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Chapter 23


Changes in information technology and the rapid assimilation of that technology in the marketplace are resulting in quantum changes to products, services, and organizations. Information ownership, stewardship, access, and possession are becoming recognized as measures of power and influence. Technology is rapidly diffusing this power downward to individuals and outward to those organizations and nations best equipped to exploit it. This offers DoD both an important opportunity and a demanding challenge to establish and meet command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) requirements.

C4ISR capabilities enable generation, use, and sharing of knowledge among warfighters throughout the battlespace and with the decision makers who guide and support them. C4ISR capabilities are more than a collection of hardware and software systems. They are comprised of concepts, operations, people, training, and supporting systems and processes that are essential for achieving battlespace dominance. Through application of C4ISR capabilities, DoD will dramatically improve information quality and enable comprehensive streamlining of decision making processes. These capabilities extend from maintaining a useable picture of the battlespace to exercising decisive command based on timely situational awareness.

C4ISR capabilities enable warfighters to understand the threat and the environment; obtain a comprehensive, shared picture of the battlespace; exercise decisive command and control of forces; coordinate, order, and direct forces; and monitor and assess actions. C4ISR capabilities enable DoD leaders to establish policy and direction; provide the right capabilities, at the right place and time, required to accomplish the mission; and manage and administer the Department effectively and efficiently.


To maintain information superiority in support of military operations, DoD continues to improve C4ISR integration and interoperability. The Defense Science Board and the Commission on Roles and Missions have both stated that an integrated C4ISR architecture is key to enhancing U.S. military effectiveness. Service, Joint Staff, and commander in chief (CINC) initiatives have laid the foundation for new and accelerated efforts toward this objective.

In October 1995, the Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the Department to improve the means and processes for meeting the C4ISR needs of warfighters. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (ASD(C3I)) formed a C4ISR Integration Task Force to address integration and interoperability from a broader perspective and at a higher level than any previous effort. Completing its work in August 1996, the task force established a defense-wide C4ISR strategic vision and made 15 major recommendations for improving the means and processes that deliver C4ISR capabilities. The task force endorsed the C4ISR architecture framework, which provides guidelines and a development process for consistent, integrated operational, systems, and technical architectures, and endorsed clearly defined levels of information system interoperability.

As a logical follow-on to the task force, and in response to Commission on Roles and Missions recommendations for a Quadrennial Defense Review, DoD has undertaken a C4ISR Mission Assessment (CMA) to develop a C4ISR objective system architecture and investment strategy. CMA's initial iteration is linked to the ongoing force/weapons mix studies addressing Deep Attack Weapons Mix, Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses, Close Support End-to-End Assessment, and Theater Air and Missile Defense. The CMA focuses on performance impacts and new concepts enabled by future C4ISR capabilities.

Related architecture and decision support activities to enhance C4ISR interoperability are ongoing. DoD developed the initial version of a Joint Technical Architecture (JTA), for use in all C4I systems development, upgrade, and integration. The JTA provides the standards and protocols to be implemented in systems so that information can flow seamlessly throughout DoD. The JTA will be extended to include the information technology standards and protocols for other functional domains.

The ASD(C3I) redesignated the Command Intelligence Architecture Program as the C4ISR Integrated Architecture Program and expanded the program to encompass C4ISR integration at the command level and below. Through this effort, techniques and procedures developed for the intelligence community will be applied across a wider range of C4ISR domains.

A Decision Support Center was established in October 1996 to conduct top-level quantitative and qualitative trade-off analyses for C4ISR requirements and acquisition decision makers. These analyses will support fielding of the components of the DoD integrated C4ISR system-of-systems for joint and combined operations, consistent with the evolving C4ISR architecture framework. The Decision Support Center will leverage off existing analyses -- for example, by extending the Joint Staff's sensor-to-shooter studies.


The ASD(C3I) has developed information operations (IO) concepts that focus on actions needed to affect adversary information and information systems, while defending U.S. information and information systems. DoD policy covering IO was published in December 1996, and responsibilities were assigned to the DoD components. Each of the Services and agencies has established an organization to coordinate IO efforts. To provide community-wide understanding of the benefits and drawbacks inherent in IO, initial emphasis has been placed on integrating IO into training, education, and wargames. Additionally, DoD is reducing information system vulnerability by developing information assurance procedures and obtaining essential protection hardware and software.

In conjunction with the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, the ASD(C3I) has begun IO coordination with other federal agencies and the civilian community. This includes participation in the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection; establishment of the Highlands Group of key DoD, industry, and academic IO experts; and briefings to senior members of the civilian community. Primary DoD goals are to raise the civilian community's awareness of information system vulnerabilities and to assist in establishing procedures for their protection.


Command and control (C2) systems comprise the facilities, sensors, connectivity, and equipment necessary to manage strategic, conventional, and special operations forces. The Global Command and Control System (GCCS) will provide warfighters with global C2 information exchange, and a fused picture of the battlespace. The initial fielded version of GCCS provides CINC/Service functionality for crisis planning, deliberate planning, operations plan generation, force deployment, indications and warnings, situation awareness, readiness assessment, imagery exploitation, and intelligence access. Future versions will incorporate weather, intelligence, joint task force requirements, and Service-specific functionality.

