Table of Contents
National Performance Review
Reinventing the Department of Defense
DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
- Air Force FASTravel. This is a paperless and
fully automated travel authorization and voucher processing system
that uses government-developed and commercial off-the-shelf software
which allows travelers to request and prepare authorizations and
vouchers from a desktop computer. Each part of the travel process
document creation, transfer, approval, computation, accounting,
disbursement, and retention is accomplished electronically. FASTravel
automatically performs many of the functions previously accomplished
manually. It eliminates many steps and significantly accelerates
the travel authorization and voucher payment process. The software
system works in conjunction with other policy and procedural changes,
combining maximum use of the government charge card and electronic
funds transfer payments. A prototype is in use at Headquarters
Air Force and is partially implemented at Langley Air Force Base.
About 5400 users are on-line at the Headquarters and over 1700
are presently using FASTravel at Langley Air Force Base, growing
to 9500 by the summer of 1996 with the expansion of FASTravel's
use at Langley to Headquarters Air Combat Command and the 1st
Fighter Wing. The Defense Mapping Agency and the Joint Chiefs
of Staff will also implement FASTravel. The Headquarters' Travel
Pay Office at Bolling Air Force Base processes nearly 100 vouchers
per day using FASTravel while about 35 per day are currently processed
at Langley. Payments are in the travelers bank accounts within
two to three days of voucher preparation. Bolling Air Force Base
and Langley Air Force Base are test sites for a broader initiative
to reengineer the travel payment process subsequently developed
by the Department of Defense (DoD). FASTravel is continuing to
refine the process and the software to improve its user friendliness
and applying lessons learned in improving connectivity.
- Headquarters Air Mobility Command/Surgeon General.
The Air Force Air Mobility Command Surgeon General community
is maximizing the use of automation, telecommunications, personnel,
and administrative support for health care delivery. They are
accelerating deployment of currently available commercial technology
into DoD Health Care Services Region 5 (covering 7 mid-west states).
The area contains 5 military hospitals (2 Air Force at Wright-Patterson
and Scott Air Force Base Medical Centers, 2 Army hospitals at
Ft. Knox and Ft. Campbell, and 1 Naval Hospital at Great Lakes
Naval Training Base). Technology is used to increase the proportion
of health care delivered on an outpatient or ambulatory basis.
The Provider Workstation prototype at Scott Medical Center integrates
current computer technologies into an innovative, imaged-based
tool which improves health care delivery. Storage of both structured
patient encounter information and a paper medical record image
creates a unique living laboratory for developing the computer-based
patient record. The long term goal involves exploration of telecommunications
technologies to reach out into patient homes in terms of patient
education, medical triage, medical monitoring and mentoring, and
even remote patient visits. A Tri-Service Medical Defense Performance
Review Project Office is now being established at an Air Force
Material Command unit hosted at Scott Air Force Base. Using a
rapid evolutionary development approach, interim products will
be made available as the core product line is developed. The
first of several such products, the Clinical Integrated Workstation-Ambulatory
containing the basic functionality of the Provider Workstation
is now nearing deployment to two additional hospitals. A telecommunications
architecture/engineering study including Air Mobility Command
and DOD Health Care Region 5 medical treatment facilities has
been completed. Resulting design specifications for necessary
communications infrastructure have been adopted as the basis for
an Air Force-wide infrastructure modernization program and are
now being implemented. Phase II of video teleconferencing proof-of-concept
test to support health care management has been completed. The
Air Force Surgeon General has connectivity to all executive level
medical officers. Initial Phase III connectivity has been established
extending this capability to Air Force TRICARE Lead Agents.
Phase IV sets up a teleconsulting proof-of-concept between 3
facilities now in process. The Clinical Integrated Workstation-Ambulatory
prototype is used by over 90 providers at Scott Air Force Base
Medical Center in 40 clinics. Over 50,000 patient encounters
have been documented since training began in November 1994. Now
over 50% of daily appointments are eligible for documentation.
Imminent software changes will enable the final stages of hospital-wide
deployment. Displaying of medication and procedure costs to the
provider at the time of request have been reported in the literature
to influence favorably the costs of health care. Such capability
is now nearing implementation in the Clinical Integrated Workstation-Ambulatory.
Reports based on diagnostic, procedural, and outcome data collected
by Clinical Integrated Workstation-Ambulatory for each encounter
are now being developed to enable changing medical practice patterns
leading to increased ambulatory health care delivery ratios.
Pending favorable outcome of a current operational assessment,
Clinical Integrated Workstation-Ambulatory is now poised for deployment
at two additional medical treatment facilities, one 250 having
seats and the other 100, as a platform for further exploration
of the computer based patient record.
- Combat Weather Facility. A Chief of Staff of
the Air Force approved joint Air Weather Service/Air Education
and Training Command unit, the Combat Weather Facility is the
Air Force center of excellence for all battlefield weather issues.
The Combat Weather Facility's mission is to develop and implement
new doctrine, tactics, techniques, and technologies the across
Air Force Weather Service to enhance the effectiveness of Air
Force, Army, Special Operations Forces, joint, and multinational
combat operations. To accomplish this challenging mission, the
Combat Weather Facility (1) evaluates new and emerging battlespace
weather technologies, techniques, and concepts and transitions
the most promising to Air Force Weather forces, (2) develops and
conducts realistic combat weather exercises to prepare Air Force
"weather warriors" for battlespace operations, (3) identifies
class combat weather problems and implements workable solutions
by standardizing doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures,
and (4) improves the wartime readiness of multi-service weather
and other DoD personnel through comprehensive training on numerous
warfighting skills. This facility:
- Developed and received approval for the Combat Weather Facility
core concept of
- Conducted the first COMBAT THUNDER weather exercise, the first-ever
Skills class for Air Force Weather personnel, two COMBAT LIGHTNING
courses, and numerous on-and off-site supplemental battlefield
weather equipment and
communications training courses.
- Developed and distributed lesson plans for battlefield weather
- Interfaced with experts from the Air Force Major Commands (MAJCOMs),
Research Laboratory, Special Operations Forces, Air National Guard,
Naval Meteorological and Oceanographic Command, academia, and
- Began identifying and solving class combat weather problems
by calling for Army and Air Force Major Command after action
reports and observing major DoD exercises.
- Hosted and participated in the Small Tactical Terminal's Initial
Operational Test and
Evaluation and conducted Small Tactical Terminal transportability
- Began developing and refining the "Own the Weather"
concept in conjunction with the
Army Research Laboratory.
- Hosted a forum on Special Operations Forces training deficiencies.
- Began development of the first Air Force Weather field grade
management exercise. The Combat Weather Facility is the result
of a successful partnership between Air Weather Service and Air
Education & Training Command for equipping Air Force Weather
warriors with battlefield skills and effective state-of-the-art
deployable weather equipment and specialized weather observing
and forecasting techniques.
The Combat Weather Facility's most dramatic success story to date
is the early cultivation of future "weather warriors"
through the Combat Field Skills class. Combat Field Skills instruction
is directed at the newest members of the Air Force Weather community.
The class covers shortfalls in "basic soldiering" identified
by MAJCOM representatives at a special Utilization and Training
Workshop completed in FY 1995. The Combat Field Skills course
will increase the combat readiness of Air Force Weather and provide
a more mission-ready graduate. The instruction focuses on learning
about deployable weather equipment and improving survivability
in a hostile environment.
- Secretary of the Air Force/International Affairs.
This organization identified several processes as candidates
for reengineering using the principles outlined in the National
Performance Review. These areas or objectives are: streamlining
Foreign Military Case development, creation of World-Wide Warehouse,
and improving international education and training. The work
of the Air Force International Affairs reinvention laboratory
task force is in conjunction with strategic planning efforts aimed
at identifying core processes and critical issues. Development
of performance metrics based on Total Quality Management principles,
as expressed in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, are
on-going. The Reinvention Laboratory Steering Committee has
established four process action teams to streamline and restructure
Security Assistance processes and enhance international training.
