Appendix B

Background Information on Major Groups Discussed in the Report

Abu Nidal organization (ANO) a.k.a.: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims

Description International terrorist organization led by Sabri al-Banna. Split from PLO in 1974. Made up of various functional committees, including political, military, and financial.

Activities Has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries, killing or injuring almost 900 persons. Targets include the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various Arab countries. Major attacks included the Rome and Vienna airports in December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, the Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking in Karachi in September 1986, and the City of Poros day- excursion ship attack in July 1988 in Greece. Suspected of assassinating PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul in Tunis in January 1991. ANO assassinated a Jordanian diplomat in Lebanon in January 1994, and it has been linked to the killing of the PLO representative there. There have been no attacks against Western targets since the late 1980s.

Strength Several hundred plus militia in Lebanon and overseas support structure.

Location/Area of Operation Currently headquartered in Libya with a presence in Lebanon in the Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) and also several Palestinian refugee camps in coastal areas of Lebanon. Also has a presence in Sudan. Has demonstrated ability to operate over wide area, including the Middle East, Asia, and Europe.

External Aid Has received considerable support, including safehaven, training, logistic assistance, and financial aid from Iraq and Syria (until 1987); continues to receive aid from Libya, in addition to close support for selected operations.

Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)

Description Islamic extremist group operating in the southern Philippines led by Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani. Split from the Moro National Liberation Front in 1991.

Activities Uses bombs, assassinations, kidnappings for ransom, and extortion payments from companies and businessmen in its efforts to promote an Iranian-style Islamic state in Mindanao, an island in the southern Philippines heavily populated by Muslims. Staged a raid on the town of Ipil in Mindanao in April 1995, the group's first large-scale action.

Strength About 200 members, mostly younger Muslims, many of whom have studied or worked in the Gulf states, where they were exposed to radical Islamic ideology.

Location/Area of Operation The ASG operates almost exclusively on Mindanao Island, although it bombed a light railway in Manila in 1993.

External Aid Probably has ties to Islamic extremists in the Middle East.

Al-Fatah a.k.a.: Al-'Asifa (see Palestine Liberation Organization)

Al-Jihad (see Jihad Group)

Armed Islamic Group (GIA)

Description An Islamic extremist group, the GIA aims to overthrow the secular Algerian regime and replace it with an Islamic state. The GIA began its violent activities in early 1992 after Algiers voided the victory of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)ùthe largest Islamic partyùin the first round of December 1991 legislative elections.

Activities Frequent attacks against regime targetsùparticularly security personnel and government officialsùcivilians, journalists, teachers, and foreign residents. Since announcing its terrorist campaign against foreigners living in Algeria in September 1993, the GIA has killed about 100 expatriate men and womenùmostly Europeansùin the country. The GIA uses assassinations and bombings, including car bombs, and it is known to favor kidnapping victims and slitting their throats. The GIA hijacked an Air France flight to Algiers in December 1994, and suspicions centered on the group for a series of bombings in France in 1995.

Strength Unknown, probably several hundred to several thousand.

Location Algeria.

External Aid Algerian expatriates, many of whom reside in Western Europe, provide some financial and logistic support. In addition, the Algerian Government has accused Iran and Sudan of supporting Algerian extremists, and severed diplomatic relations with Iran in March 1993.

Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)

Description Founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent homeland in Spain's Basque region. Has muted commitment to Marxism.

Activities Chiefly bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government officials, especially security forces. In response to French operations against the group, ETA also has targeted French interests. Finances its activities through kidnappings, robberies, and extortion. In 1995, Spanish and French authorities foiled an ETA plot to kill King Juan Carlos in Majorca.

Strength Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.

Location/Area of Operation Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern Spain and southwestern France but also has bombed Spanish and French interests elsewhere.

External Aid Has received training at various times in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua. Also appears to have close ties to the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA).