DoD continues to pursue battlefield digitization to enhance situational awareness. The Army will conduct a Task Force XXI advanced warfighting experiment in March 1997 to quantify requirements and evaluate digitization capabilities. The Army's Battlefield Combat Identification (Combat ID) System will be included in studies and demonstrations to determine long-term Combat ID solutions for ground warfare. In the air, DoD is cooperating with NATO in developing a new waveform for the Mark XII Identification Friend or Foe system, to be implemented if proven cost-effective.

DoD continues modernizing, consolidating, and optimizing strategic C2 systems for nuclear forces. The Nuclear C3I Review recommends continuation of the current command center architecture of air, mobile ground, and fixed ground nodes and supports a survivable minimum network of critical links and nodes from sensor to decision maker to shooter. This survivable network provides the minimum essential assurance of the capability to initiate, execute, or terminate an effective initial attack response. Key to future network effectiveness is increased dependence on Milstar for survivable connectivity.

DoD participates actively in NATO's consultation, command, and control restructuring process to improve system integration, coordination, and overall effectiveness and efficiency. The Department is discussing interoperability issues with Partnership for Peace nations and is also preparing for operations with nontraditional partners.

The Department is also improving theater and tactical C2 capabilities for regional crisis response. For example, DoD is improving Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) radar range and reliability, identification, communications, and navigation to ensure future effectiveness.


The Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) is the shared or interconnected system of computers, communications, data, applications, security, people, training, and other support structures serving DoD's local and worldwide information needs. By addressing DoD's information technology infrastructure as a single entity, the DII focuses planning on interoperability, security, efficiency, and end-to-end user services. The DII provides information transfer (communications) and processing (computer infrastructure) resources that connect DoD mission support, C2, and intelligence computers and users through voice, data, imagery, video, and multimedia services. The DII common operating environment (COE) provides an architecture of standards and reusable software to facilitate system development and simplify user access to multiple applications through common hardware. The DII is part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and relies upon the NII for full performance.

Defense-Wide Communications

The Defense Information Systems Network (DISN) is DoD's primary worldwide telecommunications network for warfighter support and supports value-added information service applications such as the Defense Message System (DMS). Value-added services provide customers with additional capabilities such as preparation, encryption, and receipt of electronic mail that utilize the basic connectivity of the telecommunications network. DISN incorporates surge capability, security, robustness (using a mix of military and commercial media), global coverage, interoperability with tactical and allied systems, end-to-end network control, and precedence. DISN information service applications provide value-added service to the user. They also interface with user-owned equipment, such as secure and unsecure voice, data, electronic mail, video teleconferencing, imagery, and directory services.

Early phases of DISN implementation involved adopting common standards and integrating separate, disparate DoD networks and services. Currently, the program is acquiring and implementing a Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) backbone service providing improved interoperability, greater reliability, and enhanced information transfer. The continental United States (CONUS) phase of this global program will reach initial operating capability in 1997. Also, the European, Pacific, and Southwest Asia theaters of operations are also undergoing incremental infrastructure upgrades.

DoD's communications, weapon control systems, radars, telemetry, and radio navigation systems use the electromagnetic spectrum to achieve information dominance. Private sector demand for this spectrum is also growing, fueled by an explosive market for information technology. Commercial communications are not attacked by jammers, and in saving the cost of these features, commercial equipment uses more spectrum than a comparable military device. However, the auction of spectrum to commercial users generates many billions of dollars in federal revenue. Ultimately, a balance must be struck between the national security needs for adequate spectrum and that sought by the private sector for its numerous uses.

DMS will provide secure, reliable messaging services for DoD and other agencies (including the national intelligence community), using mainline commercial products. DMS implementation will allow phase-out of the existing, archaic automatic digital network message system. DMS will provide DoD with high-grade secure services and reliable e-mail messaging and directory services, supporting deployed warfighters, theater commanders, and individual users. Initial test and pilot sites will become operational during 1997. By the year 2000, all electronic messaging should be DMS-compliant and fully interoperable within DoD, the national intelligence community, and some federal agencies.

The Department has updated its policy for life-cycle management of information in records, including electronic media. DoD is designing an information system to satisfy electronic record management needs, including standard retention schedules, reduced number of retention periods, and a standard DoD coding scheme. DoD is also developing an interface between DMS and a records management application for storage and retrieval of electronic information.