Process action team membership cuts across the Air Force. Process
action team training and formation sessions took place at Wright
Patterson Air Force Base, 23-31 Jan 96. A brief synopsis of each
process action teams work to date follows:
- The process action team for Coalition Building, "the Chief's
process action team," has
begun a thorough review of Security Assistance procedures as they
relate to the expeditious transfer of defense material and services
to coalition partners. In particular, the process action team
has focused on "road blocks" associated with transfers
of US excess defense articles. The process action team has identified
and prioritized obstacles in the transfer process and will meet
again to propose solutions and strategies.
- The process action team on Organizational Relationships has
begun a comprehensive
review of Security Assistance relationships throughout the Air
Force and identified several areas, from parochial interests to
process redundancies, which prevent efficient utilization of manpower
and resources. The team met again to complete a Security Assistance
inter-agency manpower assessment and begin identifying fixes for
better manpower utilization.
- The process action team on Security Assistance Case Management
has begun to baseline
the case management process and identify barriers which result
in delays in meeting customer requirements and prevent efficient
process flow from case inception to case closure. The team met
again to brainstorm solutions.
- The process action team on Financial Procedures has begun the
process of identifying
inefficiencies in Foreign Military Case accounting and financial
procedures which need to be streamlined. These include procedures
for recoupment of non-recurring costs, manpower accounting, resource
funding, direct fund cite procedures, as well as pricing procedures
for providing other data to customers.
- The process action team on International Education and Training,
which began work last
year, is now assessing information cross-flow among education
and training providers and identifying changes which will result
in a more efficient use of training resources. In addition, the
team has already compiled and released a user friendly Air Force
Catalogue of Education & Training Courses for Security Assistance
Officers' use in the field. At present, the team is staffing
an initiative to expand the Inter-American Air Forces Academy
to other International Military Education and Training eligible
countries, and is studying problems associated with expanded F-16
international flight training.
- The Worldwide Warehouse Redistribution Services concept proposes
redistribution service to relocate non-Significant Military Equipment
Foreign Military Case customer spare parts and support equipment
(hereafter referred to as assets or material) to improve fill
times of Foreign Military Case requisitions, reduce material and
support costs, and provide revenue to material sellers which may
be reinvested in the US Government's Foreign Military Case program.
The collection of service fees for redistributions will enable
Worldwide Warehouse Redistribution Services to become a self-funded
project. Air Force Materiel Command Commander has approved the
concept and it is currently undergoing legal reviews within Air
Force General Council and Defense Security Assistance Agency.
- Air Force Materiel Command Air Logistics Centers.
As Air Force Materiel Command begins to reengineer the acquisition
and logistics structure and processes of the Air Force, it is
imperative that Air Force Materiel Command create laboratories
which demonstrate and validate the new ideas. Air Logistics Center's
reinvention and reengineering efforts are focused on inventory
management and maintenance processes. Each Center will serve
as a lead center for reengineering a specific process. The reengineered
inventory or maintenance management process will be developed
in conjunction with other centers, then exported to them. For
each of these processes, Air Force Materiel Command has developed
a vision and a change goal. In order to take full advantage of
reengineering and innovations in depot core processes, changes
in policies and procedures will be required. Designation as a
laboratory is key to this endeavor. These reengineering efforts
are focused on two areas: Material Management and Depot Maintenance
Management. Six teams consisting of representatives from all
five Air Logistics Centers, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command,
and the MAJCOMs have been chartered to reengineer the major business
processes that form the two focus areas. These major business
process teams are Requirements Determination, Stock Control &
Distribution, Workload Management, Production, Depot Maintenance
Business Area Operations, and Supply Support to Production. Each
of the teams was chartered to reduce process flow times by 50%,
reduce the cost of doing business by 30% by FY 1997, improve quality
and schedule performance by 10%, and improve linkage/responsiveness
to customer requirements. All six teams are utilizing the tenets
of Lean Logistics as the central vision of the reengineering activities.
Lean Logistics is the application of Just-In-Time manufacturing
practices in a depot maintenance environment. The primary tenets
of Lean Logistics are to repair parts better, cheaper and faster.
This translates into better, more responsive support to customers,
producing only what customers need when they need it, reductions
in pipeline inventories, and a more adaptive and responsive workforce.
In order to accomplish this major change in philosophy, the reengineering
teams are looking at ways to reduce red tape, change policies/regulations,
drive decision making to the right levels, multi-skill the workforce,
increase the use of new technology, and improve data systems.
The teams have all completed development of "as is"
and "to be" processes and supporting tools and are prototype
testing these processes and tools individually. Air Force Materiel
Command will begin an integrated test of these processes and tools
at one of the Air Logistics Centers beginning in June 1996. An
office was established at Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command
as the program manager for the reengineering initiatives. This
office was set up to develop a program management plan and performance
measures, identify and source funding, and to identify all resources
required to implement changes throughout Air Force Materiel Command.
Since these efforts were not included in previous budget submissions,
identification of funds and resources has been extremely difficult.
During the development of the "to be" processes, each
team identified restrictive policies and regulations that will
be reviewed under Reinvention Lab Waiver Processes. Air Force
Materiel Command has developed a draft policy directive that explains
how to process a waiver request. This directive is currently
in coordination and is being used in draft form to process waivers.
The Air Logistics Centers are currently developing team specific
waivers that are to be sent to Headquarters Air Force Materiel
Command for processing. There are currently 15-20 waiver requests
in process at the Air Logistics Centers.
- Air Force Inspection Agency. The National Performance
Review recognized the cultural role and influences oversight activities
have in improving processes and making positive system changes.
The NPR specifically established action items for changing the
Inspectors General (IG) focus, all of which require cultural transformation
versus statutory change. Actions include: (1) change the emphasis
of IGs from compliance auditing to evaluating management control
systems; (2) change the IG's method of operation to be collaborative
and less adversarial; and (3) establish performance criteria for
IGs. Air Force Inspection Agency's quest or vision is "The
world-class consultant in demand by Air Force leaders--dedicated
to improving the United States Air Force." The statutory
requirements of the IG generally provide the right direction,
but Air Force Inspection Agency's role goes beyond simply meeting
these requirements. Proactively anticipating where the Air Force
process train wrecks will appear and objectively alerting Air
Force leaders to impending events is the direction. Since 1993,
Air Force Inspection Agency has spent considerable time and effort
to change assessment processes to meet NPR directions and Quality
Air Force principles. Air Force Inspection Agency's four main
assessment/inspection products: functional management reviews,
acquisition management reviews, health services inspections, and
Quality Air Force Assessments have been reinvented based on direct
customer input. The perceived confrontational black hat image
has been changed to the value-added collaborative gray hat role.
Air Force Inspection Agency's reinvention laboratory's primary
focus is on exporting these reinvented processes in a variety
of forums and formats. The Quality Air Force Assessment process
has been exported to numerous DoD agencies and several of the
60-plus federal IGs. The goal is continued acceleration of changing
Air Force and federal IG focus by producing value-added, how-to-process
guides and videos, creating training opportunities, and hosting
workshops on reinventing the IG. Air Force Inspection Agency
recently completed its third annual self assessment using the
Quality Air Force Criteria (essentially the same as the Malcolm
Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria and the Presidents Quality
Award Criteria). This assessment was externally validated by
two sources. First, by applying for the New Mexico Quality Award
which resulted in a written feedback report and recognition for
a second consecutive year at the highest level awarded (only public
sector unit to be honored). Modeling the Quality Air Force Criteria
in Air Force Inspection Agency's daily operation has ensured approaches
in place; e.g., strategic planning, action plans, comprehensive
human resources plans, recognition systems, employee suggestion
systems, data systems, community involvement, and marketing (customer
relationship management). Second, to avoid the misconception
that IGs are being exempted from oversight of their own processes,
a partnership with the Air Mobility Command's IGs was developed
to assess each other. In December 1995, Air Force Inspection
Agency assessed Air Mobility Command/IG's processes and in February
1996 the reverse occurred. This allowed both organizations to
have an independent and objective look and to learn from each
other. Air Force Inspection Agency's unit self assessment has
been exported to all 35 Air Force Field Operating Agencies as
a sample Unit Self Assessment. In addition, Air Force Inspection
Agency personnel helped create an Air Force case study based on
1995 Quality Air Force criteria and a "how-to" guide
for applying the criteria to Air Force organizations (released
in January 1996). In January 1996, Air Force Inspection Agency
released its second listing of Best Practices from Quality Air
Force Assessments (a 13-page document) based on Quality Air Force
criteria strengths observed at visited units. Multiple related
articles have been published in the TIG Brief magazine (a bi-monthly
publication with a 30,000 copy distribution) and the entire June/May
1996 issue is devoted to export the story of each Air Force reinvention
laboratory. Air Force Inspection Agency's home page on the world
wide web is operating on a trial basis and will be available to
all. The home page will provide one of the primary platforms
for exporting information. Another primary method of exporting
processes is through teaching formal inspection/assessment courses.
