STATEMENT OF MAJOR GENERAL MAX BARATZ
CHIEF, ARMY RESERVE
Mr. Chairman and distinguished members of this committee, on behalf of the men and women serving this nation as members of the Army Reserve, I appreciate the opportunity to tell their story.
Over the last five years the Army Reserve has undergone a significant transformation as part of the Total Army's change from a Cold War postured Army to one prepared for an uncertain future. As part of the transformation the Army Reserve downsized from 319,000 in 1990 to 215,000 this year, with a programmed 208,000 strength for FY 98. To accomplish this dramatic change, a 35% reduction, the Army Reserve has used several reengineering processes to leverage our core competencies while meeting the Army's missions as part of the National Security Strategy of engagement and enlargement. The reengineering process was focused on ensuring the Army Reserve was relevant and ready to meet the Nation's and the Army's requirements in an array of core competencies. These core competencies can best be described as a triad of capabilities. Specifically, the three broad categories of the triad are: (1) units that are part of the warfight or power projection platform and support base, (2) training base and training readiness enablers that include respectively, Divisions (Institutional Training)[DIV(IT)] and Divisions (Exercise) [DIV(EX)], and (3) individuals that are either Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMA) or members of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) who provide for the seamless integration of trained soldiers.
The triad of capabilities not only meets wartime and peacetime mission requirements the Army has assigned the Army Reserve, but also offsets significant personnel tempo (PERSTEMPO) and operations tempo (OPTEMPO) of the active Army. Thus, given the personnel and equipment resources of the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR), consistent with our core competencies, significant numbers of missions can be executed by Army Reserve citizen-soldiers. In fact, we are intrinsic to the fabric of the Total Army- America's Army.
Before I describe the specific details of the transformation that capitalizes on digitization and information age technology, I want to describe the contributions to some of this Nation's recent and current operations that are representative of the Army Reserve's full spectrum of capabilities. As an example the Army Reserve contributed 35% of the reserve force committed to Desert Storm while 24% was Army National Guard, 13% Air Force Reserve, 6% Air Guard, 8% Naval Reserve and 13% Marine Reserve. Today the Army Reserve is providing 68% of the reserve force to Operation Joint Endeavor/Joint Guard while 29% are from the Army Guard and 3% from the Naval Reserve.
The Army Reserve's transformation represented a process that reinvented, reengineered and redesigned a cold war force into one that is
capable of providing relevant and ready forces for the Twenty-First Century. At the start of the process the USAR had a training structure of
59,000 that was reengineered to a modern training formation of 35,921 soldiers, a 36% reduction, the new missions focused on individual and
collective training and soldier professional development for America's Army. The command and control structure of the Army Reserve was
redesigned from 20 Continental United States (CONUS) Army Reserve Commands to a ten Regional Support Command structure that
reduced overhead by 1937 spaces or 38%. Additionally, the Army Reserve reengineered its Personnel Center to better facilitate the personnel
management of soldiers while configuring the organizational alignment with the active Army Personnel Command, ensuring an easy transition to
war. This effort allowed the Army Reserve to resource other critical warfight requirements. This process was based on the digitization of 1.2
million records and the application of integrated work stations while concurrently reducing the manpower by 738 spaces. Taken collectively,
the transformation process resulted in a reduction of 35% and a new focus that represented relevance and readiness to the new Military
Strategy. We call this new focus and transformation our triad of capabilities.
WARFIGHT AND POWER PROJECTION
The Army Reserve provides the majority to the Army's Echelon Above Division (EAD) combat service support as well as a significant portion of the combat support. Using a tiered resourcing philosophy, the Army Reserve leverages first to fight units with the required wartime resources consistent with their mission. Additionally, we give added focus to the units designated as force support package (FSP) units. These are units that possess the critical skills necessary to support and project early deploying forces. The results of this process allowed the Army Reserve to provide 5.8 million man days in support of operational requirements such as TRICARE off-set; Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) support, transportation support and supply management. The flexibility of the Army Reserve is also demonstrated in our ability to leverage our unit capabilities in support of Nunn-Lugar-Domenici. It is important to state that the USAR's Regional Support Commands are already aligned with the Standard Federal Regions. The USAR provides regional support, planning, training and response teams tied to the federal requirements for crisis and consequence management against weapons of mass destruction thus leveraging our military and civilian skills.
