Statement of RADM Malcolm I Fages, U.S. Navy Director, Submarine Warfare Division Office of the Chief Of Naval Operations (N87) and RADM J. P. Davis, U.S. Navy Program Executive Office for Submarines before the House Armed Services Committee Military Procurement Subcommittee on Submarine Force Structure and Modernization 27 June 2000 Chairman Hunter, Members of the Procurement Subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to appear today and discuss the Submarine Force. We plan to focus on submarine force structure requirements, the decisions that need to be made to support adequate force levels and the technology insertion program that will ensure that U.S. submarines remain the best in the world. Mr. Chairman, first, some opening observations. As the Chief of Naval Operations has stated, the enduring Navy-Marine Corps contribution to national security is combat-credible forward presence. This has been demonstrated conclusively most recently through our contributions to the combat operations against Iraq and Kosovo. As we build on this expeditionary tradition and transform ourselves into a "network-centric" and "knowledge dominant" service, capable of projecting timely and decisive force inland from the sea, we must remain mindful of the capabilities potential adversaries can field. Independent studies examining key trends in future naval warfare, including the recently completed Attack Submarine Study, conclude that 21st century littoral warfare could be marked by the use of asymmetrical means to counter our naval strength through an access-denial strategy. In light of these studies, undeniable access to the physical and electronic domains becomes a key factor in defining a platform's relevance in preserving forward presence, and in gaining and sustaining knowledge superiority. The modular design of the upcoming Virginia Class submarine, along with the potential payload volume of an SSGN and our ongoing technology insertion program will ensure that we maintain our flexibility to employ new payload and sensor options in the face of an evolving and capable threat. Asymmetric weapons that may be used in an attempt to deny us access include quiet submarines, mines, tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, weapons of mass destruction and information warfare. The submarine's inherent stealth enables it to gain access to denied areas where it can have substantial impact in collecting intelligence and, if necessary, striking targets to clear the path for less stealthy forces. With that brief sketch of the necessity for capable submarines built in sufficient numbers, we would like to turn to a discussion of force structure, and some of the challenges and opportunities we believe must be considered. Submarine Force Structure The 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review stated that "contingent on a reevaluation of peacetime overseas presence requirements, submarines will be procured at a long-term rate of one-and-one- half to two per year, consistent with a target force level of 50 attack submarines." In March 1998, DEPSECDEF directed CJCS to conduct the required additional study. The Attack Submarine Study is now complete. The recently completed Attack Submarine study stated three principal conclusions. Specifically, it concluded that 68 SSNs in the 2015 and 76 in the 2025 time frames were required to meet all of the Unified CINCs' and national intelligence community's highest operational and collection requirements. Next, it concluded that a force structure below 55 SSNs in the 2015 and 62 in the 2025 time frames would leave the CINCs insufficient capability to respond to urgent crucial demands without gapping other requirements of high national interest. Finally, the study concluded that to counter the technologically pacing threat would require 18 Virginia Class SSNs in the 2015 time frame. Since the 1997 QDR decision to target a force structure of 50 SSNs, the Navy's Fleet Commanders have had their operational flexibility severely curtailed. During the course of the Attack Submarine Study, attack submarine force structure decreased from 76 SSNs to 56 SSNs. Increasingly, operational commanders are having to refuse support for missions because of a lack of submarine assets. Concomitantly, the operational tempo of our ships has risen substantially. The Unified CINCs are saying, and the study bears out, that the 50 SSN force level directed by the QDR is inadequate. In the short term, we should not let force structure fall below 55 SSNs, and, in the longer term, we should build toward a force level of 68 SSNs to provide the force structure the Unified CINCs need to achieve their requirements. Industrial Loading: There is a significant "bow wave" of nuclear submarine major depot availabilities to be planned and executed over the next seven years. Commencing in FY-00, over 35 shipyard availabilities of 12-30 months in duration will be required to conduct crucial maintenance on Los Angeles and Ohio Class submarines. This is in sharp contrast to the