As examples of "terrorism in combat" and methods of fighting it, the author offers two real-world examples from the UN operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina: the taking of hostages in Pale, and
the seizure of French soldiers at the Bratstvo Bridge check point in Sarajevo, May-July 1995.
- On the theoretical level, the following could serve as entry points for the use of Russia's armed
forces in the "anti-terrorist battle":
Given the necessary legal and technical coordination, existing General Staff organizations could
play a substantial role in helping to identify and forecast which groups will use terrorist methods
(areas of Russian armed forces peace operations).
- Collecting, analyzing and exchanging real-world information;
In principle, a number of military agencies could provide such interaction, given a coordination
center and the appropriate agreements.
- Monitoring terrorists' material assets;
With the appropriate support, and by using "marking" methodology, the Russian armed forces
can track down weapons caches, munitions, explosives and radio and technical equipment. The
research institutions of the military-industrial complex can pursue research and development in this
area (within the framework of the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional
- Providing practical assistance in the course of blockading (pursuing) and eradicating of
terrorists, as well as during negotiations with them:
- Fire support during an operation to eradicate terrorists;
- Communications support, as well as radio interception using electronic intelligence assets;
- Supporting psychological efforts during operations (displays of power and intent, special
- Combat support (camouflage, engineering and chemical, etc.)
- Logistics support (medical, food, gear).
- Russian Military Resources Available for Practical Implementation of Capabilities
- Existing structures (the General Staff, the staffs of the military districts, Airborne Forces
units, special forces and military police units);
- Newly created units (mobile and military police units, within the framework of security and
their normal duties).
- Recommended Measures
- The Russian Federation Security Council should serve as the coordinating body. An inter-agency commission would be comprised of representatives from the MVD, the FSB, the Foreign
Intelligence Service, the Ministry for Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Defense and other
- The MVD and the appropriate groups within the ministries would serve as executive agents.
Within regions there would be a link to the military districts.
- The state would place orders for the development and fielding of special types of hardware
and weapons ("show-of-force" and non-lethal weapons, pyrotechnics, active and passive personnel
- Close coordination should be maintained with foreign partners.
- Emphasis would be placed on the state's priorities in its counter-terrorism efforts.
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It is often the case that such collaboration is not regulated by laws or other state legal
documents. Therefore, the collaboration is often put together on the basis of commonality of the
missions entrusted to police and private security services for protecting the life and property from
unlawful infringements. Of course, state or government police forces have considerably broader
responsibilities while at the same time fewer personnel and less financial backing [than do private
security services]. For this reason, public police forces have only minimal time and personnel
available to protect private property, its owners and their family members, and other citizens.
In the battle against terrorism the areas of collaboration between police and private security
services usually include:
Interaction of the Police and Private Security Services in Combating Terrorism: The Experience of Other Countries
by Yevgeniy V. Malyshenko
(Not a translation)
In individual foreign countries the battle with terrorism is an area of close cooperation between
the police and private security services (investigative and security organizations). The reason for
such cooperation is that the targets of criminal actions by terrorists are now frequently large
industrial concerns, banks, railroads, transportation means (air, underground, water, motor vehicle),
oil and gas pipelines, additional facilities, as well as the owners and managers of all of the above.
In pursuit of their objectives, terrorists are increasingly using explosive devices, or they are taking
hostages, e.g., passengers, employees of industrial concerns, banks and other institutions.
The most effective way to establish collaboration and develop a specific mechanism for
interaction has been to hold meetings between police officers and their former colleagues who now
occupy top positions in private security services. Such meetings have brought about the
development and implementation of goal-oriented programs that combine efforts in fighting crime,
including terrorism. By 1990, one such program, which began as an experiment, had greatly
expanded and encompassed in New York City some 12,000 security service workers from more than
350 organizations, guarding more than 500 facilities. For implementation of this joint activity,
police departments designate personnel who generally engage in preventive work or are responsible
for contacts with the public. Generally speaking, cooperation between the police and private security
organizations is carried out within the context of mutually developed programs.
