Annex C. Interaction With TRADOC
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)

2. Combat Service Support Operational Capabilities Requirements

CSS01: Logistics Command, Control, Communication, and Automation (C3A). Logistics C3A is required for effective command and control of logistics operations supporting force projection. This includes application of technology to support CONUS-based management of theater logistics operations, and must accommodate the linking of communications and automation technologies to provide total integrated CSS/CS/CBT situational awareness. There is a requirement for integration of (or seamless access to) existing logistics Standard Army Management Information Systems (STAMISs) into an Integrated CSS STAMIS (ICS3). To ensure interface between the strategic, operational, and tactical areas of operation CSS units require low cost seamless, global, wireless, high data communication links. There is also a requirement for identification and development of joint interactive decision aid systems to enhance strategic, operational, and tactical logistics operations. These simulations should have the dual capability of being an effective training tool during normal unit training, and large-scale training exercises, and while also providing logistics interfaces into Louisiana Maneuvers (LAM) and into Distributed Interactive Simulations (DIS). They also need low cost seamless, high data rate, reliable communication links and the capability to interact with constructive and virtual simulations. Logistics C3A includes the use of automatic identification technology (AIT) for source data automation of supplies, maintenance, personnel (friendly, enemy prisoners of war), and equipment. Due to the large amounts of information which could overwhelm the soldier, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are required to assist soldiers in organizing and displaying key information, and to act as a primary input interface between the soldier and the logistics C3A systems. Advanced technologies are sought to provide the capabilities to model logistical operations and concepts and provide tools (such as simulation engines) that will allow verification of the impact of new technologies or concepts on logistical operations. Also, CSS units need a capability to rapidly (within minutes) retrieve (from remotely located national and multi-national sources), store, distribute (electronically or physically), and print color digitized maps on varying sizes of paper-based products. This is needed for individual and organizational use in a field environment to support operations with host nation/coalition forces and to support logistics movement in undeveloped theaters of operations.

CSS02: In-Transit/Total Asset Visibility/Distribution Management. Total distribution management requires total asset visibility with in-transit visibility as a critical component of all classes of supply, unit equipment, units, and movement platforms. Improvements are needed to track and control customer and supply location and delivery points. CSS units need the ability to seamlessly incorporate AIT (e.g., active and/or passive tagging systems, microelectronics devices, radio frequency (RF) wireless tags, bar codes, etc.) with read/write capability into the distribution system. They must also have the ability to fix location of items moving through the system on a real-time or near real-time basis.

CSS03: Containerization and Packaging. Improvements are needed in the technology used to optimize load configurations in CONUS, rapidly plan ship loading and stowage, identify and develop intermodal and multimodal platform concepts, and increase efficiency of material handling equipment (MHE) that is positioned to handle containers. There is a requirement for "smart" packaging that is recoverable, recyclable, lightweight, with little or no dunnage, and capable of being decontaminated and monitored for integrity and environmental parameters (e.g., susceptibility to temperature, moisture, etc).

CSS04: Operations Other Than War (OOTW). There is a need to incorporate technologies which will permit CSS units to operate in wartime like they operate in peacetime. This includes the use of low cost airdrop, food, clothing, housing, and medical technologies for humanitarian relief and contingency operations.

CSS05: Medical Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I). A requirement exists to provide a seamless state-of-the-art system of combat health support command and control across the operational continuum, supporting joint and combined forces and OOTW. This system must support split-base operations on a continual operational basis and must be strategically deployable. Appropriate combat health support staff representation must be available at all Army command levels. C4I must provide for and manage horizontal technology insertion into all organizational designs, including advanced medical diagnostic communications for combat casualty care.

CSS06: Preventive Medicine. The preventive medicine system must improve soldier sustainability through prevention of endemic disease or injury from environmental, occupational, and biological or chemical warfare agent hazards. The preventive medicine system must be modular in design to provide a comprehensive support package adaptable to a full continuum of operations. It must conduct disease surveillance from the forward line of own troops (FLOT) to the continental United States using state-of-the-art automation and communication systems to produce a real-time, tactically significant disease profile. Preventive medicine must be capable of providing versatile, mobile, and enhanced disease vector control support to reduce vector-borne diseases in a theater of operations. It must possess the ability to provide rapid and comprehensive environmental monitoring to assess acute and chronic health risks encountered during military operations.

