SECTION K: LOGPAD OPERATIONS
1. GENERAL. This section establishes standard procedures and coordination requirements for divisional logpad operations. The air assault division is unique in that it routinely operates deep across the FLOT. In such an environment, the doctrinal method of corps throughput via ground lines of communication is not feasible. Therefore, aerial re-supply must be employed, using both fixed and rotary winged aircraft. For rotary winged aerial re-supply, the logpad operations concept allows for the timely distribution of supplies while simultaneously maximizing both aircraft and unit support capabilities.
2. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS.
a. The 801st Main Support Battalion operates the Division logpad where supplies are received from Corps, rigged, and slung to forward operating bases (FOB). Each forward support battalion operates a logpad in their respective brigade support area to both receive and send loads. In preparation for logpad operations, the DISCOM support operations section conducts an air mission coordination meeting within three days of any large division operation. This meeting is chaired by the DISCOM S-3 and attendees include representatives from the support operations section of each support battalion, all logpad OICs, DMMC, MCO, the assault aviation brigade S-3, the 7-101 S-3, and affected assault battalion S-3s. Issues discussed at this conference include:
(1) Concept of logpad operations/support.
(2) Task organization.
(3) Request for aviation support process.
(5) LNO identification/location.
(6) Proposed logpad locations.
(7) Aviation concerns/issues.
(8) DISCOM concerns/issues.
b. The brigade TF will OPCON (2) UH-60 and (1) CH-47 aircraft to the FSB Commander for the purpose of conducting aerial re-supply missions in support of the brigade TF. These aircraft become OPCON to the FSB effective D+1 from the TFís initial air assault operation. Priority of use for aircraft OPCON to the FSB is for sustaining task force units and clearing logpads previously used by the FSB. Mission planning and execution for the OPCON sustainment aircraft are the FSB SPOís responsibility. Aviation elements OPCON to DISCOM will provide an LNO to operate from the FSB who will be responsible for coordinating aircraft requirements. Aircraft OPCON to the FSB will not be used to sling supplies from the DSA logpad to the BSA logpad. OPCON of aircraft reverts back to the TF Commander for follow on brigade air assault missions from D-1 until D+1. This ensures maximum aircraft availability for the brigade air assault.
c. The aircraft and aircrews OPCON to the FSB stage in the aviation unitís tactical assembly area where AVUM/AVIM and life support are available. The FSB alerts both the aviation operations representative and the aviation unitís TOC for upcoming missions. Aircraft and aircrews are on a one hour recall for mission support.
3. CONCEPT OF LOGPAD OPERATIONS.
a. Brigade LOGPAD operations.
(1) Units air assault with three days of supply (DOS), and the FSB forward logistics element (FLE) air assaults with 1 day of supply. The three DOS carried by the unit and the one DOS with the FLE are adequate to sustain the task force until sustainment operations begin.
(2) At the beginning of sustainment operations, the FSB SPO receives support requirements from the bde TF S4 during the logistics meeting that occurs the day prior to the actual re-supply operation. The bde TF S4 is responsible for consolidating and prioritizing the support requirements from the subordinate battalion S4s. The battalion S4s direct their support platoon leaders to prepare supplies for slingload operations on the FSB logpad based on the guidance from the bde TF S4 and the SPO.
(3) The SPO plans re-supply missions for the entire TF based on input from the bde TF S4. The SPO makes the ultimate decision on how best to re-supply units based on the situation.
(4) After support requirements have been identified, the SPO conducts an air mission coordination meeting (AMCM) at the FSB TOC the night before the planned aerial
re-supply. Attendees include: SPO, aviation operations representatives (S3 or pilots), bde TF S4, logpad OIC, battalion S4s and support platoon leaders.