Private detectives and security guards in the USA, Japan, Germany and Great Britain widely
employ the most modern technology for communication and for detecting weapons and explosive
devices, as well as photo, video and electronic devices, powerful shortwave radios, radio-telephone
satellite communications devices, computers. Public police agencies, on the other hand, often use
Practice shows that private security services give the greatest amount of support to police
whenever there is a threat of explosions or other acts of terrorism, or when these explosions or acts
actually occur. Thus, when such acts occur, the security services allow the police to use their
technical and other resources, simultaneously sharing specific knowledge that has been gained in the
process of guarding the institutions and property entrusted to them. This would include information
on violations of the law and the individuals who committed these violations. In Japan the top
managers of private security services believe that such cooperation is much more effective than the
most modern alarm systems and therefore maintain direct communications with the police.
Within the framework of the aforementioned programs, the police provide private security
services with information on terrorist acts that are being planned or have been committed, as well
as on the persons involved in them, on terrorists who are being sought, the methods they use in their
crimes, and the explosive devices they use. They also share the experience they have gained, as well
as specific information important in protecting the security of objectives being guarded, including
the security of VIPs (political or public officials, businessmen), while at the same time also
providing other feasible help.
Private security services also coordinate with police on the transport routes for explosives and
other hazardous substances and materials, as well as large amounts of money and precious metals.
They also coordinate plans and flow-charts for actions in the event that explosive devices are
discovered at a protected facility, if hostages are taken by terrorists, or in the event of any other
unlawful actions. The ability of the police to respond effectively, i.e., police who are located near
guarded objectives or transport routes for valuables of hazardous materials, is taken into
consideration. It is not unusual for such plans, flow-charts and routes to be created in duplicate.
These copies are kept in sealed envelopes at the duty units of police and security services and are
opened when a signal is received that an event has occurred. Joint actions are worked out in advance
in the course of training programs.
In the implementation of joint programs, great importance is attached to raising the professional
training level of private security service workers in the area of combating crime. Frequently the top
managers of these services receive training based on the training programs of police agencies. Such
training includes both legal and police disciplines, and the battle against terrorism is among these.
Police departments participate in developing professional training programs for guards. These
programs include study of: procedures involved in detaining people; using weapons and force;
guarding a crime scene; evacuating buildings after explosive devices are found; gathering evidence;
documentation; and the psychological aspects of interacting with detained individuals, emotionally
distraught people and crime victims. By the same token, the professional training programs of police
forces now often include a course on coordination with private security services.
Everyone understands that without financial support any program is doomed to failure.
American law prevents private business from financing the police. However, it does allow a portion
of the taxes paid by private companies to be used purposefully to reinforce law and order in the
implementation of goal-oriented programs. Generally speaking, appropriate funds are created for
this purpose, so that funding from other sources (voluntary contributions, citizen donations, etc.)
may be accumulated in the accounts of these funds. In central Detroit, Michigan, twenty-one
television cameras were acquired with such funds. These cameras are set up in places where outdoor
political and other public events are held and where these events could become the target of
terrorists. Companies and businesses of Tacoma, Washington, allocated $600K to the
implementation of a program whereby fifteen members of a private security service continuously
help police patrol the streets and perform other measures to protect the citizenry. In some American
cities a portion of the municipal budget is allocated for enlisting the services of private security
companies to protect the public order.
This growing interaction between police and private security services abroad is a fairly recent
development. Hence, it is only now that people are becoming aware of its importance and
effectiveness in protecting life and property.
- Responding to security alarms in order to detect and stop outsider penetration of a protected
facility, as well as to find arms and explosives;
- Guarding important persons;
- Transporting dangerous substances and materials, as well as money and precious metals;
- Monitoring and regulating traffic on roadways;
- Maintaining order during mass public events.
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