CSS07: Treatment of Battlefield Wounds, Injuries, and Disease. The medical treatment functional area includes those measures necessary to recover casualties, resuscitate, stabilize, and maintain stabilization during evacuation to the appropriate level of care. It incorporates the basic principles of preventive medicine, the treatment of acute trauma to include maxillofacial injuries, and the treatment of minor injuries and illnesses to include dental emergencies and diseases, and combat stress. Rapid casualty location and acquisition combined with prompt, effective resuscitation, and early surgical management will provide focus on reducing morbidity and mortality. Improved methods of physiologic resuscitation, improved diagnostic and treatment capabilities at unit-level and area-level treatment facilities, and enhanced enroute patient care during evacuation will reduce lost duty time for minor illnesses/infectious diseases or improve survival for the severely wounded or critically ill. There is a need to evaluate the impact of ocular laser exposure and strategies to minimize the performance degradation from such injuries as well as devices designed to protect against laser effects on the eyes. Integration of medical communications for combat casualty care and automated medical records are key to seamless medical care and will aid in the reduction of mortality and morbidity.

CSS08: Far-forward Surgical Support. The requirement to project surgery forward increases as a result of the extended battlefield. Highly mobile forward surgical teams are required to perform urgent resuscitative surgery for casualties who require surgical stabilization prior to further evacuation. Forward surgical teams require improved shelter systems that allow for strategic deployability, quick set-up, and a rapid-response surgical capability under environmentally controlled conditions. Forward surgical teams require future technology insertion, including medical communications for combat casualty care and reliable communications.

CSS09: Battlefield Hospitalization. Hospital care must be provided to all classes of patients across the operational continuum, including the unique medical aspects of OOTW. Inpatient medical and surgical services and outpatient clinic and consultant services on an area support basis are required. The deployment of functional hospital increments will support the requirements for task organization, incremental deployment, and split-base operations. Wired and wireless internal and external communications and information management systems are required to support the transmission of voice data and digital images between a11 echelons of care, including fixed medical treatment facilities within the continental United States. Continued development is required to reduce the weight, cube, and logistic requirements of Tables of Organization and Equipment (TOE) hospitals.

CSS10: Patient Evacuation. The Army Medical Department (AMEDD) must be able to provide a "seamless" medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) system throughout the operational spectrum, including the evolving missions of OOTW, combat search and rescue, and shore-to-ship MEDEVAC. Ground and air evacuation platforms must have the capability to provide continuous MEDEVAC support in all environmental conditions. Ground and air evacuation platforms must be able to communicate with supported and supporting units as well as with the medical infrastructure. They must also possess the ability to maintain situational awareness on the future, digitized battlefield. Medical evacuation organizations must be modular in design. Medical evacuation units must also provide state-of-the-art medical care compatible with the medical structure on the battlefield, and additionally must provide aviation medicine support to attached units. Ground and air evacuation platforms require increased patient transport capacity and enhanced enroute monitoring and treatment capability through integration of advanced medical diagnostic communications for combat casualty care.

CSS11: Combat Health Logistics System (CHLS) and Blood Management. The CHLS must be modular in design to provide the necessary flexibility, mobility, and increased capabilities required to support a force projection Army. The system must be anticipatory and project its support in multiple locations through split-base operations. Division-level Class VIII support includes receipt, storage, processing, disposal, and distribution of medical materiel; unit-level medical maintenance; receipt of type O red blood cells; and single optical fabrication and repair. Corps and echelons above corps support includes receipt, storage, processing, contracting, disposal, and distribution of medical materiel, unit and direct support/general support level medical maintenance; blood distribution and the limited capability to collect blood; single and multi-vision optical fabrication and repair; medical gas production and distribution; and the building of medical assemblages/resupply packages. The CHLS must centrally manage critical class VIII items, patient movement equipment, blood products, medical maintenance, and Class VIII contracting. It must be capable of coordinating logistics and transportation support with non-medical logistics organizations for all medical logistics activities within an area of operations. It must be able to support reception operations for prepositioned afloat medical materiel at ports of debarkation. The CHLS must employ state-of-the-art standardized medical logistics information management and communication systems to facilitate total asset and in-transit visibility, automated transmission of optical fabrication requests, management of blood and blood products, management of medical equipment readiness, and management of captured enemy medical materiel and equipment. These systems must be compatible with and connected to all services to accomplish the single integrated medical logistics management mission of the AMEDD.