Chukaku-Ha (Nucleus or Middle Core Faction)

Description An ultraleftist/radical group with origins in the fragmentation of the Japanese Communist Party in 1957. Largest domestic militant group; has political arm plus small, covert action wing called Kansai Revolutionary Army. Funding derived from membership dues, sales of its newspapers, and fundraising campaigns.

Activities Participates in street demonstrations and commits sporadic attacks using crude rockets and incendiary devices usually designed to cause property damage rather than casualties. Protests Japan's imperial system, Western imperialism, and events like the Gulf war and the expansion of Tokyo's Narita airport. Has launched rockets at a US military facility.

Strength 3,500.

Location/Area of Operation Japan.

External Aid None known.

CNPZ (see Nestor Paz Zamora Commission under National Liberation Army [ELN]ùBolivia)

Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)

Description Marxist group that split from the PFLP in 1969. Believes Palestinian national goals can be achieved only through revolution of the masses. Opposes the Declaration of Principles (DOP) signed in 1993. In early 1980s, occupied political stance midway between Arafat and the rejectionists. Split into two factions in 1991, one pro-Arafat and another more hardline faction headed by Nayif Hawatmah (which has suspended participation in the PLO).

Activities In the 1970s, carried out numerous small bombings and minor assaults and some more spectacular operations in Israel and the occupied territories, concentrating on Israeli targets. Involved only in border raids since 1988, but continues to oppose the Israel-PLO peace agreement.

Strength Estimated at 500 (total for both factions).

Location/Area of Operation Syria, Lebanon, and the Israeli-occupied territories; attacks have taken place entirely in Israel and the occupied territories.

External Aid Receives financial and military aid from Syria and Libya.

Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left) a.k.a.: Dev Sol (see Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front, DHKP/C)

ETA(see Basque Fatherland and Liberty)

FARC (see Revolutionary Army Forces of Colombia)

Fatah (see Palestine Liberation Organization)

FPM (see Morazanist Patriotic Front)

FPMR (see Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front)

Al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Group, IG)

Description An indigenous Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s; appears to be loosely organized with no single readily identifiable operational leader. Shaykh Umar abd al-Rahman is the preeminent spiritual leader. Goal is to overthrow the government of President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state.

Activities Armed attacks against Egyptian security and other government officials, Coptic Christians, and Egyptian opponents of Islamic extremism. The group also has launched attacks on tourists in Egypt since 1992. Al Gama'at claimed responsibility for the attempt in June 1995 to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Strength Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and another several thousand sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation Operates mainly in the Al Minya, Asyu't, and Qina Governorates of southern Egypt. It also appears to have support in Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban locations, particularly among unemployed graduates and students.

External Aid Not known. Egyptian Government believes that Iran, Sudan, and Afghan militant Islamic groups support the group.

HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)

Description HAMAS was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Various elements of HAMAS have used both political and violent means, including terrorism, to pursue the goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of Israel. HAMAS is loosely structured, with some elements working openly through mosques and social service institutions to recruit members, raise money, organize activities, and distribute propaganda. Militant elements of HAMAS, operating clandestinely, have advocated and used violence to advance their goals. HAMAS's strength is concentrated in the Gaza Strip and a few areas of the West Bank. It also has engaged in peaceful political activity, such as running candidates in West Bank Chamber of Commerce elections.

Activities HAMAS activists, especially those in the Izz el-Din al-Qassam Forces, have conducted many attacks against Israeli civilian and military targets, suspected Palestinian collaborators, and Fatah rivals.

Strength Unknown number of hardcore members; tens of thousands of supporters and sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation Primarily the occupied territories, Israel, and Jordan.

External Aid Receives funding from Palestinian expatriates, Iran, and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab states. Some fundraising and propaganda activity take place in Western Europe and North America.

The Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA)

Description The Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA), an Islamic militant group that seeks Kashmir's accession to Pakistan, was formed in October 1993 when two Pakistani political activist groups, Harakat ul-Jihad al-Islami and Harakat ul-Mujahedin, merged. According to the leader of the alliance, Maulana Saadatullah Khan, the group's objective is to continue the armed struggle against nonbelievers and anti-Islamic forces.

Activities Has carried out a number of operations against Indian troops and civilian targets in Kashmir. The HUA also supports Muslims in Indian- controlled Kashmir with humanitarian and military assistance. It has been linked to the Kashmiri militant group Al-Faran that has held four Western hostages in Kashmir since July 1995. There is no evidence that HUA ordered the kidnapping.

Strength The Harakat ul-Ansar has several thousand armed members located in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, and in the southern Kashmir and the Doda regions of India. The HUA uses light and heavy machineguns, assault rifles, mortars, explosives, and rockets. Membership is open to all who support the HUA's objectives and are willing to take the group's 40-day training course. It has a core militant group of about 300, mostly Pakistanis and Kashmiris, but includes Afghans and Arab veterans of the Afghan war.

Location/Area of Operation The HUA is based in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, but HUA members have participated in insurgent and terrorist operations in Kashmir, Burma, Tajikistan, and Bosnia. The HUA is actively involved in supporting Muslims in Indian-controlled Kashmir with humanitarian and military assistance. The HUA's Burma branch, located in the Arakans, trains local Muslims in weapons handling and guerrilla warfare. In Tajikistan, HUA members have served with and trained Tajik resistance elements. The first group of Harakat militants entered Bosnia in 1992.

External Aid The HUA collects donations from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf and Islamic states to purchase relief supplies, which it distributes to Muslims in Tajikistan, Kashmir, and Burma. The source and amount of HUA's military funding are unknown but is believed to come from sympathetic Arab countries and wealthy Pakistanis and Kashmiris.

Hizballah (Party of God) a.k.a.: Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine

Description Radical Shia group formed in Lebanon; dedicated to creation of Iranian- style Islamic republic in Lebanon and removal of all non-Islamic influences from area. Strongly anti-West and anti-Israel. Closely allied with, and often directed by Iran, but may have conducted rogue operations that were not approved by Tehran.

Activities Known or suspected to have been involved in numerous anti-US terrorist attacks, including the suicide truck bombing of the US Embassy and US Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983 and the US Embassy annex in Beirut in September 1984. Elements of the group were responsible for the kidnapping and detention of US and other Western hostages in Lebanon. The group also attacked the Israeli Embassy in Argentina in 1992.

Strength Several thousand.

Location/Area of Operation Operates in the Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley), the southern suburbs of Beirut, and southern Lebanon. Has established cells in Europe, Africa, South America, North America, and elsewhere.

External Aid Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran.

Islamic ResistanceMovement (see HAMAS)

Jamaat ul-Fuqra

Description Jamaat ul-Fuqra is an Islamic sect that seeks to purify Islam through violence. Fuqra is led by Pakistani cleric Shaykh Mubarik Ali Gilani, who established the organization in the early 1980s. Gilani now resides in Pakistan, but most Fuqra cells are located in North America. Fuqra members have purchased isolated rural compounds in North America to live communally, practice their faith, and insulate themselves from Western culture.

Activities Fuqra members have attacked a variety of targets that they view as enemies of Islam, including Muslims they regard as heretics and Hindus. Attacks during the 1980s included assassinations and firebombings across the United States. Fuqra members in the United States have been convicted of criminal violations, including murder and fraud.

Strength Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation North America, Pakistan.

External Aid None.

Japanese Red Army (JRA) a.k.a.: Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB)

Description An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking away from Japanese Communist LeagueûRed Army Faction. Now led by Fusako Shigenobu, believed to be in Syrian-garrisoned area of Lebanon's Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley). Stated goals are to overthrow Japanese Government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution. Organization unclear but may control or at least have ties to Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB); may also have links to Antiwar Democratic Frontùan overt leftist political organizationùinside Japan. Details released following arrest in November 1987 of leader Osamu Maruoka indicate that JRA may be organizing cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. Has had close and longstanding relations with Palestinian terrorist groupsùbased and operating outside Japanùsince its inception.