total of 11 major availabilities that were conducted over the last seven years. This maintenance workload over the next seven years creates a tremendous strain on the availability of submarines to meet vital mission commitments. An average of seven ships will be undergoing work in a shipyard at all times with as many as 11 ships off-line in FY-02. This does not account for the additional off-line time attributed to minor shipyard Selected Restricted Availabilities (SRAs) of 2 months in duration which SSN 688 Class submarines must undergo every 4 years. We have focused the attention of all the major stakeholders to successfully meet this challenge. The cooperation and communication between all stakeholders is at an all-time high. Our major emphasis has been in advancing the planning timetable for these availabilities to ensure the shipyards are ready to execute the work when the submarines arrive at the shipyard and to standardize the products used by each shipyard to ensure consistent quality of the work performed. Despite the operational demands these availabilities create, we look forward to the stability they provide our industrial base. Options to Reach and Maintain Attack Submarine Force Structure. There are 2 options that present themselves in the near and mid term to reach and maintain an increased level of SSN force structure. Near-term Relief. Seven pre-VLS 688 Class submarines are scheduled for inactivation from FY-02 to FY-08 before the end of their service life. These SSNs could be refueled and remain in service an average of 12 years each, following refueling. Mid-term Relief. Four Trident SSBNs are scheduled for inactivation in FY 03-04. These SSBNs could be refueled and converted to SSGNs, providing an additional 21-23 years of service each, and used to fulfill TLAM requirements currently covered by cruisers, destroyers and attack submarines. Additionally, they would provide a robust Special Operations Forces (SOF) capability currently provided to a lesser degree by SSNs. The Fiscal Year 2001 President's Budget provides $31M in FY-01 for advance procurement to support possible SSN 688 Class refuelings. It also establishes a new procurement line item in the SCN appropriation for submarine force structure, and requests funding in FY-02 through FY-05 to either continue efforts to refuel four SSN 688s or to partially fund SSGN conversion. We cannot achieve both options with the funding currently identified. When a nuclear submarine reaches the end of its reactor core life, it is either refueled if there is sufficient remaining ship life, or inactivated. The final decision will balance the opportunity to refuel those ships scheduled for inactivation starting in FY-02 with the revolutionary opportunity posed by SSGN. The SSGN project is currently in the Mission Area Assessment phase of program development. Funding provided in FY-99 and FY-00 is being used to further explore the concept design and fully develop the mission need. If approved, the FY- 01 funding will continue these efforts. Also, we have begun a study to determine the marginal utility of SSGN compared to other platforms, which will include an evaluation of the impact of the possible SSGN conversion on attack submarine force structure. The only way to reach and maintain an increased SSN force structure beyond about 2016 is with an increased build rate. Navy will evaluate alternative procurement strategies for achieving increased force level during the development of the FY-02 budget. Achieving this force structure will place great stress on our Ships Construction Navy (SCN) accounts. Now that we have set out some of the force structure issues that we face, we will provide some detail about our major programs. Trident SSGN. Our Navy has a tremendous near term opportunity to modernize Trident submarines to an SSGN configuration, which could carry large numbers of Tomahawks and SOF. According to the Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) and FY-00 Congressional guidance, our nation will no longer require four of the existing eighteen Trident hulls for strategic deterrence. They will be removed from strategic service beginning in FY-03. These four hulls represent an enormous capital investment by the United States, will have over 20 years of service life remaining, and could alter our maritime capabilities in truly innovative and cost effective ways. The 1998-99 Navy SSGN Study clearly demonstrated that the Trident SSGN would provide our CINCs, with extraordinary firepower, capability and versatility. The Navy has a limited window of opportunity to conduct the conversion of these Tridents, prior to their inactivation, scheduled to start in FY-03. Congress appropriated $10 million in FY-00 for additional study and initial design work on the SSGN concept, and we are very thankful for this support. An additional $35M is in the President's budget in FY-01 to continue this important conversion design work. The SSGN concept enables the Navy to do a number of important things at a modest investment of