CSS12: Medical Laboratory Support. Medical laboratory capabilities must be modular in design and retain the adaptability and flexibility to support split-base operations, OOTW, and force projection. Combat health support within the division requires limited laboratory capabilities including analytical procedures and blood products in support of disease diagnosis, patient monitoring, and surgical resuscitation. At corps and echelons above corps, laboratory support must provide appropriate capabilities to prevent or minimize the effects of endemic disease (including sexually transmitted diseases), hemorrhage and injury, and the medical effects of weapons systems. The Area Medical Laboratory is an independent laboratory that provides the capability to identify and evaluate health hazards in the area of operations through the use of unique medical laboratory analyses and rapid assessments of endemic disease, environmental and occupational health threats, and biological/chemical warfare agents. The Area Medical Laboratory’s analytical, investigative, and consultative capabilities must provide responsive medical assessment and field confirmation of medical threats, infectious agents, and other hazardous substances. The medical laboratory support system must exploit state-of-the-art science and technology to provide a tailored package of analytical capabilities in a multi-disciplined array of services and professional consultation to sustain the health of the command.

CSS13: Provision of Combat Health Support in a Biological/ Chemical Environment. The combat health support system must be capable of operating in biologically and chemically contaminated environments. The biological/chemical environment markedly inhibits combat health support operations, seriously degrading the ability to triage, diagnose, and treat casualties while in protective equipment. Contamination renders medical equipment and supplies unusable. Collective protection shelters are not available to provide patient protection and treatment. Decontamination of patients by present methods is labor intensive, slow, and tedious and may aggravate injuries.

CSS14: Combat Stress Control. Combat stress control operational capabilities require far-forward prevention and intervention for combat stress over the continuum of operations. Prevention of stress induced error, disability, and misconduct during and after war and OOTW requires ongoing command consultation, company-level stress monitoring and unit debriefings, and immediate far-forward intervention and treatment for stress cases. Corps combat stress control assets and teams organic to divisions/brigades require tactical mobility, telecommunications, and advanced biofeedback capability. Effective combat stress control requires that Army stress control activities be conducted routinely with supported units in training and in garrison, including assistance to unit family support groups.

CSS15: Dental. Dental units must have the ability to provide emergency, preventive general, and specialty dental care across the entire range of military operations to include OOTW, joint, and combined operations. They will achieve the highest possible level of soldier dental fitness for America's Army. Dental units must be modular in design for task organization, strategic deployability, tactical mobility, and the ability to be deployed in functional emulative increments (FEI). Far Forward Dental Treatment requires that dental modules are 100 percent mobile, have the capability to provide emergency and preventive dental care, and ensure the immediate return of the soldier to duty with no evacuation of dental emergencies to the rear. Dental assets will amplify and augment medical care during combat and mass casualty situations. Dental Corps officers will provide command and control, technical supervision, and planning and training guidance to a11 dental units. Dental units require reliable communications and the capability for Medical Communication for Combat Casualty Care (MC4) throughout the theater of operations. They require a continuous/ seamless, digitized patient health record.

CSS16: Veterinary. The Army Veterinary Corps is the Department of Defense (DoD) executive agent for all theater-level veterinary services and support. Comprehensive veterinary medical and surgical programs are required to maintain the health of Government animals. Training of animal handlers and assessment, prevention, and control of militarily significant animal disease (zoonotic) threats are necessary for a thorough veterinary preventive medicine program. The treatment of Government animals for biological and chemical injuries requires comprehensive monitoring and diagnosis. Veterinary inspections are required in the following areas: subsistence at point of origin; DoD operational rations; commercial food, water, and ice establishments; and surveillance of biologically/chemically contaminated subsistence.

CSS17: Logistics Mobility. Mobility enhancements are required to address the strategic, operational, and tactical implications of the CONUS-based Force Projection Army. This involves prepositioning of materiel and supplies in or near critical regions, unit stationing, infrastructure to support mobilization and rapid joint deployment, and the movement of equipment and supplies through ports of debarkation. There is also a need for highly mobile resupply including actual weapon system rearm, improved airdrop capabilities (i.e., higher capacity, more accurate, greater efficiency, and improved survivability), domestic policy, and other modifications to better support highly mobile offensive operations (to include enemy prisoner of war evacuation). This includes use of lightweight materials, robotic and high mobility MHE, and enhancement of the forward area container handling system. Also requires day/night all weather capability for the tactical wheeled vehicle (TWV) fleet to allow support vehicles to keep pace with supported combat vehicles. There is also a requirement to have the availability of a Super Short Take-Off and Landing (SSTOL) cargo aircraft capability to deliver 30 tons onto an unimproved runway 350’-750’ long.