DoD is upgrading and improving its DII Electronic Commerce (EC) and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) infrastructure to support functional EC applications by the financial, personnel, and acquisition communities of the Department. DoD's EC/EDI infrastructure also supports many federal agencies and includes links to industry and universities through value-added networks. DoD has worked closely with the civil agencies to produce federal standards that facilitate the government's goal of a single face to industry. Enhancements to network entry points have increased throughput and laid the groundwork for centralized format translation, which will reduce the burden on individual Service/agency legacy systems. Expanded problem identification and resolution procedures have improved customer service, while updated value-added network licence agreements encourage DoD's service-provider partners to introduce improved systems. EC is increasingly using World Wide Web technology for public information dissemination and access. Defense EC is posturing to exploit the DMS for business quality messaging and the defense public key infrastructure for security.

The Department continues enhancing tactical communications to provide secure, survivable, and interoperable systems for joint and combined conventional force operations. Preplanned product improvements and system enhancements for fielded systems such as the single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS), mobile subscriber equipment, and joint tactical equipment will ensure continued interoperability, capacity, and new information exchange capabilities. The Department is considering technology advances which will provide a programmable digital communications capability to reduce the proliferation of unique equipment. DoD has begun development of a tactical Common Data Link (CDL) to provide upgraded digital communications for tactical systems and compatibility with currently fielded systems. The lightweight, low cost CDL will be used for manned and unmanned reconnaissance platforms as well as the systems that interface with them. Incorporation of standard data links in tactical platforms will provide standardized, interoperable, data link support directly to the battlefield operator, yielding tactical C2 situation awareness never before available.

Operation Joint Endeavor provided an opportunity to integrate several communications technologies and provide advanced information technology to the field. DoD initiated support for Operation Joint Endeavor under the C4I for the Warrior Bosnia Command and Control Augmentation (BC2A) program. A consortium of DoD components melded communications and functional applications into an integrated whole to provide better communications connectivity, while taking advantage of the latest commercial technology. The mission successfully increased battlespace awareness for the ground commander and made a suite of operational capabilities available. For the first time, the U-2 and Predator unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were able to provide an around-the-clock stream of timely intelligence information to even the most remote areas in Bosnia. In addition, DISN's Leading Edge Services (DISN-LES) provided high bandwidth secure capability for a myriad of operational systems. This network, synergistically employed with the Joint Broadcast Service, geometrically advanced operational capabilities by making available applications such as electronic mail, video conferencing, secure Internet service, GCCS, and interactive data sharing in a field environment.

Computer Infrastructure

In the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure process, the President and Congress approved the consolidation of 43 Service and agency data centers into 16 existing DoD megacenters, managed by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), to improve information processing and reduce costs. Approximately 70 percent of the workload has migrated to the megacenters, with completion planned by mid-FY 1997. Net savings will exceed $450 million from FY 1994 to FY 1999, and $209 million per year thereafter, including the elimination of 2,400 civilian positions. The Department continues to look for additional economies and efficiencies, such as further consolidation and outsourcing opportunities.


DoD continues setting up a common data language for its computer systems to improve the quality of data in databases, and to facilitate interoperability among systems. Nonstandard data elements used in the Department's information systems are being reviewed to identify a significantly reduced number of standard data elements for future application. Individual functions such as logistics, C2, intelligence, finance, and personnel identify the standard data elements needed to support their customers. A total of over 11,000 approved data elements are now available for DoD users. Requirements for message standards have been identified and are also being incorporated into DoD data standards. Information about DoD data is maintained in an operational central repository. Revisions of the Defense Data Dictionary System and the Personal Computer Access Tool were released to more than 2,100 users, providing the capability to map legacy, migration, and standard data.

Information Systems

In 1993, the Secretary of Defense directed all functional areas to select standard information systems and applications, and eliminate legacy systems. The Department has identified 2,056 information systems, of which DoD's functional communities have selected 365 as migration systems. DoD will eliminate at least 966 of the remaining legacy systems by the year 2000. The Department's Software Management Initiative (SMI) continued to implement software management improvements recommended by the Defense Science Board. Major SMI accomplishments include changes to DoD systems acquisition policy to require consideration of commercial and reusable software; introduction of two new software acquisition courses; establishment of a software engineering education clearinghouse to inform DoD acquisition managers of training courses for their software engineering staffs; issuance of a guide on best software acquisition commercial practices; and development of a software acquisition capability maturity model to help DoD software acquisition organizations improve their processes and capabilities.

DoD has begun an initiative to correct the Year 2000 problem in defense weapon systems and automated information systems. Year 2000 is the term used to describe the potential failure of information systems due to their inability to roll over into the next century, causing erroneous processing of date-related data after January 1, 2000. DoD components are completing risk assessments and contingency plans. The Department is prioritizing systems for resourcing, reprogramming systems as necessary, and accelerating migration system implementation plans where appropriate. Where possible, DoD is terminating legacy systems that would otherwise require Year 2000 repairs.

Information Assurance

Information assurance is the application of information operations concepts to protect information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation. DoD's information assurance strategy encompasses efforts to assure networking and information systems readiness, reliability, and continuity. It addresses protecting functions against exploitation, manipulation, degradation, and denial of service, while providing the means to reconstitute and reestablish vital information systems capabilities efficiently. As part of a training and awareness program for all DoD programs, DoD has established a defense-wide information assurance training data base as a comprehensive source of existing and emerging training efforts.