about $600M/ship. First, it would provide key warfighting enhancements to our CINCs prior to and at the beginning of any potential conflict. At the opening of any conflict, the massive firepower of SSGN - up to 154 Tomahawk missiles - would enable the destruction of critical nodes that threaten our forces. With its ability to conduct a 90- day SOF campaign using 66 embarked Special Forces troops, SSGNs could reconnoiter and prepare the battlespace by assisting in the selection and targeting of key enemy sites. Second, it reduces multi-mission pull on our surface ships and other submarines. Because two SSGNs would be deployed at any one time in multiple theaters, Tomahawk strike requirements would be met principally by these stealthy platforms, reducing the current shifting of strike assets between theaters and enabling our naval forces to conduct other important missions. Third, the Trident SSGN concept affords the Navy an unprecedented opportunity to examine advanced submarine payloads in new and innovative ways. For example, tubes could be modified to carry special Undersea Unmanned Vehicles (UUVs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and other payloads of interest to the Navy. We have evaluated the impact SSGN conversions will have on our industrial base and its ability to deliver Virginia Class submarines as scheduled. Our findings indicate that there will be no negative impact on the Virginia Class submarine schedule; in fact, SSGN conversions would help level private shipyard workload. In our view, the SSGN concept is the biggest opportunity for the innovation and transformation of maritime forces using an existing platform since the 1920s conversion of the battlecruisers Lexington and Saratoga to large aircraft carriers, paving the way for our World War II carrier success. SSN Development. We are continuing the transition period in the development and construction of submarines. We have completed construction of the 688 Class, and two of three Seawolf Class ships are now in commission. The early performance of both Seawolf and Connecticut has been superb and exceeds our design expectations. The final tests demonstrating full tactical warfighting are on track to complete later this year. The third of the class, Jimmy Carter (SSN23), was chosen to serve as a test bed for studying the evolution of submarine missions in the 21st century. The Navy is modifying it with a hull extension that will support classified research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) efforts for notional naval special warfare (NSW) missions, tactical undersea surveillance and other undersea warfare concepts. The Navy, with funding approved by Congress to complete the Multi-Mission Project, has contracted with General Dynamics Electric Boat Division (EB) to provide Jimmy Carter with additional volume and functionality to support new multi-mission opportunities. These changes will have no direct impact on the ship's organic warfighting capability but will give the submarine an enhanced payload capability. The required modifications will delay her scheduled delivery by approximately 27 months, until mid-2004. Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarines. The keel for the first Virginia Class submarine was laid in September of 1999, and the ship is currently 29% complete. Construction of the Texas, second in the class, is underway and the ship is 20% complete. The FY-01 budget request includes $1.7 billion for full funding of the third ship and advanced procurement for the fourth and fifth ships of the Virginia Class. The third and fourth ships are part of the unique single contract and construction teaming plan approved by Congress in 1998. Teaming has proven to be a cost-effective arrangement given the necessity to maintain two nuclear submarine shipbuilders and the current low rate of production of the Virginia Class. The current FYDP includes level-loading of one ship each year for FY 01-05 providing a cost effective steady production rate that helps Electric Boat and Newport News achieve level manning and more economic material buys. The Virginia Class submarine will surpass the operational performance of Seawolf in stealth, special warfare, mine warfare, surveillance, battle group operations, and mission flexibility - at about a 30% reduction in procurement cost. To maintain such margins, the design incorporates flexibility to adapt future advanced technologies rapidly and affordably. This strategy requires steady investment to succeed. The Virginia Class is the first submarine designed from the keel up for near-land operations while remaining second to none in "blue water" operations. Virginia will be capable of covertly penetrating areas denied other less stealthy U.S. forces to gather intelligence or conduct land-attack operations from within the defensive umbrella of potential adversaries. Building on the success of the Seawolf program, its enhancements will include unprecedented stealth, both acoustic and non- acoustic, a reconfigurable torpedo room that