CSS18: System Sustainment. There is a need to improve CSS systems to better sustain Army, Joint, and Coalition current and Force XXI systems on the battlefield. This includes the need to provide continuous support during all movements in and outside of a well developed, mature theater and to provide immediate essential support and services to combat, combat support, and other CSS units under a variety of circumstances and conditions. All CSS systems/equipment are required to be compatible with Force XXI digitization objectives to include controls, gauges, sensors, automated logistics data reporting, etc. There is a need for all CSS maintenance systems to be highly mobile and modernized to provide anticipatory capabilities for forward repair, emergency service, and recovery support to all wheel/track systems. There is a requirement to enhance the capability of soldiers and equipment to accomplish their mission; to improve the quality of hand and power tools; and to improve maintenance enclosures/shelters. CSS diagnostics and prognostics must be modernized to support Force XXI system needs. Test, measurement, and diagnostic automatic test equipment (TMDE) capabilities for electronic and mechanical systems are required as well as enhancement of BIT/BITE capabilities and artificial intelligence technology to enhance prognostic capabilities, and to predict maintenance, fuel, and ammunition requirements and automatically feed information to the centralized CSS managers and automated systems. Improved TMDE must reduce No Evidence of Failure (NEOF), resulting in time and monetary savings for ground and aviation units, and must have connectivity with fielded or projected automation systems. Improved BDAR kits are required to execute emergency repairs in training and combat situations. BDAR kit development is required in the areas of composite structures and fiber optics.

CSS19: Power Sources and Accessories. There is a requirement for lighter, smaller, all temperature, longer lasting, more energetic, and maintenance free power sources for communications/electronics equipment, all vehicles, air and water craft, individual soldier systems, and medical equipment. Power sources include but are not limited to batteries (primary, rechargeable, reserve, thermal, solar, or any new concepts), capacitors, fly wheels, or similar purpose technologies, and stand alone power sources such as fuel cells, generators, or photovoltaics. Also needed are easy-to-use tools and test equipment to include but not be limited to a universal all chemistry, smart/interactive, small, lightweight, portable battery charger, state of charge indicators (internal or external to the battery or the system), and load/no load testers. It is also required that supported systems or equipment have power reduction circuitry and facilitate the use of power management techniques and practices to allow longer intervals between power source replacement. All power sources must, to the maximum extent possible, be environmentally friendly.

CSS20: Field Services. Requirements exist for enhanced procedures and equipment to improve water treatment (including black and gray waste water’s), storage, distribution, and water quality monitoring for chemical, biological, and radiological warfare agents in water provided to the individual soldier. Improvements of CSS capabilities are needed in the areas of airdrop, to include "just in time" air drop resupply capabilities; ration support (availability of hot, nutritious, performance enhancing meals); and the ability to rapidly, safely, and efficiently prepare meals. There is a need for small group coolers/ice-makers. There is a need for rapid erect/strike tents and shelters, lightweight reusable rigid tent floors, flexible multi-use field furniture, improved tentage heating equipment, and efficient and environmentally safe laundry and bath operations. Clothing and individual equipment, textile repair and renovation, equipment and personnel decontamination, lightweight field latrines (including self-service capabilities) incinerators/trash compactors, and human waste disposal are all in need of improvement. Improvements in quality of life for the individual soldier in austere field conditions for extended periods is needed. There is a requirement to provide responsive, flexible support to soldiers during any environmental or tactical situation. To support Force XXI, improvements are needed to enhance tactical fuel distribution equipment and rapid tactical refuel capabilities. There is also a requirement to improve petroleum quality analysis, and enhance quality of fuels and lubricants to improve performance of mechanical systems, and to develop single fuel systems.