Activities During the 1970s, JRA carried out a series of attacks around the world, including the massacre in 1972 at Lod Airport in Israel, two Japanese airliner hijackings, and an attempted takeover of the US Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. In April 1988, JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with explosives on the New Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples and a suspected JRA operation that killed five, including a US servicewoman. He was convicted of these charges and is serving a lengthy prison sentence in the United States. In March 1995, Ekita Yukiko, a longtime JRA activist, was arrested in Romania and subsequently deported to Japan.

Strength About 30 hardcore members; undetermined number of sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation Based in Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon; often transits Damascus.

External Aid Unknown.

Jihad Group a.k.a.: al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad, New Jihad Group, Vanguards of Conquest, Tala'i' al Fath

Description An Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s; appears to be divided into at least two separate factions: remnants of the original Jihad led by Abbud al-Zumar, currently imprisoned in Egypt, and a faction calling itself Vanguards of Conquest (Tala'i' al-Fath or the New Jihad Group). The Vanguards of Conquest appears to be led by Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, who is currently outside Egypt. His specific whereabouts are unknown. In addition to the Islamic Group, the Jihad factions regard Sheikh Umar Abd-al Rahman as their spiritual leader. The goal of all Jihad factions is to overthrow the government of President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state.

Activities Specializes in armed attacks against high-level Egyptian Government officials. The original Jihad was responsible for the assassination in 1981 of President Anwar Sadat. Unlike al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya, which mainly targets mid- and lower-level security personnel, Coptic Christians, and Western tourists, the Jihad group appears to concentrate primarily on high-level, high-profile Egyptian Government officials, including cabinet ministers.

Strength Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and another several thousand sympathizers among the various factions.

Location/Area of Operation Operates mainly in the Cairo area. Also appears to have members outside Egypt, probably in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan.

External Aid Not known. The Egyptian Government claims that Iran, Sudan, and militant Islamic groups in Afghanistan support the Jihad factions.

Kach and Kahane Chai

Description Stated goal is to restore the biblical state of Israel. Kach (founded by radical Israeli-American rabbi Meir Kahane) and its offshoot Kahane Chai, which means "Kahane Lives," (founded by Meir Kahane's son Binyamin following his father's assassination in the United States) were declared to be terrorist organizations in March 1994 by the Israeli Cabinet under the 1948 Terrorism Law. This followed the groups' statements in support of Dr. Baruch Goldstein's attack in February 1994 on the al-Ibrahimi MosqueùGoldstein was affiliated with Kachùand their verbal attacks on the Israeli Government.

Activities Organize protests against the Israeli Government. Harass and threaten Palestinians in Hebron and the West Bank. Groups have threatened to attack Arabs, Palestinians, and Israeli Government officials. They also claimed responsibility for several shooting attacks on West Bank Palestinians in which four persons were killed and two were wounded in 1993.

Strength Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation Israel and West Bank settlements, particularly Qiryat Arba' in Hebron.

External Aid Receives support from Jewish people in the United States and Europe.

Khmer Rouge (see The Party of Democratic Kampuchea)

Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

Description Marxist-Leninist insurgent group composed of Turkish Kurds established in 1974. In recent years has moved beyond rural-based insurgent activities to include urban terrorism. Seeks to set up an independent Marxist state in southeastern Turkey, where there is a predominantly Kurdish population.

Activities Primary targets are Turkish Government forces and civilians in eastern Turkey but becoming increasingly active in Western Europe against Turkish targets. Conducted attacks on Turkish diplomatic and commercial facilities in dozens of West European cities in 1993 and again in spring 1995. In an attempt to damage Turkey's tourist industry, they have bombed tourist sites and hotels and have kidnapped foreign tourists.