(5) The SPO presents the air mission brief in five paragraph operations order format (see paragraph h). The logpad OIC provides a PZ sketch of the logpad to the aviation operations representative. The battalion S4s and support platoon leaders also provide LZ sketches to the aviation operations representative for each LZ. The battalion S4s coordinate with their battalion S3s for LZ/LRP security. The FSB SPO provides PZ and LZ times to the aviation operations representatives. The air mission coordination meeting produces an operational matrix used to execute the re-supply mission:
(6) Support platoon leaders ensure that their re-supply loads are prepared on the FSB logpad using their respective unitís air items. When the re-supply aircraft arrive (in accordance with the operational matrix coordinated the night before), battalion S4s take control of the hooker crews and the support platoon leaders fly in the lead aircraft during the re-supply missions. This allows the support platoon leaders to coordinate last minute changes in the LRP/LZ location due to changes in the tactical situation. It also allows the support platoon leader to coordinate directly with the combat trains and provide terminal guidance for the pilots.
(7) The following diagram represents the flow of supplies during logpad operations.
b. Division LOGPAD operations. The DISCOM support operations section conducts an air mission brief for division logpad operations using the following format (standard five paragraph OPORD):
1. SITUA'I'ION - Front line trace.
b. Enemy air capability.
c. Enemy ADA capability.
(5) Max % Illumination.
(7) Max temperature.
(8) Max DA/PA
e. Friendly forces.
f. Friendly ADA status.
a. Concept of the operation.
b. Tasks to subordinate units.
(3) Assault aviation.
(5) Air cavalry.
(6) Attack aviation.
c. Coordinating instructions.
(1) Division logpad sketch. Developed by the 801 MSB and distributed to the assault aviation S-3s for dissemination to their units. FSB logpad sketches are developed by the FSB. All sketches will be kneeboard size and contain at minimum the following information:
(b) Lead touchdown coordinates.
(c) Markings (NATO T, swinging chem, flashlights with cones, etc).
(d) PZ control location.
(e) Numbered pick-up points (essential for command and control).
(f) Call sign.
(g) PZ frequency (FM, frequency HOP secure).
(h) PZ alt frequency (FM, single channel unsecure).
(i) Emergency touchdown points.
(j) Approach/departure headings.
(k) Go-around direction.
(2) A2C2 sketch. Developed by the DISCOM support operations section and logpad OICs. Sketches will be distributed to assault aviation S-3s for dissemination to their units. Sketches will be kneeboard size and contain a general concept of the flow of air traffic in and out of the DSA and BSAs. These concepts must tie in with the Division A2C2 plan developed by G3 Air.
(3) Special instructions.
4. SERVICE SUPPORT. FARP sketch.
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.
b. Call signs.
d. IFF mode IV.
e. Time zone.
f. Time hack.
4. LOGPAD PREPARATION.
a. When possible, a rehearsal will be conducted of logpad operations. This will consist of an actual hook up, load transport, and AAR. A fuel spill rehearsal will also be conducted; this will consist of a physical inventory of spill kits, a class on spill procedures, and actual rehearsal of these procedures.
b. The assault aviation bde provides aircraft and crews to conduct hooker training on the logpad for personnel who comprise hook-up teams. The LOGPAD OICs are overall responsible for supervising this training.
c. The Division logpad operates in the DSA and will ideally accommodate (4) CH-47's simultaneously (type 6 landing points). As always, safety is paramount; training, rehearsals, communications, coordination, and NCO supervision must mitigate the inherent danger in logpad operations. The following items should be considered when establishing a logpad.
(1) Location- road networks to and from.
(3) Size - enough usable space?
(4) Spill plan (POL), berm for BLIVET filling, spill kits.
(5) Can multiple loads be staged on each points.
(6) Aviation hazards in immediate vicinity (i.e. wires, poles/antennas, dust, etc..).
(7) Approach and departure headings (i.e. do not over-fly tents or TOC's).
(8) Traffic-ability of terrain in poor weather.
d. The tempo of re-supply operations can dramatically impact on combat operations. It is essential that aircraft utilization be optimized. The goal is to maximize the number of turns during each shift. This can only be accomplished through coordination and training.