CSS21: Logistics Survivability. There is a need to develop technologies to improve the survivability of critical materiel (munitions, fuels, and various other low density/high cost materiel) during all operations. Solutions are required to protect vital logistics nodes (ports, airheads, and storage areas) from mass destruction due to accidents or enemy attack. When applied, these technologies must provide efficient, multi-modal movement and handling survivability, storage and staging survivability (the capability to rapidly regenerate storage areas following an attack), and use of simulations and modeling to plan and train for logistics survivability. Movement and handling survivability capabilities must be developed to increase the velocity, flow control, and effectiveness of materiel distribution; prevent or minimize explosive reactions; enhance the use of CONUS pre-configured loads; improve logistics-over-the-shore (LOTS) operations; optimize shipload configurations for rapid off-loading and rapid movement of materiel away from vulnerable ports and airheads; and to provide responsive emergency resupply to forward forces. Storage and staging survivability capabilities must be developed to provide soldiers with computer software to better design survivable early entry storage areas; reduce enemy detection and identification of critical supplies; prevent mass detonation and explosive propagation of munitions stacks and fuel storage areas; and rapidly cleanup unexploded/unburned ordnance/ fuel and regenerate damaged storage areas.

CSS22: Personnel Service Support (PSS). PSS functions (Personnel, Finance, Chaplain, JAG, and Public Affairs) must be performed at the highest possible level, and must minimize the footprint by projecting functions of modular units, trained and equipped to perform split-based operations, in a Joint/ Combined War or OOTW environment. There is a need to integrate PSS and experimental Army Battlefield Systems to redesign functions, use personnel and medical source data information for casualty, readiness, replacement, information management, personnel accounting functions, and Army Battlefield command and communications systems in an integrated Force XXI Army. Requirements exist for a system that provides near real time tracking of personnel from unit level (division, battalion, company, etc.) to individuals across the battlefield presented on a digitized map. A system such as the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) might be used for a wireless personnel management information system (MIS) with a knowledge-base (Artificial Intelligence) user friendly, easily accessible to other MIS, menu and voice driven real-time information capability. The system must have the capability to immediately examine data and provide cursory analysis to the G1, Personnel Group, Battalion, and Detachment Commanders. There is a need for a casualty tracking system that can immediately identify a casualty as it occurs, inform the joint chain of command, and alert medical support personnel (i.e., small unintrusive device attached to a soldier that sends bio-signals to a central information collection point). Requirements also exist for an automated mail tracking system that provides in-transit visibility and direct delivery from sender to receiver regardless of the number of location changes of the receiver; for a portable automated office/staff management system providing desktop computer applications VTC, FAX, E-mail, Internet access, satellite link, and print capability for G1s, Personnel and Finance Group, and Detachment Commanders. There is a need for a deployable Defense Finance Battlefield System (DFBS) that can provide access to the full range of functional Finance and Accounting systems (across all services) to include military and civilian personnel pay, travel, disbursing, commercial accounts/vendor services, Host Nation/Coalition Support, Imprest Funds, and Enemy Prisoner of War Payment Information System. The system must also provide accounting with dedicated support in-theater communication networks, such as Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE), Streamlined Automated Logistics Transmission System (SALTS), International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) Defense Data Network (DDN), Tri-Service Tactical Communication System (TRI-TAC), or the independent Tactical Satellite (TACSAT). The system must interface with current and projected joint systems.

CSS23: Logistics Force Design. Force structure changes are necessary to support force projection. Force design changes may be the result of modifications to other operational capabilities or structure changes established in their own right. An example of the latter is establishing modular structured Active and Reserve component (AC/RC) CSS units to support deployments of any ultimate end strength throughout the theater maturation. Technologies are needed that can help model the force to be selected, rapidly analyze the readiness, availability, and deployability of these modular AC/RC components, and assemble them with maximum capability.

CSS24: CSS Training Support. There is a requirement to free soldiers from the need to rely solely on prior learning to perform procedural or problem solving tasks by providing easily usable performance support aides. Technology advancements are needed in the application of artificial intelligence/expert systems to performance support aides and to enable the Army training system to be flexible and responsive in meeting the varied demands of immediate contingencies. There is also a need to provide training-on-demand to geographically dispersed active and reserve units and individual soldiers for immediate use in sustainment/ enhancement training.

CSS25: Employment of Non-Military. There is a need for the employment of non-military in military operations. Civilians will have a greater role in functions that become "CONUS-bound" as well as being deployed to provide critical in-theater capabilities which may not be regionally available to sustain operations. Examples include contracted aviation maintenance and AMC's Theater Support Group. Technologies such as telemaintenance, remote tutors, direct PC broadcast systems, etc., that facilitate employment of non-military in remote areas or in split-based operations are needed.