Assessment process guides have been created for Air Force Inspection
Agency's four main assessments/inspections. The Air Force Inspection
School continues to contribute to making the cultural transformation
by teaching new inspectors (Air Force wide) on collaborative inspection/assessment
processes. Additionally, class schedules for the Unit Self Assessment
and Assessor courses have been set for all of 1996 and visitors
are added to each class to learn Air Force Inspection Agency's
Quality Air Force Assessment processes. Further exportation of
specific assessment processes and techniques within the Air Force
and the federal IG community is the thrust of the reinvention
- Air Force 45th Space Wing. The 45th Space Wing,
under Air Force Space Command, provides booster spacecraft processing,
launch and range support to a variety of world-wide customers.
The wing's vision, "to be the world's premier gateway to
space," can only be achieved through a fundamental rethinking
and radical approach to "Spacelift" operations. The
wing's reinvention effort focuses on streamlining spacelift processes
to ensure on-time, low cost, operational delivery of payloads
and range support for warfighters and commercial customers. Since
the laboratory's approval on 20 December 1995, the wing reinvention
office has brought together a reinvention focus team to work a
number of key wing processes. The team is targeting launch base
supply, wing operations structure, launch safety and wing financial
management processes for reinvention. Their charter is to identify
and eliminate "non-value added" regulations, policies
and procedures for wing customers. Additionally, the reinvention
office is actively working with its commercial partners to identify
other potential reinvention areas.
- U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM).
The mission of the Commander in Chief of USTRANSCOM is to provide
air, land, and sea transportation for the DoD, both in time of
peace and time of war. Consequently, USTRANSCOM is using its
designation as a reinvention laboratory as a tool for reaching
its goal of a fully integrated, joint, intermodal transportation
system providing seamless transition between peacetime and wartime
operations. The program which is molding this new vision is called
Defense Transportation System 2015. Air Force Air Mobility Command
is one of three components of USTRANSCOM combining their efforts
to reengineer the defense transportation system, all the while
empowering individual Air Mobility Command service members to
submit waiver requests. In 1994, USTRANSCOM published a report,
"Reengineering the Defense Transportation System," which
outlined an ambitious framework for uniting all DOD traffic management
functions into a single system. Current management processes
have evolved independently for each mode of transportation, which
has led to the development of a focus more on "local"
suboptimized operations. The Commander-in-Chief Transportation,
who is designated the DoD Single Manager for Transportation (during
times of peace and times of war), can more effectively meet our
nation's global mobility requirements as we enter the next century
if all processes are part of a seamless whole built around the
common mission of transportation. In March 1994, USCINCTRANS
established the USTRANSCOM Strategic Planning Group to devise
an action plan. The Strategic Planning Group was chartered for
six months with the specified task of developing the transition
architecture and plan required for USTRANSCOM to progress from
the current system to the Defense Transportation System 2010 (eventually
changed to 2015 vision). The Strategic Planning Group identified
seven "core" end state objectives, that, when implemented,
would achieve the vision. These end state objectives have been
expanded to a more comprehensive list of 21 goals. These cover
three general areas: people, equipment, and infrastructure.
Air Mobility Command is implementing these USTRATCOM goals/objectives
through its Air Mobility Master Plan, which provides a plan for
the long-term, effective management of active, Air Reserve Component,
and civilian air mobility elements. This plan, together with
the Air Mobility Command Flight Plan, shape the future direction
of Air Mobility Command and will serve as a blueprint for effective
action. Air Mobility Command has received 15 individual waiver
requests. USTRANSCOM has been honored for its efforts in streamlining
the DoD's medical regulating program. The effort to reengineer
USTRANSCOM responsibilities as the DoD single manager for transportation
has been expanded to include 21 objectives, which once achieved
will form the foundation of the future defense transportation
system. The program which is molding this new vision of the future
is called Defense Transportation System 2015. The USTRANSCOM
Strategic Plan, FY 1996-2015, molds this new vision of the future
into a comprehensive program.
- DoD Science & Technology Laboratory.
The lab is dedicated to streamlining cumbersome processes
and removing impediments to good business practices. The Air
Force labs (Wright Patterson AFB, Rome AFB, Armstrong AFB, Phillips
AFB) are working through the DoD Science and Technology Laboratory
Quality Improvement Program, administered by the Deputy Director,
Defense Research and Engineering. Dr. Daniel, the Headquarters
Air Force Materiel Command Chief Scientist, is the Air Force representative
on the DOD Laboratory Quality Improvement Program Implementation
Panel. The Air Force Laboratory Quality Improvement Program Integrated
Product Team is chaired by Dr Daniel and is composed of representatives
from each of the labs and functionals within Headquarters Air
Force Mobility Command. The labs also work through an Integrated
Product Team to develop initiatives and waiver requests. Several
functional areas in the Science and Technology labs were studied
as early as early 1989 under the Lab Demo Program. The hallmark
of the Laboratory Quality Improvement Program is the Air Force
Science and Technology Lab Civilian Personnel Demo Program. Congress
authorized the Demo in October 1994 to address the labs' unique
needs for managing their scientist and engineer workforce. The
Research & Development Streamlined Solicitation/Contract initiative
is under test in Science and Technology labs DoD-wide until October
96. The objective is to decrease lead time, while at the same
time allow contractors to develop innovative solutions to Research
& Development problems. Success will be measured by ease
of execution and frequency of protests. Congress authorized DoD
lab commanders to approve minor construction (maintenance and
repair) up to $1M and military construction up to $3M in their
facilities. The demo is in effect for two years. The Air Force
developed the original waiver request which was adopted by all
services. The Air Force Science and Technology labs got a head
start on reinvention in 1989 under the Lab Demo Program. Since
then, 53 waiver requests and legislative initiatives have been
approved or passed in Congress. The requests and initiatives
apply to all functional areas. They create an environment of
better, more efficient business practices by eliminating unnecessary
processes and by delegating authority to the lowest level. At
the forefront is the Lab Civilian Personnel Demo, which will create
a better environment for managing the scientist and engineer workforce.
This is critical to lab commanders in light of the reduced workforce.
The Research & Development Streamlined Solicitation/Contract
initiative streamlines the contracting processes and allows contractors
to solve Research & Development problems innovatively. Again,
this places authority at the lowest level and benefits both the
government and the contractor. Delegation of authority for the
lab commanders to approve minor construction and military construction
at an increased level gives them greater latitude in making facility
changes to support the new technologies. All of these allow the
Science and Technology lab commanders to make better business
decisions in managing their particular lab processes and workforce.
In the fall of 1994, the Lab Civilian Personnel Demo office was
established by authority of the FY 1995 Defense Authorization
Act. Fifteen of the Air Force Laboratory Quality Improvement
Program initiatives were transferred to the Personnel Demo program.