can be optimized for a variety of missions including Anti-submarine Warfare, Strike, or Special Forces delivery. Virginia will have a reduced electromagnetic signature for mine avoidance and will carry an advanced mine detection system, a nine-man SOF lockout trunk and the ability to carry both the Dry Deck Shelter and the Advanced SEAL Delivery System. Sophisticated surveillance enhancements will include improved periscope imagery capability using a digital electro-optical photonic mast and improved acoustic sensors including towed arrays, high frequency chin array, and the Lightweight Wide Aperture hull mounted array. The inclusion of advanced technologies and increased automation resulted in a 26 percent reduction in the number of watchstanders required to operate the ship at sea. Additionally, Virginia was specifically designed to readily accommodate the insertion of advanced technologies in each new ship. Virginia provides this capability at a total ownership cost savings projected to be greater than 30% compared to her predecessor. The first major combatant designed in the post Cold War era to meet post Cold War multi-mission requirements, the Virginia was designed in a cost conscious manner - reducing Total Ownership Cost (TOC) was a key design factor - providing the best value for the future. To reduce TOC, the Virginia Class includes the disciplined application of commercial specifications and components, fewer developed specifications, and hence, fewer construction drawings. The Virginia program was the first to design a ship with COTS electronics environment. This enabled non-propulsion electronics to be acquired at less than 40% of prior submarine electronics. The Virginia design also uses current commercial, turbocharged diesel technology replacing a submarine unique design. Benefits of using the commercial design included a 25% purchase cost savings, an allowed decrease in the length of the Auxiliary Machinery Room (AMR) space resulting in a decrease in overall hull length, and ability to leverage the commercial logistics support structure. Additionally, the modular design and the use of digital design tools will allow seamless integration of new technologies into each subsequent ship. The program continues to examine innovative ways to reduce acquisition and lifecycle costs. Each ship will improve on the capabilities of its predecessor and continue to improve total ownership costs. We will continue to upgrade the Virginia Class capabilities with the evolutionary technologies being developed for the entire submarine force. In addition to this steady stream of incremental improvements, the Virginia Class SSNs will also introduce significant technological upgrades in a series of synergistic "bundles" at appropriate points in the program that will provide sharp gains in operational capabilities. The makeup of each of these upgrades will be based on several factors including priority of fleet needs, technical maturity and smart use of available resources. The first of these major technology "bundle" insertions is targeted for a ship authorized around the 2006 time frame. Sources of bundle technologies will include: DARPA Sensors and Payloads Teams, Shipbuilder Design Improvement Proposals, Navy Science and Technology transitions, Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) transitions and adaptation of other DoD and commercial advanced technologies. Our initial estimates in the development of this "bundle" suggests promise for significant enhancements in submarine connectivity, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), and use of off-board sensors. Key payload enablers will be the Advanced Sail modularity opportunities and a new front- end design achievable as a result of introducing the Bow Conformal Array. A second technology "bundle" will be introduced around the 2010 timeframe. The unit to receive this "bundle" would likewise receive other technological improvements in accordance with ongoing plans of record as well as appropriate technologies identified by the DARPA Payload Study that have matured plus additional quality of life improvements. The focus of this second "bundle" is expected to be on the introduction of an electric drive system, in the Virginia Class. The introduction of electric drive technology will be the first step in the ultimate goal of achieving an all-electric submarine and the second step in achieving a truly flexible, modular submarine. We will continue to look for future technology "bundles" to make the complete transition to an all-electric, fully modular ship. This might include modular payload capabilities providing the ability to meet future requirements for strategic deterrence missions. With this ship we will be looking at whole new approaches to upgrades with rapid capability improvements, maintenance, and force deployments. Technological Innovation and Modernization Planning for technology insertion in the Virginia Class submarine program is just one part of our plan for submarine innovation. For the next 15 years 