Commission Release Phase III Addendum
Structure and Processes
The United States Commission
on National Security/21st Century, also know as the Hart-Rudman Commission,
was chartered to review in a comprehensive way U.S. national security requirements
for the next century. It began in Phase I by describing the future security
environment this nation should anticipate, and in Phase II it delineated
a strategy to address that future—to cope with the challenges and seize
the opportunities that will constantly confront this great nation. Phase
III was focused on changes to the national security apparatus, its structures
and process, with an aim toward redesigning it as necessary to succeed
in the security environment that lies ahead.
The Commission anticipated
that it could not make credible recommendations to improve the national
security apparatus without first understanding how that apparatus functioned.
This document, Road Map for National Security: Addendum on Structure
and Process Analyses, provides a thorough description of this country's
national security organizations and processes as they existed in mid-2000.
Before institutional redesigns
could occur, or before road maps could be constructed to get the national
security apparatus headed in the appropriate direction, the Commission
needed to understand how the government was structured and how it went
about the business of national security. The seven volumes contained in
the Addendum analyze key organizations and processes throughout the Federal
government, to include the interagency and inter-branch levels. This Addendum
provided a "baseline" of the national security apparatus, and was completed
in draft form by the summer of 2000 as the Commission's main Phase III
effort began in earnest. It thus laid much of the groundwork for Phase
III. The first volume was updated and reedited in February and March 2001.
The other volumes remain as originally written.To our knowledge no product
has been previously produced that describes the national security structures
and processes of the U.S. government in such detail. It should be useful
to researchers and professionals seeking a detailed analysis of the national
Addendum on Structures
and Processes Analysis
I "Key Observations and
II "Executive Office of the President"
IV "Department Of Defense"
V "Department of State"
VI "Intelligence Community"
VII " Executive Branch Activities"
DEFENSE REFORM ADDENDUM
The National Security Study
Group (NSSG) prepared this Addendum at the original direction of the Commission.
Because the Department of Defense (DOD) plays a crucial role in national
security, the Commission and Study Group considered it important to expand
on a number of defense reform recommendations in the Phase III report,
Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. Of concern were those
DOD structural, process, and military capability reforms in Section III,
D, of the main report. The Commission believed that additional explanation
and analysis would prove useful to those charged with reforming the Department.
However, we deliberately excluded other defense reform topics and recommendations.
The Phase III report contains sufficient details about DOD support to Homeland
Security (Section I) and on military personnel reforms (Section IV). In
addition, the Commission has developed detailed implementation plans for
those sections of the report (See below).
Moreover, this Addendum informs
a different audience, and contains a greater level of detail than the main
report. Many senior executives would probably not concern themselves with
such a "nuts and bolts" discussion, but the complexity of defense reform
demands further elaboration. Thus, this Addendum should also assist interested
parties in further understanding the Commission's recommendations.
Stemming from the last distinction—the
intended audience—this Addendum offers more in-depth guidance to accountable
authorities. The level of detail varies by topic. Part of the Commission's
chartered Phase III responsibility is to provide "an institutional roadmap"
for implementation, "when appropriate." In that spirit, the NSSG created
The NSSG staff prepared this
document at the direction of the Commission. Education, particularly science
and mathematics education, is crucial to national security and to our nation's
future. The Commission and Study Group considered it important to provide
a cost estimate of the education reform recommendations in the Phase III
report, Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change.
A clear view of the current
and near future state of the nation's educational system is critical. Although
a significant amount of information is available on the public and private
school systems, the material is dispersed throughout many sources. Worse,
it is not always suitable for the "operational" analyses required to target
and solve the many problems faced by the nation's educational system. For
this reason many indirect estimates and assumptions were necessary in the
preparation of this Addendum. This report makes a strong effort to be very
explicit and transparent in all its assumptions. The estimates are intended
to be approximate.
Statistics indicate that
significant hurdles will have to be overcome to address future education
requirements. Key among these is the tremendous increase in teacher retirements
that are projected by 2010. The second major problem faced by the education
system is the insufficient number of students opting to enter science and
technology fields, particularly in the pursuit of graduate education. A
shortage of personnel with technical skills already exists today in government,
in the military, and in industries critical to national security. In the
absence of public policy remedies, this shortage is likely to grow worse.
The preparation of this report
revealed several worrisome problems and deficiencies concerning U.S. Department
of Education statistics.
Through the Teacher Pipeline
The Charter of the United
States Commission on National Security/21st Century (USCNS/21) also calls
for the submission of an implementation "roadmap" to complete improvements
in the National Security apparatus. Accordingly, a companion document,
Map for National Security: Addendum on Implementation, provides
those plans with respect to implementing the Commission's recommendations
on Homeland Security, the National Security Council, the Department of
State, and Personnel Reform.
These plans demonstrate actions
the Executive Branch and the Congress can take to implement the Commission's
recommendations. They identify where responsibilities lie, suggest timelines
and sequencing for implementation, and discuss the coordination and consultation
that must occur between the Executive and Legislative Branches to bring
the Commission's recommendation into being. In addition, the plans address
the impact of the recommendations on affected agencies' personnel levels,
where applicable, and identify issues that, unless addressed, are likely
to impede implementation.
The implementation plans
within the companion Addendum identify whether legislation, Executive Orders,
or internal departmental actions are required to bring USCNS/21 recommendations
into being. Where legislation or Executive Orders are required, the plans
identify their key elements and provide draft language.
The Commission calls for
bold and significant change in many areas, and it realizes that implementing
change is difficult and can take time. It is impossible to specify in full
detail in advance exactly how to bring about positive change in large organizations
that deal with complex issues. Nevertheless, a start must be made, and
this Addendum is instrumental to that purpose.
Map For National Security: Addendum on Implementation