The Air Force Materiel Command Personnel Demo project office
developed a concept paper signed by Headquarters Air Force Acquisition
and the Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering on November
20, 1995. A comprehensive proposal for waivers was signed by
Headquarters Air Force Acquisition on November 27, 1995, to the
Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering. He approved
the proposal and forwarded it to Office of Secretary of Defense
(Civilian Personnel Policy) on December 1, 1995; the demonstration
is scheduled for October 1, 1996. Two demonstration waiver requests
were approved at Air Force Materiel Command in November 1995.
One gives lab commanders the authority to make zero-balance changes
to their Unit Manning Documents, and the other delegates to commanders
the authority to make organizational changes at the three-letter
and below level. A major breakthrough in lab contracting is the
Research & Development Streamlined Solicitation/Contract initiative,
which applies to cost reimbursement type contracts of $10 million
or less. Sixty-one contracts have been issued during the test.
The labs favor permanent implementation because of faster turn-around
on solicitation and contract issuance. In addition to the Personnel
Demo and the Research and Development Streamlined Solicitation/Contract
initiatives, seven initiatives remain open and are in various
phases of work.
- Express Delivery Reinvention Laboratory. The
Express Delivery Reinvention Laboratory is a strategic partnership
between the Defense Logistics Agency, United States Transportation
Command, the United States Air Force and United States flag commercial
air express carriers. The Express Delivery Reinvention Laboratory
goal is to adapt and apply state-of-the-art express delivery practices
to increase responsiveness, reliability and efficiency of defense
logistics activities in support of Air Force Lean Logistics operations.
Consistent with the Lean Logistics strategy of providing increased
service responsiveness to the maintenance customer, the Express
Delivery Reinvention Laboratory objectives are to reduce infrastructure
and system-wide inventories, provide time-definite delivery, and
assure higher and more dependable service levels. Express
Delivery Reinvention Laboratory initiatives seek process and information
system breakthroughs in support of Lean Logistics. For example,
the Standard Transportation Industry Information Processor electronically
links the Air Force's traffic management system with proprietary
express carrier systems. The integration of shipper and carrier
systems results in single data entry, automatic updates to both
shipper and carrier systems, and production of standard shipping
labels acceptable to all express carriers. In testing at two
Air Force bases, Industry Information Processor cut express shipment
processing times by nearly 50 percent. Another lab initiative,
Mail-like Matter Movement, institutionalized the use of controlled,
express carrier networks for movement of classified shipments
in the Continental United States. Not only has Mail-like Matter
Movement boasted a record of loss-free service, but it delivers
faster and significantly cheaper than traditional constant-surveillance
shipment modes. In Industry Information Processor, Mail-like
Matter Movement and other initiatives, the Express Delivery Reinvention
Laboratory continues to develop a mutual trust with industry that
permits an unprecedented level of understanding and fulfillment
of Air Force service level requirements. The Express Delivery
Reinvention Laboratory has established a solid reputation for
developing, testing and implementing state-of-the-art applications
and process improvements. The Express Delivery Reinvention Laboratory
has taken a systematic approach to improving transportation and
logistics performance by ensuring that successful process changes
and prototypes are institutionalized in the Air Force. Lab initiatives
have focused on both process and information system break-throughs.
Repair and Return Packaging borrowed a concept from the mail-order
industry by placing pre-addressed express shipment labels into
containers. This process change provides a capability to return
aircraft parts to the source of repair directly from the flightline,
and eliminates shipment handling by support functions. Mail-like
Matter Movement required a field test and policy change to facilitate
time definite and controlled movement of selected classified materials
via express transportation in lieu of costly, unresponsive constant
surveillance methods. The Standard Transportation Industry Information
Processor is a successful information system breakthrough. This
application provides Air Force base shipping activities direct
access to carrier express services from a single shipper system,
while producing an innovative standard DoD/industry shipping label.
Evaluation of our inbound logistics flows led to the development
of an automated Inbound Receipt Process. This prototype integrates
wholesale and retail shipping systems, transmits electronic shipment
notices, and automates cargo receipt through the use of bar codes
and/or optical memory cards. These and other lab initiatives
recognize the value of strategic industry partnerships and integration
of logistics information across organizational boundaries. Bundling
commercial transportation with logistics information and other
value-added services leverages significant cycle time improvements,
provides in-transit visibility of materiel flows, and accelerates
functional process integration. The Express Delivery Reinvention
Laboratory, a strategic partner-ship of the Air Force, Defense
Logistics Agency, United States Transportation Command and commercial
air express industry, has taken clear aim at leveraging the size
of Air Force and Defense logistics operations while developing
the needed agility to respond to global operational requirements.
Several Express Delivery Reinvention Laboratory initiatives have
contributed significantly to its objectives of reducing infrastructure
and system-wide inventories, providing time-definite delivery,
and assuring higher and more dependable service levels. Two illustrations
of Express Delivery Reinvention Laboratory successes are provided
below. The Standard Transportation Industry Information Processor
has integrated the Air Force shipping system with express carrier
software. The industry information processor assures timely,
accurate and complete shipment information is entered into the
Air Force, Defense and commercial transportation systems network
while producing a standard shipment label acceptable to all carriers.
In field tests at Eglin and Shaw Air Force Bases, the information
processor reduced shipment processing time by nearly 50 percent
while winning universal acceptance by its customers. The Mail-like
Matter Movement initiative eliminated unnecessary and antiquated
classified movement restrictions which required the use of dual
driver, exclusive use of vehicle, and constant surveillance services.
For smaller packages (up to 70 pounds), the cost to ship one
pound via United States Postal Service express mail with pickup
charges and proof of delivery is about $18 as compared to $4 via
FedEx door-to-door service. Extending the opportunity to ship
SECRET material via air freight and small parcel carriers for
shipments over 70 pounds reduced the need to pay high minimum
charges associated with alternative surface transportation (minimum
$1900 charge per shipment). More importantly, express delivery
resulted in reliable overnight service compared with highly variable
surface transit times of up to 7 days. Now that the use of Mail-like
Matter Movement process has been accepted DoD wide, expected savings
total some $10 million annually. Additionally, express carrier
tracking and control systems provide in-transit visibility and
shipment control previously unavailable at any cost.
- Air Force's Policy Review. This initiative
served to identify and clarify the Air Force's most important
tasks. It set clear, concise policy, fixed accountability, and
measured the accomplishment of policy objectives. The Air Force
identified its most important, "overarching" policies
in Air Force Policy Directives. They clearly and concisely state
policies, outline responsibilities & authorities, and provide
"CEO-level" metrics to measure performance. Senior
leaders use management information based on these metrics to make
"fact-based" decisions. The Air Force rescinded all
existing regulations and retained only those procedures which
are required by law, address health and safety issues, or standardize
the Air Force. The Air Force replaced 1,510 regulations with
165 policy directives and 750 instructions containing essential
procedural guidance. Some 55,000 pages of intermingled policy
and procedures were reduced to 18,000 pages that clearly separate
policy from procedures. In addition, CD-ROM disks replaced these
printed documents. All Air Force Policy Directives and Instructions
are available on CD-ROM. In addition, most Manuals, Handbooks,
and Mission Descriptions are also on CD-ROM. These publications
are also located on the Air Force Publication Distribution Library
(Bulletin Board). Air Force Publishing has implemented new policies
and procedures which use electronic publishing technology to reduce
the total publishing cycle time. Today, the offices of primary
responsibility for Air Force publications provide fully edited
manuscripts in Microsoft Word and immediately made the publications
available electronically on the Air Force Publishing Distribution
Library. This process has substantially reduced the cycle time
needed to get the guidance to the "field."
- Air Force Outsourcing Of Non-Core Functions.