688 Class submarines will comprise the majority of our Submarine Force, so it is imperative that we continue to modernize all our submarines to ensure our ability to control the littorals through the early decades of the 21st century. Therefore, we are pursuing a "forward fit/backfit" strategy to upgrade our current submarines even as we build the Virginia Class submarine. A key benefit of this strategy includes significant cost savings as we develop common systems for all our submarines. Long-term technological innovation will be addressed via a combined Navy/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) development program. In 1998, the Navy and the DARPA signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to study advanced payloads and sensors systems in preparation for a long-term development effort. The MOA closely follows the Defense Science Board's "Submarine of the Future" Study recommendation that DARPA and the Navy pursue a "wide open look" at future submarine design. The 18-month Concept Development phase being pursued by two contractor teams will be complete this fall. The Navy is proceeding with plans to follow this effort with demonstrations of some of the concepts beginning next year. Already, near-term submarine modernization and development efforts have demonstrated progress in many key areas including sensors, weapons, and unmanned vehicles. Now, we'll turn to the specific areas where innovation and SSN modernization are improving battlespace preparation and warfighting capabilities. Preparing the Battlespace Battlespace Intelligence. The submarine's ability to monitor a potential enemy in peacetime and to penetrate a denied area independently, covertly and for long duration in wartime, provides a unique tactical advantage. Submarines provide U.S. operational commanders the critical capabilities they need to prepare and shape the battlespace and defeat a technologically advanced threat with little risk to U.S. personnel. U.S. submarines operating undetected near the enemy's coastline can provide a complete picture of the undersea, surface and near shore environment, including enemy force dispositions and preparations. The submarine, with its extremely capable sensor suite, located well inside an adversary's anti-access barrier, can provide the information to assist commanders in making timely, informed decisions. In this role, submarines pave the way for the effective employment of other naval forces and insulate those same forces from unnecessary risks during the initial phases of any conflict. Acoustic Superiority. The Submarine Force is making significant, rapid improvements in acoustic sensors and processing. In real-world exercises and operations, both the TB-29 towed array and the new Acoustic Rapid Commercial-Off-The- Shelf (COTS) Insertion (ARCI) sonar system have unequivocally demonstrated our submarines retain a clear acoustic advantage. Use of COTS equipment in ARCI (and in a modified TB-29 array) has substantially reduced costs with significantly improved processing capability. Each ARCI ship-set costs only a small fraction of the price of its predecessor, yet improves processing power by an order of magnitude. This faster and more robust processing power enables us to use powerful new algorithms that result in significantly improved towed array detection ranges. Each modified TB-29 towed array will cost one- half of the price of its predecessor, yet provides equivalent performance. We are also working with the Navy's Chief Technology Officer and the Office of Naval Research to develop even more affordable and reliable towed arrays, specifically fiber optic towed arrays. Fleet Commanders have repeatedly requested ARCI systems at a rate faster than we can afford to provide them. A key advantage of ARCI is the use of a technology developed under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program called the Multipurpose Processor (MPP). The MPP introduced middleware technology into ARCI that facilitated our ability to transport software to more capable hardware and create Advanced Processing Builds (APB). APBs allow the rapid incorporation of fleet-desired tactical improvements and other important enhancements into new software builds on a nearly annual basis. Let us provide three examples of how APB will provide new capabilities to the fleet, above and beyond tactical processing improvements. First, we intend to provide embedded operator training using the APB process. Embedded training allows sailors to train onboard their own ship, and improves overall training quality and realism. Second, we intend to add the capability to conduct post-mission processing onboard our submarines. This will allow our ships to conduct an in-situ review of interactions with other ships and submarines. By employing a variety of algorithms, the ship can collect and report valuable intelligence information in near real time. With the explosion in acoustic information that ARCI provides, this improvement is mandatory to avoid choking our shore facilities