Navy and Marine Corps provide the Nation with a continuous, adaptable, and
active instrument of security policy with which to promote stability and
project maritime power. Forward-deployed,
combat-credible expeditionary naval forces are important to shaping the
global security environment; helping assure access to regions of vital
interest; and permitting timely and frequently the initial crisis response
from the sea. The ability to
reassure friends and allies, deter potential adversaries, and, when called
upon, engage in combat at all levels of intensity makes the Navy-Marine
Corps Team especially useful to the Nation in peace, crisis, and war.
versatile naval forces can execute a broad range of missions and are
relatively unconstrained by regional infrastructure requirements and
restrictions by other nations. At
one end of the spectrum, rotational naval forces are engaged daily to
favorably influence overseas security environments.
These same forces are thus immediately available for humanitarian
assistance, disaster relief, or crisis response.
Likewise, naval forces provide the most cost-effective and
survivable component of our strategic nuclear deterrence triad of
nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, manned bombers, and
inter-continental missiles. At
the other end of the spectrum, on-station Navy and Marine Corps forces can
provide a timely and powerful response through the full range of strike
and amphibious operations. They are central to the unimpeded flow and sustainment of
follow-on forces in both small-scale contingencies and larger-scale
It is no secret that our
current force of 316 ships is fully employed and in many cases stretched
thin to meet the growing national security demands.
For example, to respond to an emergent crisis in one region,
forward naval presence is frequently reduced in another.
This reality was brought to the forefront twice in 1999. In January-February 1999, dual contingencies in Central
Command (Iraq and Eritrea-Ethiopia) necessitated that the BELLEAU WOOD ARG/MEU
(SOC) remain on station in the Persian Gulf while the BOXER ARG/MEU (SOC),
its scheduled replacement, deployed to the Gulf of Aden. As a result, the Western Pacific was temporarily without ARG/MEU
(SOC) presence. Similarly,
during OPERATION ALLIED FORCE in March-June 1999, the USS THEODORE
ROOSEVELT CVBG deployed to support the coalition operations in the
Balkans. As a result, the USS KITTY HAWK CVBG, which is homeported in
Japan, made an unplanned deployment to the Persian Gulf.
This left the Western Pacific Theater without a CVBG for 86 days.
During this time there were increased tensions between North and
South Korea in the Yellow Sea, between China and Taiwan, and between India
and Pakistan over Kashmir. Additionally,
there are several classified examples with nuclear attack submarines where
emerging requirements resulted in gaps in planned coverage.
2. THE NAVY SHIPBUILDING PLAN AND
The 1997 QDR concluded that a
force structure of approximately 305 ships fully manned, properly trained,
and adequately resourced is assessed to be the minimum acceptable to
satisfy the Navy’s forward presence and warfighting requirements.
centerpiece of today's Navy force structure are 12 CV/CVN battle groups
and 12 amphibious ready groups. The
Navy’s day-in-day-out experience – being on station, forward deployed,
and ready to directly and decisively influence events ashore from the sea
– shows that current forces, some 316 ships, are stretched to meet the
requirements of our National Military Strategy.
Future shipbuilding requirements will be central in the
Department’s recapitalization considerations for the upcoming QDR in
2001 and subsequent force structure planning.
We must recapitalize for three
basic reasons. First,
maintaining military preeminence into the future requires prudent
investment in new capabilities. Second,
the aging of many of our ships, aircraft, and vehicles, coupled with the
added wear and tear associated with higher than anticipated use, mandates
their systematic replacement. Third,
the industrial base that supports our armed forces is still largely unique
and, absent new programs, would likely not remain economically viable.
To some extent in recent years we maintained our near- and mid-term
readiness at the expense of investments in longer-term capabilities.
Resolving this tension between current imperatives and long-term
requirements has been, and will remain, a challenge. In fact, the issue is now attaining some urgency, as we seek
funding to keep current and future shipbuilding plans on track.