SECTION L: AVIATION FUEL OPERATIONS.
1. The combat service support structure available to support high tempo air assault operations is austere. To meet the Divisionís requirements for fuel distribution and storage, the Division must synchronize the combined efforts of the Division Support Command (DISCOM), the aviation brigades, and the 101st Corps Support Group. Figure 5-10 illustrates fuel requirements for various air assault mission profiles to include: sustainment, assault, and deep attack.
2. The Division supports the air assault with a combination of means aimed at maximizing resources at the critical places and times. Aircraft fuel distribution is accomplished through two means: Rapid refuel points (RRPs) and forward arming and refuel points (FARPs).
3. RRPs are established to rapidly refuel large numbers of aircraft during surge periods, such as air assaults. They are generally long duration fueling operations that are time-consuming to establish and difficult to move, especially when they are established with 10,000, 20,000, or 50,000 gallon fuel bags. Five thousand gallon tankers and HEMTTs may also be used to store fuel at an RRP, increasing its mobility. The bulk fuel storage and distribution capability an RRP can provide through its multiple points allows the air assault task force (AATF) to refuel a complete light and/or heavy serial simultaneously, minimizing ground time and enhancing the rapid buildup of combat power. They normally do not have a rearming capability, but may when augmented by attack battalion armament personnel and equipment. To maintain separation between heavy and light aircraft, it may be useful to separate the RRP into a "heavy" section and a "light" section. Although the total number of points at an RRP is METT-T dependent, an RRP of 6 light points and 4 heavy points will provide adequate support for a brigade AATF. An RRP can be established by an aviation brigade, DISCOM, or the corps support group. When it is operated by more than one unit, it is known as a consolidated rapid refuel point (CRRP). Figure 5-11 is an example heavy RRP/CRRP.
4. A FARP is an aircraft refuel site which is located in a tactical position forward of the Division tactical assembly area (TAA) which conducts both refueling and rearming operations. FARPs are normally established by aviation battalions, which are manned and equipped to refuel and rearm aircraft under combat conditions using various types and setups. HEMTT FARPs are most effective behind the forward line of troops (FLOT) or where a secure ground LOC exists. Forward of the FLOT, jump FARPs (JFARPs), consisting of slingloaded 500 gallon fuel drums, pumps, and hoses, and pre-configured ammunition loads, provide refuel/rearm capability for attack and cavalry aircraft. Heavy assault FARPs consist of a CH-47 or UH-60 with an external pump to pump fuel from the aircraftís external fuel tanks. UH-60 heavy assault FARPís are easy to establish but have limited capacity, suiting them primarily to supporting the cavalry squadron.
Figure 5-12, 6 Point AH-64/OH-58D FARP
5. FARPs are sometimes established in a FARP zone. This is an area of terrain forward of the TAA and usually short of the FLOT which is set aside to support several FARP and/or RRP locations required to support deep air assaults or conditions setting. The size of the FARP zone is dependent on METT-TC analysis, but it may cover several hundred square kilometers. It is divided into several sectors, each of which is several kilometers square and suitable for supporting one or more FARP points. In open, relatively sparce areas (such as the desert), a FARP zone 60-70 km long by 20-40 km wide is feasible, with each sector roughly 5 x 5 km square. Adequate suitable points will generally be available in such areas. Other areas, such as mountainous, jungle, or close-compartmented terrain may require sectors be widely separated to find enough suitable rearm/refuel locations. Figure 5-13 is an example FARP zone.
6. One or more sectors will be declared active at any one time, based on mission requirements, threat analysis, and terrain. That information will be provided to the aviation battalions, air traffic control, and the FARP personnel. The aviation brigadeís HEMTT tankers will establish FARP points within the active sectors to provide rearm/refuel capability on a mission basis. To enhance force protection the FARPs displace to other points within the active sector as required to support the mission. Again, the amount of time a FARP may operate in one spot is METT-T dependent, but FARP points are normally active for no more than four hours. By varying the active sectors and the locations of FARPs within those sectors, the Division reduces the signature of aircraft refuel/rearm operations, offering increased protection from air, ground, and artillery attacks. By activating a limited number of sectors at any one time, helicopter crews know where to go to find their FARP.