Strength Approximately 10,000 to 15,000 full-time guerrillas, 5,000 to 6,000 of whom are in Turkey; 60,000 to 75,000 part-time guerrillas; and hundreds of thousands of sympathizers in Turkey and Europe.

Location/Area of Operation Operates in Turkey and Western Europe.

External Aid Receives safehaven and modest aid from Syria, Iraq, and Iran.

Lautaro Youth Movement (MJL)a.k.a.: The Lautaro faction of the United Popular Action Movement (MAPU/L) or Lautaro Popular Rebel Forces (FRPL)

Description Violent, anti-US extremist group that advocates the overthrow of the Chilean Government. Leadership largely from leftist elements but includes criminals and alienated youths. Became active in late 1980s, but has been seriously weakened by government counterterrorist successes in recent years.

Activities Has been linked to assassinations of policemen, bank robberies, and attacks on Mormon churches.

Strength Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation Chile; mainly Santiago.

External Aid None.

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Other known front organizations: World Tamil Association (WTA), World Tamil Movement (WTM), the Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils (FACT), the Ellalan Force

Description Founded in 1976, the LTTE is the most powerful Tamil group in Sri Lanka and uses overt and illegal methods to raise funds, acquire weapons, and publicize its cause of establishing an independent Tamil state. The LTTE began its armed conflict with the Sri Lankan Government in 1983 and relies on a guerrilla strategy that includes the use of terrorist tactics.

Activities The Tigers have integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy with a terrorist program that targets not only key personnel in the countryside but also senior Sri Lankan political and military leaders in Colombo. Political assassinations and bombings have become commonplace. The LTTE has refrained from targeting Western tourists out of fear that foreign governments would crack down on Tamil expatriates involved in fundraising activities abroad.

Strength Approximately 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka; about 3,000 to 6,000 form a trained cadre of fighters. The LTTE also has a significant overseas support structure for fundraising, weapons procurement, and propaganda activities.

Location/Area of Operation The Tigers control most of the northern and eastern coastal areas of Sri Lanka but have conducted operations throughout the island. Headquartered in the Jaffna Peninsula, LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran has established an extensive network of checkpoints and informants to keep track of any outsiders who enter the group's area of control. The LTTE prefers to attack vulnerable government facilities, then withdraw before reinforcements arrive.

External Aid The LTTE's overt organizations support Tamil separatism by lobbying foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also uses its international contacts to procure weapons, communications, and bomb- making equipment. The LTTE exploits large Tamil communities in North America, Europe, and Asia to obtain funds and supplies for its fighters in Sri Lanka. Information obtained since the mid-1980s indicates that some Tamil communities in Europe are also involved in narcotics smuggling. Tamils historically have served as drug couriers moving narcotics into Europe.

Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR)

Description Originally the FPMR was founded in 1983 as the armed wing of the Chilean Communist Party and was named for the hero of Chile's war of independence against Spain. The group splintered into two factions in the late 1980s, and one faction became a political party in 1991. The dissident wing FPMR/D is one of Chile's most active terrorist groups.

Activities The dissident wing FPMR/D frequently attacks civilians and international targets, including US businesses and Mormon churches. In 1993, FPMR/D bombed two McDonalds restaurants and attempted to bomb a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant. Successful government counterterrorist operations have significantly undercut the organization.

Strength Now believed to have fewer than 500 members.

Location/Area of Operation Chile.

External Aid None.

Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO) a.k.a.: The National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA, the militant wing of the MEK), the People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI), National Council of Resistance (NCR), Muslim Iranian Student's Society (front organization used to garner financial support)

Description Formed in the 1960s by the college-educated children of Iranian merchants, the MEK sought to counter what is perceived as excessive Western influence in the Shah's regime. In the 1970s, the MEK concluded that violence was the only way to bring about change in Iran. Since then, the MEKùfollowing a philosophy that mixes Marxism and Islamùhas developed into the largest and most active armed Iranian dissident group. Its history is studded with anti-Western activity, and, most recently, attacks on the interests of the clerical regime in Iran and abroad.

