification, hand-off or engagement of both ground and aerial targets at ranges in excess of the threat’s detection and weapons systems. Targeting and hand-off capability is required for ground-to-ground, air-to-air, air-to-ground, and ground-to-air systems. Systems must have the capability to hand off specific targets to either line-of-sight (LOS), or non line-of-sight (NLOS) weapons which can immediately fire at the target without independently acquiring the target. Systems should have the capability to either automatically conduct battle damage assessment (BDA) as engagement occurs or allow crew to make BDA quickly enough to avoid engaging targets that have already been killed or disabled.

MTD03: Mobility. Mounted air and ground systems must possess the mobility and agility required to survive, to control battle tempo, and to dominate the maneuver battle. The mounted force must be able to quickly detect, avoid, or breach and cross natural and man-made obstacles. This will require innovative improvements to platform suspension systems, drive systems, and design. Platforms and crews must be able to perform at maximum potential in various NBC and other hazardous environments. Increased range of operations and fuel efficiency is desired for ground and air platforms. Strategic and cross country air and ground transportability enhancements are required via the reduction of subsystems/platform weights, improved platform composition and design, increased lift capability, improved ground haul capacity, and improved reliability, availability, and maintainability.

MTD04: Advanced Propulsion. Require propulsion systems that are more efficient in power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios, and smaller, lighter, and more fuel efficient air and ground platforms. Improved drive technology, such as electric drive, is required to permit vehicle designers the opportunity to make radical, innovative alterations in platform design.

MTD05: In-Stride Natural and Man-made Obstacle Avoidance/ Breaching. Ground platforms must possess the mobility and agility to dominate the maneuver battle. The mounted force must be able to quickly detect, breach, and in-stride cross or avoid man-made and natural obstacles on the battlefield using manned and unmanned or robotic systems. Real time access to terrain and weather data must be available from ground, air, and space systems for synchronization with the maneuver plan. Terrain diagnostic tools are required which will provide a more rapid assessment of terrain line of sight relationships, trafficability, and maneuver obstacles.

MTD06: Power Generation. Substantially improved electrical generation, storage, and conditioning capabilities are required to enhance vehicle propulsion, to support weapons systems, digital tactics, techniques and procedures, and to support new capabilities such as electro-magnetic guns, directed energy weapons, and area/individual mounted platform force protection systems. Alternate power sources, such as improved batteries and auxiliary power units are required.

MTD07: Survivability. Require reduced vulnerability of air, space, and ground platforms, through the use of synergistic combination of improved threat acquisition, signature reduction, early warning, hit avoidance, active defense, and increased protection against platform penetration. Enhanced 360 degree and overhead, underneath protection of aerial and ground systems and unit elements (through area protection) is required. Capability is required to survive ballistic impact, thermal effects, overpressure effects of munitions, electro-magnetic pulse, directed energy weapons, and lasers. Early NBC warning is required for individual soldiers and mounted platform crews via remote ground, air, and space detection systems. Detection of multiple agents and characterization of new agents is required from remote and platform based systems which are designed to minimize weight, maximize system miniaturization, obtain lower detection limits, improve biological detection, and be logistically supportable. Jamming of and active intercept of beams, and projectiles is required. Active, passive, structural, or other new and lightweight innovative forms of protective technology such as composite materials and battle damage diagnostics which provide crew warnings of impending system destruction are desired. Require enhanced platform capabilities to rapidly create defilade and cover in all types of terrain and battlefield conditions. Air platforms require a lightweight obstacle avoidance system capable of warning the crew of wires and other inflight hazards encountered during contour and nap-of-the-earth flight. Spoken human-machine dialogue will be required to minimize delays in information processing, interpretation of voice communications with coalition and enemy forces, and to provide early audible threat identification and platform status.

MTD08: Low Signature/Low Observable. New materials, vehicle shaping, and treatment of visual, acoustic, infrared, and radar signatures must be developed which will reduce the probability of air and ground platforms being acquired, engaged, and hit by the threat. These capabilities must include the ability to rapidly create defilade and cover in all types of terrain and battlefield conditions.

MTD09: Smoke and Obscurants. Mounted ground forces require improved smoke materials, which include the capability to selectively block wavelengths in the IR, millimeter range, and methods of delivery to maximize their ability to screen movements, protect against enemy detection, counter intelligence, acquisition, and reduce hit probability, while minimizing interference with the ability to see and engage the enemy.

MTD10: Susceptibility to Threat Detection. Mounted forces require improved system integrated active and passive security measures. Measures are required to enhance Operational Security (OPSEC), Signals Security (SIGSEC), and Counter-Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (C-RISTA). Signature reduction technologies to reduce air and ground platform signature in the visual, thermal, acoustic, and radar bandwidths and low observable technologies, advanced conventional and multi-spectral camouflage, and defilade creation capabilities are required to enhance survivability.

MTD11: Individual Protective Equipment for Mounted Forces. Individual protective equipment must have reduced weight, be wearable for extended periods without degrading individual performance, and must be ergonomically compatible with weapons and vehicle systems. Systems must incorporate protection against ballistic/NBC/laser and other directed energy systems. Individual soldiers and crew members require an integrated protective ensemble which has the capability to be tied to platforms of both ground and air platforms.

MTD12: Prevention of Fratricide. Desire systems that significantly increase situational awareness at all levels. Information must be provided in a seamless fashion irrespective of the echelons involved. Desire systems that positively identify friendly and enemy systems at the maximum engagement range of weapons systems. Require systems that neither increase vehicle signature nor delay firing when a target is acquired. Spoken human-machine dialogue will be instrumental in the reduction of fratricide through the use of voice recognition systems.