Air Force is reviewing the feasibility of closing two
of the Air Force's five maintenance depots. One of the critical
issues the Air Force Materiel Command Commander is exploring is
to what extent work at the two depots slated for closure can be
privatized. Privatization means that work at the closing depots
would be turned over to a contractor-managed workforce. One benefit
of privatization is that many depot workers employed by the Air
Force at the San Antonio Air Logistics Center and Sacramento Air
Logistics Center could work for the contractors. In addition
to preserving jobs, the Air Force would be avoiding the upheaval,
adverse readiness impacts and expense of moving equipment and
supplies to other depots, and retraining the work force. In addition
to disposition of the workload handled by the two depots slated
for closure, interservicing and joint depot maintenance could
have an impact on the remaining three depots, as well as the Air
Force at large and other services. The concept of both Air Force
and DoD Centers of Technical Excellence is being considered to
develop more efficient and cost-effective, in-house, depot-maintenance
capabilities. This concept encourages increased consolidation
and interservicing by offering one source of repair for a commodity
within the Air Force or all of DOD. This may ultimately allow
a depot to become the premier center for a specific type of workload.
- Air Force Productivity-Enhancing Capital Investments.
The Air Force currently has two Productivity Enhancing
Capital Investment programs. They both exist on a self-sustaining
basis with short amortization periods. These programs provide
the installation commanders the opportunity to purchase the state-of-the-art
equipment, modern tools, and new facilities to improve an organization's
operation. This funding allows the installation commanders to
conserve critical resources, enhance unit capability, and improve
combat readiness. The programs have been very effective for the
Air Force, allowing the installation commanders to retain all
savings above the investment costs. The annual Productivity Enhancing
Capital Investment budget has grown to over $25 million since
FY 1992 with a return on investment of 30:1.
- Air Force Creating Healthy and Safe Environment.
Air Force is a key participant in the Federal Facilities
Environmental Restoration Dialog which brings together key stakeholders
to discuss resolution to cleanup issues. This dialog includes
regulators, tribes, environmental groups and other federal agencies.
The Air Force has established over 80 Restoration Advisory Boards
at its installations to allow local community stakeholders the
opportunity to understand and participate in the cleanup of their
local base. The Air Force has leveraged its investment in Regional
Compliance Offices to reach out to state regulators on all environmental
matters. The result has been a reduction of Notices of Violation
from over 200 in 1991 to 70 today.
- Air Force Risk-Management Program To Streamline Environmental
Clean-Up Process. The DoD Environmental
Cleanup Committee has developed Defense Environmental Restoration
Program guidance. This guidance has been reviewed & documented
in the Program Development Report. The Air Force has established
policies that address the role of Restoration Advisory Boards
in priority setting and to implement risk-based decision making
in budgeting for cleanup. These policies establish a firm basis
for using our partnerships to address relative risk evaluations
among the sites at a facility and using that information to guide
the budgeting process. In addition, the Air Force is actively
addressing future risk issues, such as the role of future land
use in the cleanup remedy selection process through partnering
efforts with EPA Region IV and the State of Florida and South
Carolina. In South Carolina, the effort includes partnering to
investigate ways to rationalize the cleanup standards setting
process, potentially reducing the cost to cleanup y millions.
The development of a tiered oversight process in Region IV and
the State of Florida will empower the lowest levels to resolve
issues without having to resort to appeals to national leadership.
This has already reduced the time necessary to achieve consensus
on cleanup actions.
- Air Force Developing An Environmental Technology Policy.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense established the Environmental
Security Technology Certification Program to demonstrate and validate
the most promising and innovative environmental technologies that
target DoD's most urgent environmental needs and are projected
to payback the investment within 5 years through cost savings
and improved efficiency. In line with the Air Force policy to
have a user needs driven technology development program, the Air
Force has developed a process which allows users needs to be built
from the bottom up. Air Force has been designated as the lead
in DoD for the identification of users' technology needs. The
acquisition community is currently taking these data and matching
them with the lab capabilities to better define the environmental
technology program. Currently the Army, Navy, and Department
of Energy are interested in participating in this process. The
Air Force is making efforts to widen the process even further
to include other federal agencies in hopes of building a market
of needs big enough to attract commercial solution providers.
- Air Force Developing A More Effective Pollution Prevention
Program. The Air Force has published and
is now implementing a pollution prevention strategy. This strategy
outlines the goals and major milestones that must be accomplished
by the Air Force's pollution prevention program. In addition,
the Air Force has chosen to focus its pollution prevention program
in FY 1996 on weapon system issues. This represents the largest
part of Air Force's pollution prevention opportunities, since
80% of the hazardous wastes/materials generated in the Air Force
are weapon system related, verses installation related.
- Air Force Designated Regional Offices To Work Directly
With Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regions, State, And
Local Environmental Organizations To Develop Joint Strategies.
The Air Force has had three regional offices in place for the
past several years. These offices have been instrumental in the
Air Force having the best compliance program in the DoD by facilitating
a dialog between its facilities and the regulators. They are
charter participants in the DoD efforts to establish offices in
each EPA region and have been assigned responsibility for EPA
Regions II (New York and Northeast), VI (Texas and Southwest),
and X (Alaska and Washington). In the past, these offices have
focused on compliance issues, now they are active in the areas
of cleanup, extending the original Office of the Secretary of
- Air Force Implemented A Strategic Planning Process That
Encompasses Total Quality Management (TQM) Principles And Established
Direction. The Air Force Criteria (Malcolm Baldrige based)
are used by all Air Force units to prepare for unit self assessments
and for the IG when conducting Quality Air Force Assessments.
The criteria have 7 main categories: Leadership, Information
& Analysis, Strategic Planning, Human Resource Development
& Management, Process Management, Business Results, and Customer
Focus & Satisfaction. All Air Force members receive initial
Total Quality Management Awareness training at basic training,
commissioning programs, etc. Advanced Total Quality Management
training is received at all Professional Military Education courses.
These awareness and advanced Total Quality Management lessons
are a formal part of the curriculum.
- Air Force Judge Advocate General's Department Reducing
Cycle Times. The Air Force Appellate Defense Division
achieved significant cycle-time reductions in the amount of time
it takes to review records of trial for legal errors. In June
1993, when the improvement efforts began, 85 cases were being
held in the Division seven or more months for Record of Trial
Review. As of January 1996, this number was reduced to six, despite
the fact the workload increased from 1993 to 1995. The Division
instituted a formal training program to allow new appellate defense
counsel to become fully functional in their duties in a shorter
timeframe. Experienced attorneys put together informal texts
and began a mentoring program for new attorneys. The Division
standardized many of the letters and administrative personnel
assumed some tasks previously accomplished by attorneys. Finally,
a database was established and used on a daily basis to track
cases accurately. The Department started using a new computerized
claims information management system which serves as a management
tool and, most importantly, reduces the time necessary to process
claims. The Department incorporated an improved computer management
tool in the area of military justice case processing called the
Automated Military Justice and Administration Management System.
Before this tool, paralegals had to go to the Military Personnel
Flight to obtain personnel data on individuals receiving military
justice actions and use these data to complete detailed forms
manually. Now, the necessary personnel data are already loaded
into the system. Paralegals need only enter the individual's
name and the program completes the paperwork automatically.
Officers facing court-martial have the option to tender a resignation
in lieu of trial by court-martial. The Secretary of the Air Force
is the approval/disapproval authority. Resignation in lieu of
trial by court-martials flow through the officer's chain of command
to the Secretary for action resulting in delays. Process changes
have reduced the cycle from 117 to 94 days. Further changes are
being proposed to eliminate redundant legal reviews, improving
coordination and allowing cases to proceed to trial when the resignation
in lieu of trial by court-martial is submitted more than seven
days after service of court-martial charges. Finally, the Air
Force Appellate Government Division has made major strides in
reducing the backlog of cases. In 1992, delays for filing appellate
briefs stood at 671. In 1995, the Division requested 53 delays
while filing 485 briefs-more briefs than at any time over the
last 4 years. These reductions were achieved by developing new
internal procedures for assigning cases as they came into the
Division. Also, weekly case reviews are assigned from one counsel
to another commensurate with their workload. This has resulted
in reduced cycle times for preparing/filing briefs.
