Annex C. Interaction With TRADOC
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

1. Characteristics of Depth and Simultaneous Attack

Deep and Simultaneous Attack is the concurrent application of joint and combined combat power against an enemy throughout the depth of the theater of operations. The objective of simultaneous attack in depth is to accelerate the enemy's disorganization, disintegration, and destruction. Overwhelming firepower is applied simultaneously throughout the battlefield, holding all of the enemy's critical functions at risk. Enemy essential information nodes will be the target of precision deep strikes in order to cripple the ability to maintain the integrity of his forces. The enemy faces the dilemma of multiple threats and attacks that overwhelm his ability to cope and respond. Fighting deep allows us to control the temp of operations, providing us the opportunity to seize and retain the initiative. Through our control of the battle tempo, we create a condition where the enemy has no place to hide and no time to rest.

Deep attack operations greatly enhance a Commanders ability to accomplish the mission, while protecting the force. They still shape and develop the battlefield by setting the conditions for operational maneuver and help dictate the terms for the close fight. However, they now can extend the battlefield in time and space by giving the Commander the opportunity to expose and attack essential objectives. Deep attack operations protect the force by neutralizing the enemy's acquisition and attack assets. By striking at the enemy deep, we reduce enemy forces throughout the battlefield, creating favorable force ratios long before any direct fire engagement.

The feasibility of the deep and simultaneous attacks depends on three conditions. The first is the ability to see the entire battlefield. This includes access to national and theater reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeting assets to locate and classify targets. The second is having the advantage in relative combat power. The Commander must have a range of complementary attack systems to provide operational fires throughout the battlefield against the full array of enemy targets. The third condition is the capability to synchronize these joint and combined systems and operations. Future operations will be conducted by a force that will be joint, combined or coalition in composition within 48 hours after deployment. In order to create a single, extended battlefield, targeting information from all available sources must be linked to a common decision making process, which executes fires using all accessible delivery means. The joint nature of deep operations implies that the standards and protocols incorporated in future technology developments are a key issue. All of these capabilities must be versatile, deployable, lethal, and expandable to support the power projection paradigm of today's Army.

a. Real Time Targeting is the ability to see the enemy in real-time at long-range, and share this critical information instantly with global connectivity. Targeting is divided into three processes: detection, decision making, and dissemination. These processes do not necessarily occur sequentially; in fact they often overlap. Detection includes the capability to survey the battlefield, search for predetermined targets, and gather sufficient data to enable confirmation of a target's identify prior to attacking it. Decision making involves defining target priorities, identifying engagement areas, allocating sensors (refocus on probably targets), specifying trigger events (determine target priority and confirm ID), allocating munitions, and determining the means of attack and the method of control (centralized or decentralized). Finally, the information must be disseminated rapidly from collector to shooter with a minimum of handling in order increase responsiveness.

b. Methods to Defeat Critical Targets includes assets such as missile logistical sites, infrastructure, command and control, follow on forces, precision strike assets, chemical and biological facilities, tactical and operational centers of gravity.