Funding concerns in shipbuilding revolve around unanticipated cost
growth in new ship construction, sufficient research and development funds
to develop the leap ahead technologies needed to meet mission requirements
and reduced operating cost goals, and the funding to match
recapitalization goals of our fleet.
Also of great concern is sufficient funding to support readiness,
the procurement of precision guided munitions and aircraft
Nonetheless, we are making
substantial progress in developmental programs that will be the core of
our forces in the future. The
DD-21 destroyer, CVN-77 and CVN(X) aircraft carriers, VIRGINIA-class
SSN, LHA Replacement, and the SAN
ANTONIO-class LPD-17, are examples.
These programs are profiled in detail in the Navy’s Vision, Presence, Power and the Marine Corps’ Concepts and Issues program guides.
for DDG 51 procurement continues in FY 2001 into the last year of the
four-year multiyear contract. The
fifth and sixth ships of the USS San
Antonio (LPD 17) Class amphibious transport dock ship, which will
serve as the functional replacement for four existing amphibious ship
classes, are also funded in FY 2001.
Additionally, the second Auxiliary Dry Cargo Vessel (T-ADC(X)) is
funded in FY 2001. This ship
class will serve as replacement for the Navy’s aging Combat Logistics
Force. The Navy Department
has fully funded the CVN 77 in FY 2001, and the FY 2001 budget also
includes full funding for the third and advance procurement for the fourth
and fifth VIRGINIA Class submarines.
support these forces, the President’s FY 2001 Budget request increases
the amount of investment critical to maintaining our Navy and Marine Corps
Team as the pre-eminent Naval force in the world.
2001 Department of the Navy budget request reaches nearly $27 billion for
procurement programs. The
main thrusts of our budget request are designed to support the elements of
the Shape… Respond… Prepare…
defense strategy established by the Quadrennial
Defense Review (QDR) and acquisition strategies that focus on program
stability and reducing total operational costs.
We seek an agile, flexible force, which can counter both the known
and the unforeseeable threats to our national security.
3. HOW FUTURE PLATFORMS FIT INTO THE OVERALL JOINT WARFARE REQUIREMENTS OF THE FUTURE
U.S. maritime power from the sea to influence events ashore directly and
decisively is the essence of the Navy and Marine Corps Team’s
contribution to national security. The
strategic and operational flexibility of naval forces provides the U.S.
extraordinary access overseas. Sea-based,
self-contained, and self-sustaining naval forces are relatively
unconstrained by regional infrastructure requirements or restrictions.
Further, naval forces can exploit the freedom of maneuver afforded
by the seas to respond to contingencies and remain engaged in activities
that support our interests around the world.
Navy-Marine Corps vision, ...From
the Sea, steered us from the broad ocean areas into the littorals
where most of the world's population resides and conflicts occur. Forward ... From the
Sea broadened that shift in focus.
The landward focus of those documents provides a bridge from
strategic vision to programmatic priorities and operational concepts. The defining characteristics of naval forces suggest this
vision will remain relevant in the future security environment.
However, emerging threats and opportunities will require us to
develop and assess new concepts of warfighting in the Information Age that
may differ from those of the past.
forces have enduring characteristics and attributes that have evolved from
constant exposure to the vastness, harshness, unpredictability,
accessibility, and opportunity offered by the sea.
Three defining characteristics
differentiate the Naval Services from our complementary sister Services
and make us a uniquely powerful asset.
First, we operate from the sea.
Second, we are an expeditionary force -– our ships, aircraft,
Sailors and Marines are forward-deployed, and they exercise power far from
American bases. Third, in an
age of jointness, the Navy and the Marine Corps are linked more closely
than any other two Services in their structures, training, deployments,
operations, equipment, and staffing.
Four clusters of attributes derive from these defining
Naval forces can operate anywhere on the oceans, free of diplomatic
restraint. As such, they have
an unmatched ability to operate forward continuously, react to
contingencies with power and speed, and act as the enabling force for
follow-on Army and Air Force power projected from the U.S.
of Power/Scalability. Ships
can be benevolent and welcome visitors, sending their Sailors and Marines
ashore as ambassadors of U.S. interest and good will.