- Air Force Command, Control, Communications, Computers,
and Intelligence (C4I) Arena: The Air Force is working
hard to transition into the 21st century. Several initiatives,
from an Air Force level, are being worked to reduce cycle times
and provide better service to our customers.
- C4I Architecture. This effort focuses on establishing and applying
common standards in
C4I systems in development. A comprehensive set of C4I architectures
is key to developing an effective, interoperable, seamless and
secure C4I capability.
- Base Network Control Center. The Base Network Control Center
is the single point for
base network management and C4I systems problem resolution. It
will automate all administration actions associated with trouble
documentation and reporting, troubleshooting and repairing outages,
and rerouting C4I services to fully operational systems, thus
reducing the cycle time of the maintenance technician and providing
better service to the customer.
- Combat Information Transport System. Combat Information Transport
provide information transport nodes and fiber optic distribution
systems on base capable of supporting transfer rates of 100M bytes
per second and beyond. Faster transportation of information will
result in the ability for the war fighters to gain access to more
information and types of information (e.g., voice, data, video,
imagery), in a shorter amount of time, to make vital force management
and project decisions.
- Airborne Communications Backbone Architecture. The Airborne
Backbone Architecture focuses on establishment and implementation
of a single architectural standard to support the command, control
and communication requirements of our aircraft. A commercial
backbone communications bus and associated control equipment
is used for support of the basic communications capabilities.
This architecture supports continual enhancements to the airborne
communications capabilities to encompass new requirements or technologies,
while reducing the time required for aircraft modification.
- Air Force Lean Logistics. An Air Force Logistics
initiative has begun, aimed at systematically reengineering Air
Force logistics to accomplish the goal of creating, sustaining,
and maintaining air and space weapon systems. Lean Logistics
is the application of commercial and DOD "best business practices"
across wholesale and retail functions improving policy, processes
and management structures which drive cost and investment in logistics
infrastructure. Lean Logistics is providing high payoff in aircraft
avionics and engine repair. The future of Air Force Logistics
will be characterized by a streamlined infrastructure, short repair
cycle times and fast, time-definite transportation resulting in
a leaner inventory.
- Air Force Inspector General reducing Cycle Times.
Air Force IG identified several processes for improvement:
- Visual Mediums. Air Force IG has established a goal to reduce
required to conduct reviews, inquiries, and investigations by
using video teleconferencing and other electronic communications
media. This is a significant departure from how IG currently
conducts business--sure to streamline processes and save resources.
Limitations are not the technology, but the shortage of sufficient
video teleconferencing facilities worldwide.
- Electronic Bulletin Boards. Air Force IG is pursuing efforts
to establish a world-class
Electronic Bulletin Board. The goal is to transmit and allow
on-line searches of Operational Readiness Inspections, Quality
Air Force Assessments and other documents. Air Force IG will save
time and money by not having to reproduce and distribute these
products, and the result will improve access for the Air Force
- Air Force Medical Community. Several ways
to streamline business practices are being pursued:
- Centrally Managed Allotments. This is a central fund available
to all Medical Treatment
Facilities and facilities which support Medical Treatment Facilities.
Funds from this account are used to pay medical care and related
travel for active duty personnel. Currently, Air Staff maintains
and manages the Centrally Managed Allotments. The process was
streamlined by allocating Centrally Managed Allotments dollars
for management at the local level.
- Timely and Complete Response to Congressional Inquiries. Timely
response to congressional inquiries is often a problem due to
a desire by Wing Commanders to coordinate information released
from all Medical Treatment Facilities to the Surgeon General's
Office. Timeliness in answering congressional inquiries is a
sensitive issue. It is critical that appropriate information
is forwarded to Surgeon General Inquiries promptly. Surgeon General
Inquiries filter information provided by all Medical Treatment
Facilities and has technical information thoroughly screened at
Air Staff level prior to its release, ensuring only pertinent
information is provided in the final reply. This coordination
includes clinical consults and general counsel expertise. Cycle
time will be greatly reduced when direct response to Surgeon General
Inquiries from the Military Training Flights is made with information
copies to Wing Commanders.
- Headquarters Air Force Quality Executive Staff Work
(QUEST). Process action teams are streamlining Headquarters
Air Force's core business process -- staff work. Using Total
Quality Management principles and technology breakthroughs, QUEST
has achieved the following major improvements in efficiency and
productivity at the Pentagon:
- Reduced Headquarters staff work front-end tasker "handling"
time by 91%. By
evaluating the internal business processes, the Air Force Executive
Services Division determines who should be eliminated from the
process. The result -- taskers delivered to organizations faster.
Those persons eliminated were the proverbial "checkers checking
checkers." Once they treated this major affliction (called
Distrust) that plagues the Pentagon Staff Work process,
employee interrelationships improved.
- Reduced Air Force Executive Services Division front-end tasker
"idle" time by 25%.
Again, by evaluating their business process, the Air Force determined
they could use existing technology, i.e., FAX machines, to save
on the time "suspensed" taskers sit idle in a mailbin
waiting to be picked up. By reducing the tasker and the idle
time we've experienced measurable gains.
- These are just two examples of the progress to date that relates
to cycle time. In early
1995, the Air Staff began a "workflow" technology prototype
that is now incorporated across the entire headquarters staff.
This resulted in (1) reduced administrative initiative processing/times,
(2) improved on-time completion rates, (3) quality decision making,
(4) development of a corporate memory, and (5) dollar savings
through information infrastructure consolidation and standardization.
Improvements in cycle time are being experienced, but not just
because we introduced this leading edge technology. Instead,
the "focus on the process," through an application of
Quality methods to understand, evaluate, and streamline the Staff
Work process is what truly produced the substantive savings.
- Air Force War Equipment Disbursement Improvement.
During the Persian Gulf conflict, serious logistics problems
developed in obtaining, allocating, and distributing Chemical
Warfare Defense Equipment. These difficulties arose because major
commands (MAJCOMs) were unable to maintain adequate management,
visibility, and control of Chemical Warfare Defense Equipment
assets. These assets are critical to airmen and soldiers to operate
in a chemical warfare environment. The single most important
factor affecting the Chemical Warfare Defense Equipment management
during Operation of Desert Shield/Storm was the lack of a centralized
database for asset visibility. The Mobility Automated Inventory
Tracking System was developed to give MAJCOMS and Headquarters
Air Force that centralized database starting with base level users.
Given this information, MAJCOMs now have a "big picture"
of their mobility assets and can direct the movement of assets
from organization to organization as well as assess mobility deployment
capability. Headquarters Air Force personnel can make accurate
decisions on mobility deployment posture, forecast for Chemical
Warfare Defense Equipment requirements, forecast build-up time
required for deployments, as well as provide the Joint Chiefs
of Staff with Air Force wide Chemical Warfare Defense Equipment
assets on-hand, on-order, shortages, and overages. Mobility Automated
Inventory Tracking System was briefed to the Joint Services Coordinating
Committee for possible consideration by other DoD activities.
- Air Force Reserve. Air Force Reserve is committed
to Total Quality and constantly strives to reduce cycle times
within its organization. The Command Surgeon, in conjunction
with the National Guard, Air Force Reserves, Air Reserve Personnel
Center, Major Command Surgeon General offices and Air Force medical
treatment facilities, is evaluating the incapacitation pay process.
Excessive delays have been identified from when a member is first
injured to when the Medical Board convenes and final resolution
occurs. Although the Air Force Reserve Command Surgeon has no
direct control over the numbers of reservists who are injured
and are subsequently eligible for incapacitation pay, his efforts
to communicate with managers at all levels have resulted in their
much improved awareness of this program. The number of cases
requiring extension beyond the initial six months has essentially
been cut in half.
- Air Force Academy. This Air Force service
academy used the strategic planning process to identify high-payoff
processes in greatest need of cycle time reduction. The process
action teams have successfully reduced cycle time in a number
of processes, most notably:
- The cadet disenrollment process time was trimmed by 66 percent
to 34 work days.