In 1996, the Department established an Information Assurance Group (IAG) to provide a forum for cooperation within the defense community on information assurance policies, initiatives, technologies, programs, and related budgets. The IAG established a government-industry partnership that ensures a complete and thorough understanding of critical infrastructure issues facing DoD's information assurance initiative. DoD is also working closely with industry to develop common communications and network security practices and an equitable and effective application of vulnerability detection and reporting tools.

The Department continues to refocus information assurance policies to meet current requirements and provide the goals, directives, and leadership to ensure the reliability and responsiveness of the communications infrastructure into the 21st century. DoD has developed information assurance tools and system security services and products for DII users and managers. To ensure that these and future DII information assurance initiatives are interoperable with the NII, the Department is expanding support to other agencies and government-wide programs, such as the public key infrastructure initiative led by the Department of the Treasury.


DoD established the business process reengineering (BPR) support program to redesign the Department's business processes and to achieve improvements in DoD measures of performance. The BPR support program includes cost effectiveness training, methods, tools, hotline support, and a variety of other support services. BPR tools and techniques can be used to analyze and improve virtually any kind of process or activity. BPR projects are underway at all levels and within all DoD functions. Some BPR projects are oriented toward mission effectiveness and increased readiness, while others target management improvements and cost savings. With nearly 200 BPR projects completed, DoD has achieved significant improvements in effectiveness and efficiency. DoD, the National Academy of Public Administration, the National Performance Review, and several other partners established joint linkages to BPR information, training, and government reinvention materials, including a BPR CD-ROM. DoD developed this CD-ROM as a self-contained College of Process Innovation, which features the latest government and industry information on BPR and a toolset called Turbo BPR for desktop use. These materials and tools have been extensively adopted by a wide range of federal, state, and local government agencies.



The Department, in coordination with the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), has fostered a number of innovative and critical changes to improve the effectiveness and integration of intelligence functions. Emphasis continues to be placed on meeting the needs of users. Among other initiatives, the Department established the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) which provides a single focal point for imagery and geospatial information.

Twenty-one months after the Deputy Secretary of Defense signed the DoD Plan for Peacetime Utilization of Reserve Intelligence Elements, 28 joint Reserve intelligence sites across the United States have full connectivity with DoD's primary intelligence network. The large-scale installation of high capacity workstations is providing unprecedented opportunity for the full integration and effective utilization of over 16,000 Reserve intelligence specialists and linguists. Applying Total Force concepts, where Reservists are full partners with the active component, will greatly improve intelligence support in peacetime as well as during conflict.

In 1996, the Deputy Secretary and the DCI reoriented and streamlined the intelligence planning, programming, and budgeting process. Based on primary intelligence missions, the retooled process focuses on support to military planning and operations, national policymakers, law enforcement, and countering foreign intelligence activities. The reorientation resulted in the reallocation of resources to improve airborne reconnaissance, Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) analysis, and imagery analysis and exploitation and placed additional emphasis on improving counterterrorism efforts.

In coordination with the DCI, DoD initiated a civilian intelligence personnel reform effort that culminated in the passage of the Defense Intelligence Civilian Personnel Policy Act of 1996. The legislation provides a foundation for common personnel practices and procedures to enable unimpeded mobility across the intelligence community. The personnel reform effort also included establishment of an Intelligence Community Assignment Program (ICAP), the first large-scale structured rotational program for all defense intelligence organizations and the Central Intelligence Agency. ICAP will create a civilian intelligence corps that has experience with a variety of capabilities, customers, and missions and that can readily adapt to changing intelligence support requirements. Prior to NIMA's standup, legislation was also passed that grandfathers NIMA employees with Merit Systems Protection Board appeal rights and continues collective bargaining.

In addition to the civilian intelligence personnel reform program, DIA's Joint Military Intelligence College is seeking approval to award the Bachelor of Science in Intelligence, as well as its currently accredited Master of Science in Strategic Intelligence curriculum.


Counterintelligence components are critical to the security of operational forces. DoD counterintelligence components provide defensive antiterrorism services, satisfy information collection and production requirements, execute counterespionage operations, and provide input to planning for military operations. Counterintelligence personnel regularly accompany battle groups at sea and military units exercising in foreign countries, provide dedicated support to defense agencies, and have on-call responsibilities for locations designated in military contingency plans. Modernization objectives include development of an advanced forensics capability to deal with computer crime and espionage.

In 1996, DoD continued to successfully interrupt foreign intelligence service espionage efforts through numerous investigations, highlighted by the arrest of two individuals. Offensive counterintelligence operations continued to both interfere with foreign intelligence service efforts and provide critical insights into their levels and collection methods.