Ships can also manifest our interest by re-positioning at high
speed to areas of concern. The
same ships can also deploy Marines to rescue our citizens or deter those
who would harm them. And
ships and submarines can be important platforms to gather intelligence.
Ultimately, they can bring massive and precise firepower to bear
and deploy Marine forces to deter and, if necessary, fight and win battles
Ships can be purposely conspicuous or exceptionally difficult to
detect. In peacetime, we
value visibility for the sense of security and stability our forces convey
by signaling U.S. interest, readiness, and ability to act if a crisis
brews. With the ability to
cumulate forces, naval power can be adjusted or scaled at will, increasing
or decreasing pressure as our civilian leadership chooses to raise or
lower U.S. commitment, and engage or disengage much more easily than
and Independent Capabilities.
Naval forces are important instruments of international
cooperation. Navy ships
conduct numerous exercises and interact with naval forces of allies,
neutral nations, and even potential adversaries every year.
The Marine Corps is a natural partner for many foreign land forces.
At the same time, the Navy and Marine Corps are a powerful
independent force, with little reliance on foreign bases or overflight
rights to conduct strike or forcible entry operations around the world.
short, the enduring attractiveness of naval power is the flexibility that
stems from these inherent characteristics and attributes. Investments in the Navy and Marine Corps are like money in
the bank. We do not need to
know precisely how and where we will use this resource in order to see its
value -- indeed our value is greater because we are useful virtually
anywhere and anytime. Our
expeditionary character, mobility, adaptability, variable visibility, and
cooperative and independent capabilities combine with our immense
firepower to make us an especially relevant and useful force.
The following future platforms and conversion initiatives were
designed to sustain our warfighting capability and relevancy well into the
DD 21 Class Destroyer
FY 2001 budget request includes $550 million to continue development of
the 21st Century Land Attack Destroyer.
DD 21 will be a multi-mission surface combatant tailored for land
attack and maritime dominance. Armed
with an array of land attack weapons, DD 21 will provide offensive,
distributed, and precise firepower at long ranges in support of forces
ashore. Entering the fleet as our Frigates and DD 963-class ships
retire, DD 21 will sustain the Quadrennial Defense Review-mandated 116
surface combatant force level. It
will also drive down the fleet's operating & support costs by
leveraging increased automation to significantly reduce manning
requirements, by incorporating an integrated power system designed to
reduce fuel cost, and by leveraging commercial technology which offers
reliable performance, reduced maintenance and reduced support cost. DD 21
will provide independent forward presence and deterrence, and operate as
an integral part of Joint and Combined Expeditionary Forces.
To ensure effective operations in the littoral, the Navy’s new
surface combatant will be powered by an Integrated Electric Drive
propulsion system, and possess full-spectrum signature reduction, active
and passive self-defense systems, and cutting-edge survivability features.
ARLEIGH BURKE (DDG 51) Class Destroyer
The DDG 51 Class guided
missile destroyer program remains the Navy’s largest surface ship
program. The Three ARLEIGH
BURKE Class destroyers procured in FY 2001 will be Flight IIA ships
configured with Baseline 7 Aegis Combat System.
This baseline incorporates new integrated mission capability and
makes these ships more capable in the littoral than any other combatant in
budget request includes $28 million to fund the procurement of
“Smartship” upgrades for five CG 47 Class cruisers in FY 2001. A total of $467 million spanning FY 1999 through FY 2005 is
programmed for these “Smartship” improvements Fleet-wide, which will
reduce manning and ease the maintenance burdens on our Sailors.
By eliminating mundane tasks and allowing the crew to concentrate
on high priority items, this technology is an enabler for reduced manning.
Through automation, the number of personnel required to perform
these tasks can be reduced. Smartship technology will continue to cause
constructive policy change in the Navy. The budget request for the DDG 51
shipbuilding continues the forward fit installation of “Smartship”
technologies beginning with the FY 1996 ships.