- Time required to put supply items in the hands of civil engineer
craftsmen was reduced
from an average of 60 days to less than 30 days.
- Time required to process medical profiles was reduced from an
average of 112 days to 14
- Time to get a consult medical appointment went from 19 days
to 2 days.
- Cadet in-processing time was reduced 20 percent (with 100 percent
accuracy) over the
previous record time, even though the number of cadets being processed
increased 15 percent.
- Air Force Automatic Identification Technology Office.
This office is sponsoring several productivity efforts through
the integration of Automatic Identification Technology within
several base level function areas.
- Bar Code Application of Automated Data Processing Equipment
Personal Computer Inventory Processing Management System has been
developed to track and account for equipment inventories. System
was released for AF-wide distribution August 1995.
- United States Air Force Academy Inventory Management System:
technology at clothing issue points to expedite the initial issue
of clothing to each cadet class. Warehouse reconciliation processing
time as well as on-hand inventories have significantly been reduced.
This System has been exported to US Military Academy West Point.
- Air Force Medical Center Information Management System: Uses
scanning and bar-codes to store, track, and retrieve specimen
- Tool Control System: System provides control of all tools,
test equipment, & technical
publications required by using bar-code equipment and technology.
This System was exported to 108 Air Force users.
- Base Civil Engineer Automated Identification Systems: This
project inserts the use of
bar codes, bar code scanners, portable terminals, bar code printers,
and pen based terminals into key Base Civil Engineer functional
areas. The applications include inventory management and tracking,
item inspections, labor reporting, item inspections, labor reporting,
personnel tracking, and service contract management oversight.
Project under development and on track with an estimated completion
date of October 1996.
- Supply Asset Tracking System: Using Radio Frequency Identification
System provides real-time information relating to asset location,
inventory, and information required to streamline and dramatically
reduce labor related costs. The system will also assist in the
redesign of process flows to reduce repair time. This technology
is being used at Shaw Air Force Base (in conjunction with the
Standard Base Supply System, Eglin Air Force Base (in conjunction
with Cargo Movement Operation Systems), and Kelly Air Force Base
(in the Technical Order Distribution Warehouse).
- Automated Fuels Service Station/Dispensing System: A micro
computer based control
and data acquisition system designed to authorize, monitor, and
electronically record fuel dispensing at military service stations,
which eliminates forms and reduces error rate. This system captures
data using a data key and is also used for alternated fueled vehicles/aircraft.
The microchip project automatically collects fuel dispensing
transactions at the point of sale during refueling/defueling.
This McDonnell Douglas prototype system is designed to transmit
global positioning system data to a central location for command
and control. The contract has been awarded and implementation
in progress for the automated fuels service station. For the
fuel dispensing system, prototype demo conducted November 1995.
Future demos will be conducted on the 2-dimension imaging system
on in-flight refueling transactions with McDonnell Douglas.
- Air Force Materiel Command Is Working To Reduce Cycle
Times. For example, they are working to reduce the cycle
time of advance transportation control and movement documents
from shippers to Air Mobility Command. Wherever and whenever
the automated transfer of these records is slowed down by older
communication methodologies (such as AUTODIN) excessive (actual)
cycle time, or excessive queuing or batching, we will seek to
reduce or eliminate the cause and achieve near real-time data
transfer. Some reduction efforts and visions are as follows:
- Established a faster data connection to Air Mobility Command.
- Helped Defense Logistics Agency establish a faster data connection
with the Defense
Automated Addressing System Center.
- Transferred air logistics centers stock control and distribution
- Established dial-up access to our automated systems.
- Established improved data connection with the GSA.
- Air Force Reengineering Item and Maintenance Management.
An Executive Steering Group, chaired by Headquarters Air Force
Materiel Command Logistics community, is currently in the process
of reengineering item and maintenance management for Air Force
Materiel Command. The Executive Steering Group has chartered
five teams to reengineer the major business processes performed
by the air logistics centers. Visions are as follows:
- Stock Control & Distribution. Move the process from a labor
complicated process to a more simplified model that utilizes the
fundamental tenants of Lean Logistics.
- Requirements Determination. Utilize customer needs to develop
determination and budgeting process that is flexible, timely,
simple, less manpower intensive and adopts the principles of Lean
- Workload Management. Create a seamless process able to support
requirements at the
best source (DoD or contract) in a demand-based environment.
Use a knowledge base that provides "at a glance" ability
to identify the best throughput ability and best use of sources,
displays "lean" characteristics, provides a more stable
workloading and pricing process, and provides a responsive demand-based
- Production. Processes must be aggressively responsive to customer
better, cheaper, faster products and services, develop a cost
conscious culture operating at a profit so sales rates can be
reduced, increase throughput and reduce operating expenses and
inventories, incorporate the latest technologies and innovations
to respond to demand based customer requirements and lean logistics,
and provide quality goods and services by continued maturation
of Quality Air Force (Total Quality Management) policies and practices.
- Depot Maintenance Business Area Operations. Assure proper allocation
and control of
expenditure of resources, track and project financial performance
in a timely manner, be understandable by both customers and process
owners, assure financial process achieves the goal of providing
maintenance at the best value, provide savings back to customers
within 12 months of achieving savings.
The objectives of these reengineering efforts are to: Reduce
the cost of depot maintenance by 30 percent by FY 1997 with additional
cost reductions of 5 percent per year through FY 2001. Improve
schedule and quality performance by 10 percent over the same period,
and to improve linkage and responsiveness of processes to customer
requirements and operations tempo. Currently, all five teams have
developed "to be" processes and prototype systems that
support Lean Logistics principles. These "to be" processes
and supporting systems are being prototype tested in five different
shops. A sixth team was chartered in June 1995 to reengineer supply
support to the production line. The vision of this new team is
to reengineer the supply processes so that production will have
all the piece parts necessary to repair an item whenever a repair
action is required. The Supply Reengineering Team is not only
reengineering the supply system but will be reengineering the
supporting bit and piece part procurement process. All six of
the reengineering teams are developing plans in preparation for
a prototype at a single shop to form a single new logistics model.
- Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command Packaging Lab.
The lab has several cost productivity savings efforts underway
to reduce the cycle time for packaging Air Force assets. These
- Reusable Container Program: Program requires all activities
to participate on the reclamation and reutilization of Short-life
and Long-life Reusable Containers.
- Support Equipment Engineered into Specialized, Reusable, Shipping
and Storage Containers: Reusable containers are designed, engineered,
and constructed to support specialized equipment.
- Special Packaging Instruction Development and Distribution System:
Reengineering the DoD Special Packaging Instruction development
and distribution process into a "standardized" system
such as the Air Force Special Packaging Instruction Development
and Distribution System would automate many associated functions
thereby reducing overall DoD cycle times and costs.
- Family of Munitions Containers: This project is a reengineering
effort that will produce three to six containers that will replace
most of the 200 current munitions containers, thus significantly
reducing associated costs.
- Air Force Materiel Command Depot Maintenance.
There are a variety of initiatives to improve depot maintenance
cycle time, these include:
- Both 2-Level Maintenance and Lean Logistics address the depot
maintenance cycling of
repairable assets. Individual efforts within each function focus
on processes within various weapon systems or are tied to specific
functional assemblies. Currently, each effort has the potential
of significantly reducing the cycle time for depot maintenance.
These efforts include: 2-Level Maintenance sub-processes for
engine maintenance, 2-Level Maintenance subprocesses for
avionics maintenance, Lean Logistics customer demand driven repair,
Lean Logistics demand driven supply support, Lean Logistics fast
transportation, Defense Logistics Agency processing improvements,
B-1 Bomber Programmed Depot Maintenance Scheduling System to improve
availability of repair parts, and collocation of supply
and maintenance at some locations.