Intelligence and Security Support to Force Protection

Since the Khobar Towers bombing in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, DoD has undertaken an extensive review of requirements for force protection and antiterrorism. In conjunction with the DCI, resource requirements have been identified to enhance significantly the security of deployed U.S. military personnel around the world. This ongoing effort integrates physical security, personnel security, intelligence, counterintelligence, and investigative resource requirements that will focus the Department's force protection efforts. Defense signals and human source intelligence collection will be integrated into more detailed, relevant, and timely analysis to provide better warning of terrorist threats to deployed U.S. military forces. DoD will increase counterintelligence resources dedicated to providing active antiterrorism defensive measures. Additionally, focused support will be given to training and equipment requirements for physical security and investigative personnel charged with defending against terrorism and responding to terrorist attacks.


Superior intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance provide the requisite battlespace awareness tools for U.S. forces to take and hold the initiative, increase operating tempo, and concentrate power at the time and places of their choosing. The Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) was created to unify airborne reconnaissance architectures, streamline acquisition of airborne assets and associated ground systems, and ensure availability of advanced airborne reconnaissance systems to satisfy dominant battlespace awareness requirements.

The cornerstone of the DARO's strategy is extended reconnaissance, providing all-weather, day or night sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory as warfighter needs dictate. Over the last three years, interoperability and commonality have advanced significantly from the information stovepipes of the past. UAV programs have been fashioned into a tiered architecture emphasizing tactical (Outrider), medium altitude endurance (Predator), and theater-level high altitude endurance (Global Hawk and DarkStar) platforms. DARO's airborne reconnaissance architecture provides a coherent strategy assuring commonality and interoperability between unmanned and manned reconnaissance systems, ground systems, and technology insertions, including such capabilities as imaging, mapping, communications links, and sensors upgrades.

Responsiveness to the warfighter has been emphasized through the use of UAV Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs). This concept was successfully implemented in the Predator program, allowing a contract award just one year after the UAV's first operational deployment. While the Predator UAV ACTD was successfully completed in FY 1996, ACTDs for the Conventional High Altitude Endurance (HAE) UAV (Global Hawk), Low Observable HAE UAV (DarkStar), and Tactical UAV (TUAV -- Outrider) are ongoing. DarkStar's initial flight in FY 1996 was the first flight of a low-observable UAV and the first time a UAV flew autonomously from takeoff to landing. After a second demonstration flight mishap, DarkStar will return to flight testing by the third quarter of FY 1997. The Global Hawk and Outrider ACTDs are progressing on schedule, with first flight planned for both UAVs during FY 1997. The Pioneer UAV continues to provide a much-needed interim capability until the Outrider becomes available to satisfy the warfighter's requirement for a timely and accurate battlefield picture.

To ensure manned reconnaissance platforms and sensors remain robust and fully capable of fulfilling the warfighter's needs into the 21st century, the RC-135 Rivet Joint fleet is being increased from 14 to 16 aircraft, and reengineering of the U-2 to increase its service life and operational capabilities has begun. Two airborne reconnaissance low aircraft-multifunction (ARL-M) enhanced with moving target indicator capability are now operational in Korea to meet immediate CINC requirements. Advanced sensor initiatives for manned platforms are underway to provide increased support to the warfighter and compatibility with unmanned systems.

DoD is implementing the Joint Airborne Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Architecture (JASA) to ensure commonality and interoperability among SIGINT airborne surveillance and reconnaissance systems. The Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF) was developed in FY 1996 as an affordable approach to implement JASA. The Department also developed and published SIGINT standards to help industry develop JSAF components, leading to common, interoperable SIGINT collection systems for airborne reconnaissance platforms.

The Department is migrating imagery ground processing stations to a common, interoperable architecture using standards for the Common Imagery Ground/Surface System. DoD has begun development of the Common Imagery Processor, a critical element of this migration plan, to provide a single processor used by all Services for multiple airborne platforms and multiple sensors.


Defense security programs include activities required to prevent or deter espionage, sabotage, subversion, theft, or unauthorized use of classified or controlled information, systems, or war materiel in the Department's custody. Approximately one billion pages of material are subject to automatic declassification by the year 2000 in accordance with Executive Order 12958, Classified National Security Information. The Defense Declassification Management Panel and a panel of civilian and military historians continue to identify declassification resources and priorities to meet the Executive Order's objectives.

The Deputy Secretary of Defense and the DCI have approved initiatives to implement Executive Order 12968, Access to Classified Information, including standard investigative and reinvestigative scopes for access to Confidential, Secret, Top Secret, and Sensitive Compartmented Information, and common adjudicative guidelines to help ensure consistent and logical adjudicative outcomes across agencies. Both initiatives will promote the reciprocal acceptance of clearances and accesses throughout the federal government, reduce costly clearance delays, and implement the Joint Security Commission's conclusion that the personnel security program will remain the centerpiece of the federal security system.

DoD has progressed significantly over the last several years in the development and implementation of an industrial security process through the National Industrial Security Program (NISP). Current efforts are based on sound threat analysis and risk management practices and consistent security policies and practices throughout the government. The relationship between industry and government has transformed from adversarial to a partnership, empowering industry to more effectively and directly manage its own administrative security controls.