Activities The MEK directs a worldwide campaign against the Iranian Government that stresses propaganda and occasionally uses terrorist violence. During the 1970s, the MEK staged terrorist attacks inside Iran to destabilize and embarrass the Shah's regime; the group killed several US military personnel and civilians working on defense projects in Tehran. The group also supported the takeover in 1979 of the US Embassy in Tehran. In April 1992, the MEK carried out attacks on Iranian embassies in 13 different countries, demonstrating the group's ability to mount large- scale operations overseas.

Strength Several thousand fighters based in Iraq with an extensive overseas support structure. Most of the fighters are organized in the MEK's National Liberation Army (NLA).

Location/Area of Operation In the 1980s, the MEK's leaders were forced by Iranian security forces to flee to France. Most resettled in Iraq by 1987. Since the mid-1980s, the MEK has not mounted terrorist operations in Iran at a level similar to its activities in the 1970s. Aside from the National Liberation Army's attacks into Iran toward the end of the Iran-Iraq war, and occasional NLA cross-border incursions since, the MEK's attacks on Iran have amounted to little more than harassment. The MEK has had more success in confronting Iranian representatives overseas through propaganda and street demonstrations.

External Aid Beyond support from Iraq, the MEK uses front organizations to solicit contributions from expatriate Iranian communities.

MJL (see Lautaro Youth Movement)

Morazanist Patriotic Front (FPM)

Description A radical, leftist terrorist group that first appeared in the late 1980s. Attacks made to protest US intervention in Honduran economic and political affairs.

Activities Attacks on US, mainly military, personnel in Honduras. Claimed responsibility for attack on a bus in March 1990 that wounded seven US servicemen. Claimed bombing of Peace Corps office in December 1988; bus bombing that wounded three US servicemen in February 1989; attack on US convoy in April 1989; and grenade attack that wounded seven US soldiers in La Ceiba in July 1989.

Strength Unknown, probably relatively small.

Location/Area of Operation Honduras.

External Aid Had ties to former Government of Nicaragua and possibly Cuba.

MRTA(see Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement)

National Liberation Army (ELN)ùBolivia includes Nestor Paz Zamora Commission (CNPZ)

Description ELN claims to be resuscitation of group established by Che Guevara in 1960s. Includes numerous small factions of indigenous subversive groups, including CNPZ, which is largely inactive today.

Activities ELN and CNPZ have attacked US interests in past years but more recently has focused almost exclusively on Bolivian domestic targets.

Strength Unknown; probably fewer than 100.

Location/Area of Operation Bolivia.

External Aid None.

National Liberation Army (ELN)ùColombia

Description Rural-based, anti-US, Maoist-Marxist-Leninist guerrilla group formed in 1963. Attempted peace talks with the government ended in May 1992.

Activities Periodically kidnaps foreign employees of large corporations and holds them for large ransom payments. Conducts frequent assaults on oil infrastructure and has inflicted major damage on pipelines. Extortion and bombings against US and other foreign businesses, especially the petroleum industry.

Strength Has fallen off in recent years and now estimated at only about 700 combatants.

Location/Area of Operation Colombia.

External Aid None.

New People's Army (NPA)

Description The guerrilla arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), an avowedly Maoist group formed in December 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare. Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an active urban infrastructure to carry out terrorism; uses city-based assassination squads called sparrow units. Derives most of its funding from contributions of supporters and so-called revolutionary taxes extorted from local businesses.

Activities NPA is in disarray because of a split in the CPP, a lack of money, and successful government operations. With the US military gone from the country, NPA has engaged in urban terrorism against the police, corrupt politicians, and drug traffickers.