- A number of integrated product teams have been
formed to improve cycle times. One
integrated product team is developing significant improvements
in the way parts are forecast, obtained, and controlled
so they are available when and where they are needed. Another
integrated product teams has mapped and automated the flow
paths for the entire maintenance package to allow real time
tracking and scheduling of individual tasks. Finally, another
effort is aimed at training a significant portion of the
work force as "multi-skilled' mechanics which allows workers
to do a variety of work.
- Air Force Materiel Command Contracting Process.
- A Basic Order Agreement is in effect with a contractor. The
Basic Order Agreement
streamlines the acquisition process by incorporating only those
contract clauses/requirements which apply to commercial items.
It provides the buyer a template which requires only a minimum
number of blocks to be completed. A new contract document need
not be prepared each time a commercial item is needed. The process
has significantly reduced lead times.
- The Spares Administration Lead Time Process Improvement Team
has been working in
conjunction with the Propulsion Product Directorate to improve
acquisition from a contractor. Proposals can be solicited on
a range quote basis, allowing the Air Force to adjust the
actual requirement without resolicitation. The team consists
of all players from government and contractor who reviewed
all processes to determine essentiality and effectiveness. Processing
of the contract buys has been reduced 45 days.
- Other efforts to achieve more flexible procurement processes
include expanded use of
oral solicitations for small purchases, use of requirement contracts,
modification of overhaul and repair contracts to meet lean logistics
objectives, flexible initial order quantities, multiple year contracting
methods, and option based purchase requests. The Propulsion Directorate
at one of the Air Logistics Centers has reduced administrative
lead time on follow-on contracts by approximately 90 days.
- Air Force Air Combat Command Productivity Improvements.
All field units have performed Unit Self Assessments based on
Quality Air Force criteria, to foster greater efficiency and effectiveness
in providing a combat-ready force. Additionally, three Air Combat
Command wings are participating in pilot projects for performance
planning under the Government Performance and Results Act. They
have established integrated product teams with cross-functional
product-oriented perspectives, to create an environment free from
organizational barriers. Successes include:
- The percentage of aircraft breaks fixed within eight hours of
end-of-flight has been
increased from 32% to 82% since FY 80. This was achieved with
increased emphasis by MAJCOMS, the development of built-in test
equipment, and improved reliability and maintainability in weapons
- The cycle time for getting Not Repairable This Station parts
from the aircraft to depot
and back into the supply system was improved by 1.33 days during
FY 94. This was due in part to implementation of two-level maintenance
where practical, and using commercial carriers to improve transportation
- Two level maintenance cycle times were reduced significantly
during two phases of a
special program that focused on attention to details. During
Coronet Deuce II (FY 92/4) the average time was 1.59 days; this
average fell to 0.56 days during Coronet Deuce III (FY 93). The
percent of items meeting the one day Air Combat Command standard
rose from 87% to 90.3% from Coronet Deuce II to III. Lessons
learned from these tests are in use today and are part of the
Air Force Lean Logistics Program.
- The implementation of the Express Travel Plus program throughout
Command has improved productivity by eliminating the customer
waiting time for travel voucher advances and settlement payments
in the Finance Office. Travelers use the American Express government
charge card to obtain cash through ATM machines in lieu of travel
advances, and use drop boxes located throughout Air Combat Command
bases to deliver completed travel vouchers, for processing, versus
hand carrying to Finance for processing. With the use of Electronic
Funds Transfer for payments, customers also do not lose time waiting
for payments in the Finance Office. Comparing June 1993 with
June 1994 data, the number of travel advances has declined by
56% and approximately 118,000 man-hours have been saved by using
Electronic Funds Transfer payments versus cash payments to individuals.
- Non-appropriated Fund Analysis Management Information System.
During FY 1994,
Services replaced the old NCR 9300 computer system (used for tracking
and managing all non-appropriated fund data), with a new services
management information system. The new system is processing end-of-day
reports in 5 minutes versus two hours on the NCR 9300, and printing
monthly financial statements in 10 minutes versus 5 hours. In
addition, the new system can provide the Non-Appropriated Fund
Financial Analyst rapid access to essential information over the
local area network or a modem, significantly decreasing the cycle
time required to gather information-nation manually for analyses.
- Air Force Reengineering Travel Test.
A one stop shopping Air Force Travel Reengineering Test began
in January 1996 at Peterson, Randolph, and Dover Air Force Bases.
In an effort to improve service, the commercial travel office
at these bases will make airline, rental car, and lodging reservations
all from the same desk.
- Action Workout - Linking Quality Improvement and Speed.
Air Combat Command's Action Workout (AWO) initiative is an intense
and focused look at systemic and "fleet-wide" areas
for improvement. Empowered teams are achieving significant cycle-time
reductions by systematically eliminating wasteful practices and
"try-storming" innovative ideas. Uniquely, AWO teams
work with process owners to produce results rapidly; in one week,
as opposed to other activities that occur over several months.
Air Combat Command (ACC) benchmarked Action Workout concepts with
General Electric's Aircraft Engines Business Group, as well as
Pratt & Whitney's Office of Continuous Improvement, and the
Shingijutsu Company. Since then, the ACC Action Workout team
has conducted five "events" during the past year with
ACC's results have been impressive! For example, the 7th Wing
Action Workout teams at Dyess AFB, TX reduced the B-1 "Lancer"
aircraft periodic or "phase" inspection cycle from eight
to three and a half calendar days. Participants eliminated more
than 7,500 annual "crew-chief" work hours by re-sequencing
work practices and implementing creative ideas for new tools and
procedures. The charts (Figures 1 & 2) shown below illustrate
how participants certified new practices eliminating unnecessary
time and motion.
Figure 1 - Undisciplined Process Figure 2 - "Certified"
Pre Action Workout Post Action Workout
Notably, the first aircraft that completed the "kaizened"
maintenance process established an unprecedented achievement for
the B-1. Tail # 4057 ("Hellion") completed the first-ever
non-stop around the world B-1B flight in a world-record breaking
36 hours, 13 minutes, and 36 seconds. Aircrew members that flew
the aircraft earned the 1995 Mackay Trophy, (the Chief of Staff
of the Air Force's most meritorious flight of year to a member
ACC teams achievements at other locations include:
- 33rd Fighter Wing F-100/220 engine third stage disk inspection
-- Inspection cycle time reduced from 72.0 to 9.0 hrs. (87% improvement)
-- Engine Tear-Down work hours reduced from 8.2 to 4.6 hrs. (44%
-- 100 Maintenance Technical Orders amended
- 355 Wing EC-130 Isochronal Inspections
-- De-panel process reduced from 7.1 hours to 0.9 hrs. (88% improvement)
-- Look inspection task time reduced from 30. hrs. to 4.5 hrs.
-- Engine look phase tasks reduced from 4.0 hrs. to 1.6 hrs.
- 366 F-15C Periodic Maintenance
-- Area II look inspection cycle time reduced from 6.1 to 1.8
-- Area II fix process cycle time down from 7.1 to 3.6 hours
-- Local parts manufacturing requirements cycle time reduced
from 96 to 26 hours
ACC's Action Workout initiative impresses front-line technicians
and senior Air Force leaders alike. Senior Airman Verlyn G.
Rogge from the 390th FS Phase Dock of Mountain Home AFB, Idaho
recalls a significant breakthrough that occurred during his Action
Workout. "We had a problem with rudder inspections. We
were told that we had to take the rudder completely off to have
it inspected. The process took about three days. We talked to
other bases and from personal experience we knew that we could
do this inspection on the aircraft. We tried it out and it worked
so the rudder inspection went from three days to about 45 minutes."
The Air Force Deputy chief of Staff for Logistics, Lt General
Babbitt, who attended the "Pitchout" at Mountain Home
AFB had these words to say about Action Workout: "This truly
is exciting. It's important that we make this an infectious thing
and that we all catch this disease to make things better."
In ACC, Action Workout teams are looking to create dynamic change
while making life a little simpler in the command's work-centers.
These teams are achieving dramatic results . . . RIGHT NOW!!!