TICONDEROGA (CG 47) Cruiser
Navy has a plan to add new mission capabilities and extend the
mission-capable service life of the CG 47 Class cruisers.
12 ship conversions are funded in the FY 2001-FY 2005 FYDP.
The FY 2001 budget request includes $72 million in RDT&E for an
upgrade of these ships to add new and enhance existing combat system
capabilities for Theater Ballistic Missile Defense, Land Attack, and Area
Air Defense Commander missions. These new mission capabilities will improve dramatically the
ability of these warships to operate in Joint and Coalition warfare
environments. The program is
essential to maintaining a mission-relevant force of at least 116 surface
combatants over the next 20 years.
Maintenance and Modernization
maintenance and upgrade of our NIMITZ Class carriers is accomplished
through the Incremental Maintenance Plan (IMP), of which the mid-life
Refueling Complex Overhaul (RCOH) is the industrial availability necessary
to achieve the full 50-year service life potential of the NIMITZ Class
without requiring a late-in-life Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) or
other similar programs. The
RCOH accomplishes repairs and modernization necessary for reliable ship
operations, extends docking requirements to a 12-year cycle, refuels the
reactors, prepares the ship for entry into the IMP, implements the TOC
reduction initiatives, and recapitalizes the ship. USS NIMITZ (CVN 68)
began its RCOH in May 1998 and is expected to complete by June 2001. USS
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER (CVN 69) will enter its RCOH in May 2001.
We are currently executing the Advance Procurement/Planning portion
of the EISENHOWER RCOH. Our
FY 2001 budget request contains $703.4 million to execute the FY 2001
portion of the EISENHOWER RCOH. USS
CARL VINSON (CVN 70) enters advanced procurement/planning with a $25
million FY 2001 request in support of its FY 2005 RCOH.
These investments are vital to the recapitalization of these
fully funded FY 2001 procurement of CVN 77, the tenth and final ship of
the NIMITZ Class, begins an evolutionary aircraft carrier acquisition
strategy, which will be used to develop the next generation of aircraft
carriers. The CVN 77
will serve as a technology bridge to the next generation of aircraft
carriers designated CVNX. The
FY 2001 budget request includes RDT&E funding of $38 million to
continue incorporating critical transition technologies in CVN 77.
RDT&E efforts have been focused on a new, fully integrated
combat system and related initiatives to reduce TOC. Technological
innovations fielded in CVN 77 will be forward fitted to achieve cost
savings and risk reduction in the next class, CVNX.
Additionally, design changes for CVN 77 and CVNX will also be
evaluated for backfit where possible into NIMITZ Class Carriers to reduce
life cycle cost. Transition
technology insertion along with full funding for basic ship procurement is
reflected in the FY 2001 SCN budget submission.
new CVNX Class will use an evolutionary, multi-ship process for inserting
new technologies that will enhance warfighting, enable critical features
for future flexibility, and dramatically reduce TOC.
In September 1998, the Defense Acquisition Board concurred with
Navy recommendations for a large-capacity (75 aircraft) nuclear powered
aircraft carrier and the evolutionary acquisition strategy. CVN 77, as the first step toward CVNX, will receive a new
integrated combat system. CVNX 1 will receive a new nuclear propulsion
plant, electrical system, and Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System
providing immediate warfighting capabilities and substantially reducing
TOC. They are also the
critical enablers for future carrier improvements.
CVNX 2 will receive restoration of service life allowance, balanced
survivability and warfighting improvements.
The $5-7 billion reduction of TOC, including backfit of applicable
initiatives to in-service carriers, will be a recurring and underlying
focus throughout this evolutionary approach.
The CVNX Class will encompass critical warfighting improvements to
improve sortie rates and quality of life for our Sailors.
The FY 2001 budget request includes RDT&E funding of $225.2
million for the continued implementation of the CVNX plan, and $22 Million
in SCN funding for long lead time reactor plant forgings.
Smart Carrier Project is an initiative to reduce shipboard workload
through industry standard process reengineering and the insertion of
enabling technologies to enhance Sailors’ quality of life and lower TOC.