As manager of a significant portion of the reserve components' mobilization and deployment support assets, the USAR provides the full range
of resources necessary to project Army power into any theater. Covering the entire spectrum of mobilization/deployment needs, the USAR
force structure includes: CONUS replacement centers to manage the flow of individuals into theater; deployment support brigades to manage
movement of mobilized units; installation medical support units to perform mobilization medical processing; transportation terminal units
commanding the ports necessary to deploy Army forces; garrison support units to bring installations to mobilization manning levels and power
projection platforms to command, support the validation process for deployment and deploy mobilized units. The Army Reserve's investment
in mobilization/deployment support structure parallels our Modified Table of Organizational and Equipment (MTOE) support role and enables
both the AC and Army National Guard (ARNG) to focus on maneuver units.
TRAINING READINESS ENABLERS
As previously stated we transformed twelve training divisions, five separate training commands and 93 schools into seven Divisions (Institutional Training) DIV(IT)s. Often these training formations are confused with maneuver divisions in the active Army and Army National Guard. Although these formations are called Divisions, they are in reality, training formations that retain the divisional flag to preserve unit heraldry only. These DIV(IT)s provide an umbrella for individual training including initial entry training, schools providing military skill proficiency, professional development, leadership, and support to ROTC training. The wartime mission of the DIV(IT) is focused on providing military occupational skill refresher training for the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) as well as common task training. In FY 97, the Divisions' training load is 105,000 soldiers; Active Component, National Guard and Army Reserve. As part of that training load, the USAR will train 8000 initial entry soldiers for the Army. Additionally, the USAR will use it's training assets to retrain Army guardsmen that are part of the Army Guard Division Redesign.
In conjunction with Forces Command, the Army Reserve transformed eleven Cold War training organizations previously known as Maneuver
Exercise Commands and Maneuver Training Commands into five Divisions (Exercise) that are geographically dispersed. Similar to Divisions
(IT), these divisions retain divisional flags for heraldry purposes only. The mission of these units is to conduct enhanced tactical and technical
collective unit training. The training mission is accomplished using small unit collective training exercises known as lanes training and state of the
art simulations technologies to conduct battle command staff training. During FY 96 and 97 we trained 972 USAR and Army National Guard
combat support and combat service support units.
SEAMLESS INTEGRATION OF TRAINED SOLDIERS
The Army Reserve is the Army's execution agent for trained individuals in two categories: Individual Mobilization Augmentee and the Individual Ready Reserve. As part of the transformation the USAR developed a tiered manpower pool to meet the Army and Commander-in-Chief (CINC) requirements. The tiered solution provides selected reserve soldier support as well as IRR support to meet wartime trained manpower requirements. Additionally, we formed Joint Reserve Units in coordination with the Combatant Commanders. We have also allocated 1500 health care professionals under the Professional Officer Filler System (PROFIS) to support sustainment of installation medical facilities. During peacetime these same health care professionals offset TRICARE medical requirements in support of the Army.
As a community based force we continue to attract and maintain a highly educated and ethnically diverse community of soldiers: the USAR is
comprised of 34% minority and 23% female while continuing to exceed the quality standards established by the Army.
QUADRENNIAL DEFENSE REVIEW
The last area I am going to cover is the Army Reserve's participation in the Quadrennial Defense Review and the subsequent AC-RC Leaders
Advisory Panel, sometimes referred to as the "Army Offsite". During the Quadrennial Defense Review, the USAR participated in every
functional panel; including strategy, force structure, modernization, infrastructure, readiness, and resources as well as having a seat on the
Strategic Synchronization Cell. During the QDR process it was evident that the reengineering efforts of the Army Reserve were on target as it
relates to transforming the Army Reserve from a cold war force to one postured for the Twenty-First Century. The reengineering focus on
readiness and relevance in our core competencies was validated during the recent Offsite process, conducted at the direction of the Secretary
of the Army and Secretary of Defense. Specifically, the Department of the Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations conducted a Total Army
force structure assessment which concluded only 6,298 Army Reserve spaces were designated as uncommitted. It should be noted, however,
that some of the uncommitted Army Reserve forces are unique CINC requirements to meet wartime missions. Additionally, as part of the
Offsite process the Army Reserve presented a detailed description of the reengineering process defined as the triad of capabilities I previously
addressed. At the conclusion of the Offsite discussion, the Army Reserve agreed to: (1) A reduction split between the Army Reserve and
Army National Guard between FY 98-03 of 7K USAR and 38K ARNG. (2) These reductions are apportioned as follows:
A. ARMY RC QDR REDUCTIONS
B. Specific types of units will be determined through the Total Army Analysis 07 process.
Thank you for the opportunity to tell the Army Reserve's story and represent the citizen soldiers serving our Nation. They along with their contemporaries in the active Army, the National Guard and the sister services carry the banner of service to the Nation in all that they do.