with unprocessed data that could take months or years to analyze. Third, we intend to deliver the Total Ship Monitoring System (TSMS), which enables quick detection and isolation of sound vulnerabilities on our own submarines, as part of an APB build. We have learned that through the use of the SBIR program, and its small high technology businesses, we can challenge the status quo and create an ongoing competitive environment to bring out the best in all our program participants. We believe this is a business model that can be used to stimulate innovative thinking throughout our programs. In a manner similar to ARCI, we are leveraging COTS hardware and software into the MK 2 Combat Control System. This effort is producing a readily upgradable system that is more capable in engagement planning, target assessment and weapons firing. Recently completed operational testing has shown that submarines with this upgraded system are clearly more timely and effective in management of multiple contacts and TOMAHAWK missile planning. ARCI is our top submarine modernization priority. We have an aggressive phased installation plan that supplies continuously improved versions of ARCI across the entire Submarine Force by FY-06, including backfit of the ARCI capability into the Seawolf Class submarines. With your continued support, we are confident this system will provide the necessary improvements in detection capabilities to counter the improving undersea threats we face in the littorals. Integrated Undersea Surveillance. In the Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS) area, we are leveraging submarine advances and developing several systems with strong potential to improve our Anti-Submarine capabilities in the littorals. IUSS will migrate to the ARCI architecture starting next year to take advantage of ARCI's improvements and provide commonality that will enable a seamless transition to network-centric anti- submarine warfare. Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS) Twin Line operations in 1998 and 1999 demonstrated the ability to detect advanced diesel submarines at substantial ranges in the littoral environment where contact was previously thought to be "unobtainable" by the operational commander. Two twin-line systems have been delivered using current technology arrays. No additional systems will be delivered next year due to funding constraints. However, follow-on SURTASS twin lines will leverage the submarine TB-29 developments by fielding twin TB-29 arrays. The COTS version of the Fixed Distributed System (FDS-C) starts in-water testing this year. This use of COTS equipment has also resulted in substantially reduced costs with no reduction in fielded capability. Development of the new Advanced Deployable System (ADS) will provide a rapidly deployable acoustic array installed on the ocean floor that provides littoral undersea wide-area surveillance and real time cueing. ADS development is moving along smoothly with potential for accelerated capability development. Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR). ISR will be aided by a new Electronic Warfare Support (ES) Suite, which is designed as a minimally manned, passive receiving system capable of detection, acquisition, identification and localization of a variety of signals of interest. The ES Suite consists of the AN/BLQ-10 ES System to be installed on Virginia Class submarines and backfit on Seawolf and 688 Improved Flight Class submarines. Improvements in our antennas incorporated in the Type 18I periscope and Integrated Electronics Mast (IEM) will aid our new ES systems to provide superior performance in the littorals. Additionally, we have improved antenna sensitivity to enhance the tactical utility of the submarine and to increase its covert standoff range. In the case of TYPE 18 periscope antenna improvement, we expect a 200% enhancement in the performance of the antenna against significant SIGINT targets of interest. CLASSIC TROLL, a SIGINT exploitation suite developed under Commander, Naval Security Group, offers a 500% improvement in probability of SIGINT Intercept in support of fleet, theater and national operational requirements. This synchronized sensor and analysis suite will achieve a prompt jump in submarine SIGINT capability and implement the maritime cryptologic architecture for the submarine force. Although the Type 18I improvement package and CLASSIC TROLL programs are not funded in FY-01, they are on the CNO's FY-01 unfunded Navy requirements list. The AN/BLQ-10 and AN/BVS-1 (Photonics) were installed on USS ANNAPOLIS in the Fall of 1999. AN/BLQ-10 completed OPEVAL in May and we are waiting on the results. Unofficial indications are that it performed very well. The Photonics Mast is undergoing extensive operational use to ensure we have the necessary experience before deploying it on the Virginia Class. Its full spectrum state of the art capabilities are being exercised to ensure its successful introduction on Virginia. Both systems will deploy aboard ANNAPOLIS later this year and provide valuable information on their employment in collecting tactical and visual intelligence. Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs). UUVs will be a key force multiplier for the submarine force of the future. In our view, UUVs will be used for four high priority missions: maritime reconnaissance in denied areas, undersea search and surveillance, communications and navigation aids, and in the longer term, submarine tracking. The Navy has developed a UUV Master Plan and formed a UUV Executive Steering Group to ensure synergy in UUV development. Mine Reconnaissance. Mine reconnaissance capability from submarine launched UUVs will allow submarines to detect covertly mined danger areas, without risk to naval forces. As a result, potential adversaries would have fewer clues indicating potential locations of U.S. expeditionary operations, allowing military planners to better exploit the element of surprise. The Long Term Mine Reconnaissance system (LMRS), a submarine launched UUV, is currently under development with initial operational capability projected for 2003. It will provide autonomous, long-range reconnaissance of the mine threat and other ocean bottom features in littoral areas of interest. I see the LMRS as a revolutionary advance in our mine reconnaissance capability. It covers a large amount of area, keeps the ship or submarine at a distance from potential mined areas, and enables that ship or submarine to conduct other missions. Based on recent research in high frequency sonar applications, the Submarine Force is placing PUMA - Precision Undersea Mapping - into Phase IV of ARCI. This innovation would provide for unparalleled knowledge of the undersea battlespace, enabling a substantial improvement in mine reconnaissance and avoidance capabilities as well as preparation of special forces/amphibious assault ingress routes. Additionally we are upgrading the BQS- 15 sonar, currently installed on 688 SSNs, with PUMA to enable those submarines with a separate high frequency sonar to have the same mine reconnaissance capability. To further enhance LMRS we hope to add PUMA - the precision mapping capability already discussed - to LMRS. In addition, we are looking at other enhancements to LMRS. Communications Connectivity. Submarine communications capabilities are being upgraded substantially. The submarine High Data Rate (HDR) antenna is the top priority submarine C4I initiative. It is the Navy's first multi-band dish antenna. The HDR antenna will provide the Submarine Force with worldwide high data rate satellite communications capability. It will enable the submarine to access a variety of systems, including the secure, survivable Joint Milstar Satellite Program in the Extremely High Frequency (EHF) band and the Global Broadcast Service (GBS). We will install HDR antennas on all SSNs by FY- 04, substantially improving SSN connectivity with the Navy's carrier battlegroups. We also intend to install HDR antennas on all SSBNs. We are developing low cost, high return enhancements on our other submarine antennas. For example, the OE-538/BRA-34 TOYON modification in combination with an upgraded mini-DAMA radio suite enhances Ultra High Frequency (UHF) coverage from 4.8 kbps to 56 kbps for submarines operating in global coverage areas. We are in the first year of a three-year effort to develop a Multi-element Buoyant Cable Antenna (MBCA) that will enable submarines to transmit and receive at impressive broadcast speeds while submerged at speed and depth. The antenna will demonstrate UHF transmit and receive capabilities at 24 Kbps or higher, and up to 1.54 Mbps within Line of Sight ranges. Should research and development efforts be successful, and we fully believe they will be based on advanced technology demonstration work done to date, we intend to proceed with MBCA production in the FY-03 to 05 timeframe. Submarine communications upgrades will be effectively implemented in all submarines through concurrent implementation of a common architecture and operating system and sharing of system element designs between Seawolf, Virginia, Los Angeles and Ohio Class submarines. Life cycle maintenance cost avoidance will also accelerate the connectivity of the submarine fleet. Tactical Integrated Digital System (TIDS). Tactical Integrated Digital System (TIDS) is a key innovation that will enhance future submarine combat capability. TIDS is a fiber optic open architecture data bus that ties the submarine's major electronic systems together. Through TIDS, data can be rapidly transferred between Sonar, the Fire Control system, Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and radio, allowing, for example, digital imagery from the periscope or new signals detected by ESM to be retransmitted off the ship for immediate analysis. TIDS will not only enable future submarine crews to conduct their missions more efficiently, it will also play a key role in supporting development of a "common tactical picture" amongst naval forces in the coming years. TIDS will be