Initial Smart Carrier funding in RDT&E,N is $12 million in FY
2001. The Smart Carrier
Program has adopted an Integrated Product Team (IPT) approach whereby the
IPT determines the technology package for each carrier backfit.
continues to pursue a strategy of increasing the capabilities of the
VIRGINIA Class submarine force through the insertion of advanced
technology into new construction and follow-on ships.
The FY 2001 budget request includes $113 million in RDT&E
funding for advanced submarine technology development emphasizing
capability improvements in sonars and major electrical/mechanical systems.
Additionally, the Navy is pursuing R&D in other areas of
submarine technology that address a spectrum of new capabilities for
existing submarines, planned construction, and future submarine classes.
submarine shipbuilders are playing important roles by assisting the
Department's efforts to identify additional technologies for insertion
opportunities and by identifying design changes that bring a life cycle
cost avoidance benefit. The
shipbuilders have provided 49 Design Improvement Proposals that were
approved and funded since inception of this program.
Nine proposals were approved and funded last year alone. Additional details of the design improvement are provided in
the FY 2001 Design Improvement Report submitted with the President’s
The next generation of Submarine Large Scale Vehicle,
CUTTHROAT (LSV 2), is under construction at Newport News Shipbuilding and
Electric Boat Corporation. CUTTHROAT
will support technology insertion in VIRGINIA Class submarines during a 20
year operating life at the Navy’s Acoustic Research Facility at Lake
Pend Oreille, Idaho. The
design is an exact external replica of VIRGINIA.
Quieter and more powerful than her predecessor, CUTTHROAT will
enable advancements in submarine hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic testing.
At 111 feet long and 200 tons displacement, CUTTHROAT will be the
world’s largest unmanned autonomous vehicle.
Hull fabrication is complete and modules are being outfitted today
in Newport News, Virginia and Groton, Connecticut. Shipment of three major sections to Idaho is planned for
spring 2000. Following final
assembly at the lake facilities, CUTTHROAT will be launched in September
2000 and begin lake trial testing before the end of the year.
Delivery to the Navy is planned for February 2001.
Chiefs of Staff released a study on Attack Submarine Force Structure
recommending a submarine force level higher than the QDR level of 50. The
FY 2001 Presidents budget establishes a new SCN procurement line for
Submarine Force Structure and provides funding to refuel SSN 688’s
scheduled for early inactivation and/or to perform SSGN conversions.
The FY 2001 budget includes $31 million in advance procurement to
support possible outyear SSN 688 refueling overhauls.
(SSN 774) Class Attack Submarines
Virginia Class Submarine will be the Navy’s most capable, flexible, and
cost effective attack submarine design well into the 21st
Century. As such, we will
continue to evaluate production and procurement strategies that will allow
an affordable increase in the production rate in order to reach and
maintain CJCS study requirements.
keel for the first VIRGINIA Class submarine was laid in September of 1999.
Construction on the TEXAS, second in the class, is well underway.
The FY 2001 budget request includes $1.7 billion for full funding
of the third ship and advance procurement for the fourth and fifth ships
of the VIRGINIA Class. The
third and fourth ships are part of the unique single contract and
construction-teaming plan approved by Congress in 1998.
Teaming has already achieved significant cost savings for the first
four submarines when compared to a typical four-ship allocation plan. The
current FYDP includes level-loading of one ship each year for FY 2001-2005
providing a cost effective steady production rate that helps both
shipbuilders achieve level manning and more economic material buys.
VIRGINIA Class submarine will surpass the operational performance of
SEAWOLF in stealth, special warfare, mine warfare, surveillance, battle
group operations, and mission flexibility—but for 30% less total life
cycle cost. To maintain such
margins, the design incorporates flexibility to adapt future advanced
technologies rapidly and affordably.
This strategy requires steady investment to succeed.
VIRGINIA Class is the first major combatant designed in the post cold war
era to meet post cold war multi-mission requirements. It was also designed in a cost conscious manner—reducing
TOC was a key design factor—providing the best value for the future.