MTD13: NBC Decontamination. Mounted platforms and crews must possess the capability to safely and rapidly provide initial decontamination of platform and crew using platform-based systems for increased mobility/ survivability. Specialized decontamination equipment must be developed which can maintain battlefield tempo and will provide rapid and total decontamination of platforms and crews under various combat/environmental conditions.

MTD14: Mounted Command and Control on the Move (C2OTM). Mounted forces require robust, long-range, seamless, ground, air, and space systems/ subsystems that will maximize the commander’s ability to synchronize operations; be constantly in communication with key subordinates; and to establish, control, and alter tempo as required to seize and maintain maneuver dominance. This must be accomplished while both the commander and the commanded force are on the move. Air and ground commanders must have the capability to maintain situational awareness, to rapidly send and receive graphics, imagery, intelligence information, weather and terrain information, and plans and orders in real-time and on demand. Communications and situational awareness must be maintained while commanders are transferring from one vehicle to another and while they are dismounted. Air and ground commanders must be able to maintain the same awareness of the situation and the same contact with subordinates when they leave their vehicles and are dismounted or riding in other vehicles. Automated decision support aids are necessary to assist the commander and his staff in synthesizing information, developing options, and making timely decisions. Battle command systems must be flexible enough to be integrated into mounted platforms and mobile command posts. New communications systems must be secure, reliable, compatible, and use automated processing. Communication and automation must be interoperable between joint and coalition forces for which spoken human-machine dialogue will be essential to obtaining accurate and error free interpretations without delay. Full consideration must be given to the weight, survivability, mobility, and future systems integration. New systems must not detract from the mobility, deployability, or warfighting capability of the current mounted systems.

MTD15: Digitization of the Mounted Force. Horizontal integration of the battlefield must be expanded through the digitization of information. Digitizing the battlefield will allow leaders to gain critical information, analyze, synchronize, integrate, and employ all warfighting systems. Mounted systems must have securable, jam-resistant, automated systems capable of rapidly sending and receiving text, graphics, and imagery in real-time and on demand from ground, air and space systems. Units require a mission planning and management system capable of pre-mission planning, data loading, and mission rehearsal. It is imperative that software and hardware be created which is flexible enough to respond rapidly to change, as well as meeting the needs of various types of users.

MTD16: Mounted Forces Situational Awareness. Mounted systems require improvements in situational awareness to enhance survivability, provide command and control, gain maneuver dominance, and to dictate battle tempo. Require capability for commanders to be provided the information from ground, air, and space systems necessary for them to visualize the entire battlefield as it exists in real time. Commanders must be able to use dependable spoken human-machine dialogue to rapidly access, update, retrieve, display, and transfer information on digitized terrain, weather, man-made obstacles/barriers, and early warning of NBC contamination hazards, to support a wide range of intelligence information in the preparation of the battlefield, to higher, lower, adjacent, joint and allied forces. Require the capability to transmit/receive multi-discipline predictive intelligence and warning data to include imagery.

MTD17: Battle Planning/ Rehearsal. Future systems must be capable of supporting both combat operations and training operations. The same systems used for training must be suitable for use in realistic battle planning and rehearsal. Advanced, spoken human-machine dialogue interactive trainers for mounted air and ground force technologies must possess the ability to conduct simultaneous interactive training for the total force. The capability to conduct advanced virtual prototyping with a networking capability is essential.

MTD18: Command Posts (CP). Commanders and staffs must operate out of highly survivable, mobile, stealthy ground, and airborne command posts, compatible with the Force XXI battlefield, that function on the move. Command posts must be automated using spoken human-machine dialogue, seamless ground, air, and space systems, and be configured to allow all required staff functions to be performed with reduced staffing. A dedicated ground CP vehicle is desired, and, short of that, a CP system is required, which can be readily moved into the vehicle of the commander’s choice, i.e., High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) or Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), and plugged-in and operational in less than 15 minutes.

MTD19: Sensors for Mounted Forces. Every vehicle on the battlefield must be sensor. Sensor capabilities must be expanded to include the use of robotic aerial/ground data collection and target acquisition systems which are durable and are effective in day/night, all weather, cluttered environment conditions. Smart and intelligent mines, ground and air deliverable, capable of autonomous operation, which function as sensors for target acquisition information, intelligence, situational awareness efforts, and for the identification and classification of NBC and other hazardous environments are required. Robust, streamlined sensor data processing equipment is required to transmit real time information to facilitate rapid decision making and shooter response. These systems must be designed to be carried internally or externally by ground, air, or space platforms and locally or remotely launched or emplaced and controlled. Sensor systems must be able to communicate seamlessly, using available communications systems. Audible sensors, linked into spoken human-machine dialogue systems will quickly interpret audible sound/voice information.

MTD20: Simulation. Require training systems which operate identically to the systems they are replicating, and which will allow soldiers to utilize training equipment without prior training or experience. Advanced technologies are sought which will enhance virtual and constructive simulations to include live simulation instrumentation. The capability to link live, virtual, and constructive simulations from the individual mounted system to a full combined arms brigade is desired. The simulations must be seamless, distributed, and interactive, provide aggregation and degradation of forces, and include advancements in methods and models for determining fidelity requirements. Must have modules that allow expeditious validation of simulations. Must be compatible with Distributed Information Systems (IDs). Conductivity between the virtual and live training, whether in the laboratory or in the field, must be established. Simulation technologies must possess the capability to conduct simultaneously interactive training from the individual system to the brigade level across battlefield operating systems. There is a need for future training simulation systems which will use spoken human-machine dialogue and will allow the user to construct his own environment as required, and without the aid of computer programmers. This will allow the user to make rapid changes in the training environment as required by changing needs.