backfitted in all submarines, including Seawolf, starting in FY-00, and will be complete by FY-05. We see these modernization programs as critical to enabling our submarines to prepare the battlespace in both peacetime and wartime. Battlespace Attack Precision Land Attack . Submarines provide a substantial portion (about 20%) of each battlegroup's Tomahawk land attack capability in a uniquely covert delivery platform. Moreover, submarines executed over 25% of the total Tomahawk strikes conducted during NATO operations in Kosovo. There are several key reasons why submarine launched strike is so important to our Navy. By shooting with surprise from close-in, submarine launched missiles can destroy an adversary's critical targets before they can be moved, hidden, or otherwise denied to U.S. forces, having a devastating impact on the morale of our adversary in the early stages of the conflict. Submarines also provide the operational commander with a highly survivable strike platform that is able to execute strike tasking in a hostile environment. Further improvements in submarine precision land attack will occur with development of Tactical Tomahawk. Tactical Tomahawk will allow for Battle Damage Assessment, in-flight loitering, and retargeting, while cutting missile costs by about 50%. This will enhance battlefield responsiveness and flexibility, while providing an enabler for future capability growth. Special Operation Forces Insertion. Submarines provide the only truly covert Special Operations Forces insertion capability. The submarine's inherent stealth and endurance, as well as sophisticated communications equipment and sensors, enable covert, precise insertion of Navy SEALS and other special operations forces close to their littoral objective, and provide a reliable means for their extraction once their mission is accomplished. The Advanced Seal Delivery System (ASDS), a long- range (125NM) mini-submarine will establish a new level of capability by providing a dry environment that allows for long- range, covert insertion of Special Forces from submarines. The first ASDS is undergoing testing now and will deliver this year. Anti-Submarine Warfare/Anti-Surface Warfare Enhancements. We are modifying the Mk-48 ADCAP torpedo to a MOD 6 configuration, which is acoustically quieter and has greatly improved performance in the difficult littoral environment. We have an opportunity to upgrade our torpedoes to the MOD 6 configuration as we conduct required periodic depot-level maintenance. Taking advantage of this opportunity saves money, shortens the ADCAP modernization interval from fifteen years to six years for the entire heavyweight torpedo inventory, and resolves the current torpedo commercial industrial base workload shortfall. To protect our submarines against improved torpedoes and sonars available on the open market, we are developing a new acoustic countermeasure protection and control set (AN/WLY-1). The AN/WLY-1 provides improved capability for the detection of intentional active emissions from a wide variety of advanced threats, including sonars and torpedoes. SSBN Strategic Operations. The Navy's Trident submarines continue to provide the country with a highly survivable, potent and ready element in support of our strategic forces. Modernization of Trident submarines to the D-5, Trident II system continues, ensuring our strategic forces remain preeminent into the new century. We are also modernizing our Trident submarines with many of the tactical systems discussed earlier so that they likewise benefit from our technology insertion initiatives. SSBN Security Program. Historically, the SSBN Security Program (SSP) has enabled us to investigate technologies and threats to all U.S. submarines and to develop appropriate countermeasures when necessary. Over a number of years, the program has been restructured and funding has decreased by over 60%. However, the need to develop countermeasures against advanced technology threats, applicable to all U.S. submarines operating in the deep oceans and littorals, remains an area of concern. Conclusion Mr. Chairman, I would like to close our testimony by reiterating the critical need for submarine delivered capabilities. The systems we are building into our ships today and the programs we plan for tomorrow will enable us to counter and defeat future threats. Our submarines are stealthier and more capable than any ship in the world. Our relevance in regional peace or conflict comes from our undeniable ability to gain access to denied areas through stealth, our ability to gain dominant knowledge of the contested area, our long dwell time on station, and our precision combat power operating from within an enemy's defenses. Innovative modernization of our current submarines, deploying Seawolf submarines, and development of the superb Virginia Class will ensure the United States remains the preeminent Submarine Force. With your continued help, we will continue to build the most advanced, technologically sophisticated submarines in the world. --USN--