To reduce TOC, the VIRGINIA Class includes the disciplined
application of commercial specifications and components, fewer developed
specifications, and fewer construction drawings.
Additionally, the modular design and the use of digital design
tools will allow seamless integration of new technologies into each
subsequent ship. The program
continues to examine innovative ways to reduce acquisition and life cycle
SEAWOLF (SSN 21) Class Attack
SEAWOLF Class submarine program has delivered and commissioned the first
two ships and has awarded an $887 million (RDT&E) contract
modification for design and construction changes to the third and final
SEAWOLF Class submarine.
Pre-Commissioning Unit JIMMY
CARTER (SSN 23) is being modified with additional volume to accommodate
advanced technology for Naval Special Warfare, tactical surveillance, and
mine warfare operations. As part of the December 1999 contract
modification, the base ship contract was converted to a Firm Fixed Price
contract (SCN) with a revised ship delivery date of June 2004.
Seal Delivery System (ASDS)
Advanced SEAL Delivery System (ASDS) is a Special Operations
Command sponsored program
being executed by the Naval Sea Systems Command.
A specially designed combatant submarine being developed for the
clandestine insertion and extraction of Special Operations Forces, the
ASDS will provide a quantum leap in SOF undersea mobility.
and construction of the lead ship is complete and shallow-water testing is
currently underway at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland.
So far, the ship has successfully completed a number of slow speed
surfaced and submerged operations. Testing of the ship's submerged
anchoring and lock-in/lock-out capability using actual fleet divers is
imminent, and the ship will be ready for deep-water testing in Pearl
Harbor early this Spring. Delivery
to the Fleet is anticipated sometime this Summer.
program remains a top warfighter priority at SOCOM.
Construction of five additional ships is scheduled to begin in FY
2002 at a rate of one ship every other year.
SAN ANTONIO (LPD 17) Amphibious Transport Dock Ship
ANTONIO Class amphibious transport dock ships represent the Navy and
Marine Corps future in amphibious warfare, and is one of the cornerstones
in the Department’s strategic plan known as "Forward...from the
Sea". The 12 ships of
the SAN ANTONIO Class will functionally replace 27 amphibious ships from
the classes now in service. This
plan will not only modernize our amphibious forces, but will also result
in significant manpower and life-cycle cost savings.
The FY 2001 budget request
includes $1.5 billion for the fifth and sixth ships of this 12-ship
program. Design of the class
is underway and lead ship construction will commence this spring.
Auxiliary Dry Cargo Vessel (T-ADC (X))
of our supply ships have been in service for over 30 years. Many of them are steam ships whose service lives will expire
in FY 2007. The Navy
plans to replace these aging vessels with the T-ADC(X) Auxiliary Dry Cargo
Vessels. The FY 2001 budget
request includes $339 million in SCN funding for the second ship of this
12-ship class. T-ADC(X) is a
new class of ship that will replace the aging Ammunition and Dry Stores
Ships (TAEs and TAFs).
The Navy awarded Phase I contracts to four shipbuilders in August
1999 for cargo system integration studies for efficient methods of
handling material within the ship. Contract
award for Phase II, detail design and lead ship construction, will occur
in FY 2000 with scheduled delivery in 2004.
Craft Air Cushioned (LCAC) SLEP
The Navy is
continuing the LCAC Service Life Extension Program in Fiscal Year 2001.
This program combines major structural improvements with
Command, Control, Communications, Computer and Navigation upgrades and
adds 10 years to the service life, extending it
to 30 years. In FY 2001, it is funded at $19.9 million and will extend the
service life of 1 craft. The
SLEP is planned for a total of 74 craft.
Mr. Chairman, the Navy and Marine Corps is
continuing to work very hard to build a Navy of the future.
We are constantly reassessing our force structure and the
requirements to modernize that force.
This committee has always been very helpful and supportive in
addressing Navy readiness and modernization, and we look forward to
continuing that strong, positive relationship. We ask for your continued
support for our critical needs as addressed in out fiscal year 2001 budget