7. Establishment and protection of a FARP zone is a combined arms operation, with combat and combat support required to prepare and protect FARP zone emplacement, operations, and sustainment. Engineer support in particular is required to prepare refuel/rearm points within each sector. Force protection will likely require air defense and infantry for air and ground security, and the mission may require chemical company support for decontamination and smoke support for deception operations.
8. Employment in the brigade air assault
a. While operating behind the FLOT in the TAA, fuel will be throughput to the Division by corps support groups (CSGs) and other echelon-above-division assets. The main support battalion (MSB) assists with resupply on an emergency basis. This will allow the Division to stage its equipment for air assault operations deep in the enemyís rear. Divisional fuel handlers will operate with the CSG until required to move forward. Resupply of consolidated rapid refuel points (CRRP) behind the FLOT will normally be by ground via corps throughput (either Army or host nation support). Figure 5-14 is an example fuel distribution system for setting the conditions.
b. As the Division assaults forward, the aviation brigades will plan, equip, man, and control the locations and operations of FARPs/RRPs outside the TAA, FLB, or FOB. The Division Support Command (DISCOM) and CSG will plan, coordinate, and execute with the aviation brigades the resupply of these FARPs/RRPs. These FARPs, along with the CRRP in the TAA, will be used to support condition setting and the initial air assault. They will normally be a mixture of HEMTT FARPs to the rear of the FLOT, Jump FARPs across the FLOT, and heavy assault FARPs as required by the tactical situation. Emplacement of all types of FARPs must be considered a combat operation. Close liaison between the supported task force, aviation brigades, DISCOM, and CSG must occur to ensure the FARP capabilities accomplish the mission, are redundant, survivable, and supportable.
c. Immediately after the initial air assault, a forward logistics base (FLB) will normally be established in the objective area. The nucleus of fuel operations in the FLB will be the forward support battalionís class III section. Using itís organic assets the FSB can set up a total of two ground and two air refueling points for a maximum of 12 hours of operation. Therefore, a CRRP will normally be established in the FLB using personnel and equipment from the FSB and Aviation Brigade. The CRRP in the FLB will be commanded and controlled by the FSB. In the initial FLB, for security purposes, space for the CRRP will be limited and may only contain four to eight points. Figure 5-15 is an example fuel distribution system for seizing an objective.
d. As the FLB expands, more points may be added or (due to air traffic considerations) other FARPís or RRPís may be set up near the FLB. Also, the fuel system supply point (FSSP) may be slung forward to be operated by the FSB as a bulk fuel storage site to expand fuel capacity. The aviation brigades will provide personnel and equipment to operate the aircraft fuel points. As the FLB expands, it will become the brigade support area (BSA)for a task force. If it is determined that the FLB/BSA will be a staging area for future division operations the FLB/BSA will be designated as a forward operating base (FOB). This means that it will normally expand and receive other division assets to support future operations. Command and control of the FOB will normally transfer to DREAR or DISCOM commander, in accordance with METT-TC. Figure 5-16 is an example fuel distribution system for expanding the lodgment and future operations.
e. As the FOB expands, and the FSB goes into PZ posture for future air assaults, fuel handlers from other FSBs, the main support battalion, an aviation brigade, or CSG will echelon forward. These units will fall in on the equipment left by the FSB. The FSB takes equipment brought by these new units and either assists in expanding the operation or preparing for future operations at a new FLB/BSA/FOB. This allocation and hand-over of equipment will be controlled by the DISCOM Commander. This requires support unit awareness of the operational plan in order to ensure that the required equipment is at the right place at the right time as units echelon forward, and that redundant capabilities exist.
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