Major Automated Information System Oversight

Major automated information systems (AISs) are selected for Office of the Secretary of Defense oversight if more than $30 million will be spent in one year for system investment, if the total system investment cost is greater than $120 million, if the total life-cycle cost is greater than $360 million, or if the system is designated as special interest. There are currently 50 major AISs in DoD. Of these, 40 are reviewed by the Department's Major AIS Review Council (MAISRC), while oversight of the remaining 10 systems is delegated to the responsible Service or agency. AIS investment decisions have been improved through earlier involvement of oversight officials, use of integrated product teams, tailoring of the oversight process to the requirements of individual programs, and de-emphasis of excessive mandatory documentation. During 1996, the MAISRC members recommended approval of 16 acquisition decisions. Additional oversight was provided to every MAISRC program by OSD staff involvement in working-level integrated product teams.

Implementation of the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996

The Information Technology Management Reform Act (ITMRA) was signed into law on February 10, 1996, and became effective on August 8, 1996. The act increases the responsibility and authority of officials of the Office of Management and Budget and other federal agencies, and the accountability of these officials to Congress and the public for the use of information technology and other information resources supporting agency missions. On March 14, 1996, the Deputy Secretary designated the ASD(C3I) as DoD's Chief Information Officer.

A DoD information technology strategic plan will be developed and updated annually to reflect the Department's information technology strategies, goals, and objectives. The DoD plan will also include Service, agency, and field activity plans and will provide a basis for measuring progress of the DoD information technology program implementation. Component Program Objectives Memoranda will benefit from the strengthened information technology strategic planning process. DoD will institutionalize performance measures for information technology and National Security Systems. These measures will be the critical means by which senior DoD managers obtain timely information regarding the progress of these investments.


Defense Intelligence Agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is a combat support agency and a major collector and producer in the defense intelligence community. DIA provided warfighters, force planners, and policymakers timely, objective, and cogent intelligence to meet a variety of challenges in 1996, including the Quadrennial Defense Review. Implementation of Joint Vision 2010 began with DIA's strategic plan, Vector 21, whose goal is dominant battlespace knowledge, and Vision Force 2010, which identifies future DIA workforce and skill requirements.

Working with the CINCs, DIA established baseline threat assessments for all operational plans and improved intelligence support for the deliberate planning process. DIA provided intelligence on enemy capabilities and intentions for military operations under U.S. and NATO auspices, including Implementation Force monitoring and reconstitution in Bosnia; peacekeeping in Haiti, Burundi, and other African states; conventional targeting operations in response to UN resolution violations in Iraq; sensitive arms control negotiating sessions; and various humanitarian and domestic disaster relief operations.

Through its representation on the Joint Staff, DIA led the deployment of multiagency National Intelligence Support Teams, which provide the necessary information flow from the national to tactical level during periods of crisis and military operations other than war. DIA led the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assessment program to ensure fielded capabilities meet joint operational needs. The Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System and the Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System provided electronic connectivity and timely access to critical, fused information across decision making echelons. DIA's leadership of the defense intelligence community's transition into the DII COE and GCCS will advance the transfer of intelligence to operating forces.

DIA is the lead element in providing warning of terrorist threats to DoD personnel and interests outside of the United States. DIA produced intelligence on other high priority, national interest topics and transnational issues including the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Additionally, DIA established an Information Warfare Support Office to conduct intelligence preparation of the battlefield, foreign threat assessments, and analysis of foreign deception activities.

To strengthen the DoD Intelligence Production Program, DIA developed a strategic concept for the Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture. This program will move the production community toward a virtual production environment and improve battlespace visualization. Integration of Intelink, the Internet, and open sources enhanced DIA's efforts to provide rapid, cost-effective intelligence-on-demand to operators and other users. DIA's Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center provided policymakers and operational units with medical intelligence and preventive medicine countermeasures.

The National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) Human Intelligence (HUMINT) elements of the Services were consolidated into DIA's Defense HUMINT Service and new worldwide field elements were created. Five new defense attache offices were opened, expanding U.S. military diplomatic presence around the world. DIA's Central Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Office spearheaded significant advances in complex sensors, unattended MASINT monitoring, and chemical and biological weapon detection programs. To posture intelligence operations for the future, DIA invested in more efficient systems and practices, recruited and retrained skilled people, and modernized existing facilities.

Defense Investigative Service

The Defense Investigative Service (DIS) administers the NISP, which prescribes security countermeasures for contractors executing classified contracts for DoD and 22 other executive branch departments and agencies. Through a reinvention initiative began in 1994, NISP was changed from oversight of strict contractor compliance to a government/industry partnership. DIS now provides advice, counterintelligence support, and industrial security oversight to over 11,000 cleared business entities. A major part of this initiative integrated counterintelligence principles and the use of classified foreign collection threat information to improve risk management of classified programs in industry.

New technologies and the growing international defense market have increased the foreign intelligence threat and have taxed DIS's ability to provide security countermeasures support and assistance. In conjunction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, DIS is using counterintelligence information to enhance threat awareness and to deter illegal technology transfers and economic espionage in defense contractor facilities.

Personnel security is more important than ever. DIS is coordinating with other elements of the DoD security community and the Security Policy Board to reinvent the entire personnel security process, many of whose standards and procedures were developed in the l950s. During FY l996, DIS opened nearly 650,000 personnel security investigations and completed over 680,000 investigations.

DIS is implementing a complete suite of information technology applications developed to support reengineered processes. The core of the DIS automation initiative is a standardized corporate database containing all DIS mission information, with Internet access for in-house and outside customer data retrieval. The transition from mainframe-based legacy systems will be complete in FY l997, when all DIS elements will be unified into a single agency-wide mission support system.

Defense Information Systems Agency

The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is the combat support agency responsible for planning, developing, and providing information services to support the National Command Authorities and the warfighter. DISA and the Services share management and operations responsibility for the DII. DISA provides overall system engineering and end-to-end management and also manages and operates DII common user elements. The Services manage and operate the DII elements that provide an information technology infrastructure on Service facilities.

Information for the warfighter must be integrated in a secure, seamless manner and passed to the theater and ultimately the warrior's battlespace. This C4I For The Warrior concept is implemented through the DII and its C4I centerpiece, the GCCS. DISA has fielded GCCS at 37 initial operational capability sites. As of August 1996, GCCS became the C2 system of record, reducing the number of C2 migration systems from 154 to 59.

DISA is implementing the DISN, which consolidates individual service-level networks to eliminate redundant networks and reduce rates through larger buys. DISA has fielded initial CONUS segments of a SONET backbone service and has awarded two of the four contracts that make up the DISN strategy, the Global Support Services contract and the CONUS Switched/Bandwidth Manager Services contract. Since DoD currently leases over $168 million worth of satellite communications (SATCOM) per year, DISA is pursuing the congressionally mandated commercial SATCOM initiative to apply similar consolidation strategies to SATCOM services as well.

DISA launched the Global Combat Support System (GCSS) initiative to apply GCCS concepts to information systems that provide combat support functions, such as logistics support, to the warfighter. GCSS will integrate systems across combat support functions to provide end-to-end connectivity and access to all combat support and C2 data and applications needed at any time from any place through a signal workstation running the DII COE. Combat support mission areas include acquisition, logistics, engineering, finance, personnel and health services, and key initiatives such as EC/EDI.

DISA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) have established leading edge services through which CINCs, Services, and agencies can evaluate advanced technology for future assimilation into core DII, GCCS, and GCSS programs. Technology from several DARPA advanced technology demonstrations and ACTDs will migrate through leading edge services to enable new operational concepts in these programs. DISA is also responsible for the information security of DISA-managed portions of the DII, providing defensive, detection/protection, and reaction capabilities to prevent and resolve DoD computer system attacks.

National Imagery and Mapping Agency

NIMA became operational as a combat support agency on October 1, 1996. NIMA merges the imagery and geospatial information functions of the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), Central Imagery Office (CIO), National Photographic Interpretation Center, Defense Dissemination Program Office, and other related activities from DIA, Central Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and DARO. NIMA has overall program and budget authority as well as research, development, acquisition, exploitation, and production responsibilities for imagery and geospatial information elements of NFIP, Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP), and Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA).

Geospatial information includes any data that has associated with it some geographical and temporal reference. NIMA provides timely, relevant, and accurate imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information in support of national security objectives. NIMA is populating a massive global geospatial information distributed database to provide direct, customer-specified, electronic user access to new imagery, imagery products, and global geospatial information and services (GGIS). NIMA will significantly enhance dissemination and archiving through worldwide deployment of scalable libraries of imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information products. The agency is also developing the capability to use alternate commercial and foreign national sources for GGIS production. Ultimately, NIMA will be the single source for geo-referenced information for customers who will connect into an on-demand database and retrieve the specific information they require.


During 1996, DMA continued implementing the recommendations of the Defense Science Board's Task Force on Defense Mapping for Future Operations. To provide dominant battlefield awareness, DMA led a multidisciplined Geospatial Information Integrated Product Team to quickly develop a common operational view of the battlespace keyed to a standard geospatial framework. The current Integrated Product Team schedule calls for 12 months of focused development, testing, documenting, and resource determination. DMA established an on-line, user-accessible limited capability data warehouse to manage its information holdings and deployed 30 cartographers with desktop work stations to support the major commands with the DMA-developed Joint Mapping Tool Kit, now an integral part of GCCS.


During 1996, CIO concentrated on continued evolution of the U.S. Imagery System (USIS). Warfighter support improved with the further maturation of the Accelerated Architecture Acquisition Initiative (A3I), CIO's keystone imagery dissemination program. A3I extended the capability to digitally retrieve, process, and store imagery and imagery-derived products to the United States Central Command. Based on recommendations of the Bosnia Impact Team, CIO accelerated delivery of 24 image product archives to the United States European Command, expanding imagery availability for U.S. and NATO peacekeeping forces in Bosnia.

CIO provided near real-time imagery to support 215 military exercises, training, demonstrations, evaluations, and operations -- up from 80 just three years ago. Collection managers' ability to levy and monitor imagery requirements improved when the new Requirements Management System reached initial operational capability in June 1996, replacing the outdated COMIREX Automated Management System.

In February 1996, the National Performance Review Office presented CIO with the Hammer Award for its community-wide Exploitation Process Reengineering Study, which will transition the imagery community into a predominantly digital environment. It will also foster commonality among imagery users and analysts through migration of 12 legacy systems to a single system by early in the next century. To establish strategies for balancing capabilities across the USIS, CIO and NRO led an Imagery Architecture Study that examined prospective architectures for 2003 and beyond.

FY 1996 saw the final declassification and release to the public through the National Archives and Records Administration of approximately 800,000 frames of national satellite imagery collected from 1960 through 1972, and nearly 20,000 cans of national airborne reconnaissance imagery collected prior to 1976.


One major challenge for NIMA will be to integrate ongoing information technology initiatives begun by the organizations it subsumed. These initiatives include accelerated replacement of the Digital Production System, enhanced capability to exploit new sensors and alternate source material, and final transition to the Requirements Management System and A3I. Consolidating these efforts will produce superior global geospatial information and improved customer service by leveraging emerging commercial technology to migrate to an open systems environment.

National Reconnaissance Office

A joint DoD and intelligence community organization, NRO designs, builds, and operates on-orbit reconnaissance systems. Intelligence gleaned from NRO systems support a wide variety of intelligence community assessments. In FY 1996, NRO operations ranged from intelligence support for contingency operations like Joint Endeavor to support of other government agencies involved in disaster relief and humanitarian missions. NRO assigns customer service representatives to CINCs to ensure the commanders' needs are addressed. For most CINCs, in-theater support representatives are also assigned to provide technical expertise on space reconnaissance systems, real-time two-way communications between the NRO and CINC staffs, and expanded access to NRO systems.

NRO expanded its involvement in combat systems integration efforts, successfully implementing sensor-to-shooter technology for the EA-6B in support of NATO efforts in Bosnia. Based on in-house expertise with Global Broadcast Service technology, NRO implemented the Joint Broadcast Service portion of the DARPA/DISA BC2A initiative. This advanced commercially available technology will enable military customers to receive video and data at unprecedented rates with small, low cost, portable receive terminals. Information was collected from national sources and the theater, sent to a broadcast center, and beamed by satellite to ground stations in-theater. Functions readily adaptable to this technology include intelligence, logistics, weather, mapping, or any other systems that require the passing of large quantities of data.

National Security Agency/Central Security Service

The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is a DoD combat support agency resourced through NFIP and Defense programs that form the NSA/CSS portion of the U.S. Cryptologic System. The SIGINT component of NSA/CSS provides integrated support to military commanders and deployed forces, and delivers timely, actionable support to national policymakers. NSA is also responsible for the development of information systems security products and services to protect vital information, including that transiting the DII. NSA/CSS has developed a comprehensive strategic roadmap, the National Cryptologic Strategy for the 21st Century, to ensure that the U.S. Cryptologic System continues to provide information superiority for the nation in an efficient and timely manner.

NSA/CSS provides time-critical support to military commanders and deployed forces involved in crisis or contingency operations worldwide through 24-hour crisis response centers at NSA headquarters and national intelligence support teams on the ground in-theater. When cryptologic support to operations could include insight into the status of an adversary's force, or indications and warning of imminent threat or hostile action, NSA/CSS personnel are deployed directly to tactical elements to integrate cryptology with joint operations.

NSA also continues to respond to a broad array of requirements from the policy and law enforcement communities, such as support to U.S. trade policies, sanctions monitoring and support to the demarche process, weapons of mass destruction counterproliferation, and counternarcotics support to both DoD and the law enforcement community. The U.S. Cryptologic System is able to field flexible, agile collection and processing systems that are capable of responding to the dynamic information needs of military, policy, and law enforcement customers.

NSA/CSS continues to develop dissemination capabilities to deliver fused, actionable, and sanitized multimedia intelligence information to users. NSA/CSS provides high volumes of critical data to warfighters over existing broadcasts, including graphically fused all-source SIGINT through the Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System's Advanced Tactical Cryptologic Support system. This increases SIGINT utility and impact by delivering actionable intelligence information at the time and in the format best suited to meet warfighter needs. To improve tactical SIGINT system interoperability and connectivity, NSA has expanded its role in the oversight of TIARA, JMIP, and Service information systems security tactical SIGINT investment programs. Cryptologic personnel are being integrated into the commands to better understand customer requirements and more effectively support deployed products and services.


DoD is aligning and focusing its command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance programs, capabilities, and systems to maximize warfighter benefits in the changing environment through a combination of better intelligence, sophisticated command and control, highly motivated and trained C4ISR personnel, and global defense information access.

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