Strength 16,000, plus support groups.

Location/Area of Operation Philippines.

External Aid Unknown.

The Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ)

Description The PIJ, which originated among militant Palestinian fundamentalists in the Gaza Strip during the 1970s, is a series of loosely affiliated factions rather than a cohesive group. The PIJ is committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel through holy war. Because of its strong support for Israel, the United States has been identified as an enemy of the PIJ. The PIJ also opposes moderate Arab governments that it believes have been tainted by Western secularism.

Activities PIJ militants have threatened to retaliate against Israel and the United States for the murder of PIJ leader Fathi Shaqaqi in Malta in October 1995. It has carried out suicide bombing attacks against Israeli targets in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel. The PIJ has threatened to attack US interests in Jordan.

Strength Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation Primarily Israel and the occupied territories and other parts of the Middle East, including Jordan and Lebanon. The largest faction is based in Syria.

External Aid Probably receives financial assistance from Iran and possibly some assistance from Syria.

Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)

Description Terrorist group that broke away from the PFLP-GC in mid-1970s. Later split again into pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. Pro-PLO faction led by Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas), who became member of PLO Executive Committee in 1984 but left it in 1991.

Activities The Abu Abbasûled faction has carried out attacks against Israel. Abbas's group was also responsible for the attack in 1985 on the cruise ship Achille Lauro and the murder of US citizen Leon Klinghoffer. A warrant for Abu Abbas's arrest is outstanding in Italy.

Strength At least 50.

Location/Area of Operation PLO faction based in Tunisia until Achille Lauro attack. Now based in Iraq.

External Aid Receives logistic and military support mainly from PLO, but also from Libya and Iraq.

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) On 9 September 1993, in letters to Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and Norwegian Foreign Minister Holst, PLO Chairman Arafat committed the PLO to cease all violence and terrorism. On 13 September 1993, the Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was signed in Washington, DC. We have no information that any PLO element under Arafat's control was involved in terrorism from that time through 1995. (There were two incidents in 1993 in which the responsible individuals apparently acted independently.) One group under the PLO umbrella, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), suspended its participation in the PLO in protest of the agreement and continues its sporadic campaign of violence. The US Government continues to monitor closely PLO compliance with its commitment to abandon terrorism and violence.

The Party of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

Description The Khmer Rouge is a Communist insurgency that is trying to destabilize the Cambodian Government. Under Pol Pot's leadership, the Khmer Rouge conducted a campaign of genocide in which more than 1 million people were killed during its four years in power in the late 1970s.

Activities The Khmer Rouge now is engaged in a low-level insurgency against the Cambodian Government. Although its victims are mainly Cambodian villagers, the Khmer Rouge has occasionally kidnapped and killed foreigners traveling in remote rural areas.

Strength Approximately 8,000 guerrillas.

Location/Area of Operation The Khmer Rouge operates in outlying provinces in Cambodia, particularly in pockets along the Thailand border.

External Aid The Khmer Rouge is not currently receiving external assistance.

PKK (see Kurdistan Workers' Party)

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

Description Marxist-Leninist group founded in 1967 by George Habash as a member of the PLO. Advocates a Pan-Arab revolution. Opposes the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993 and has suspended participation in the PLO.

Activities Committed numerous international terrorist attacks during the 1970s. Since the death in 1978 of Wadi Haddad, its terrorist planner, PFLP has carried out numerous attacks against Israeli or moderate Arab targets.

Strength 800.

Location/Area of Operation Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and the occupied territories.

External Aid Receives most of its financial and military assistance from Syria and Libya.

Popular Front for the Liberation of PalestineûGeneral Command (PFLP-GC)

Description Split from the PFLP in 1968, claiming that it wanted to focus more on fighting and less on politics. Violently opposed to Arafat's PLO. Led by Ahmad Jabril, a former captain in the Syrian Army. Closely allied with, supported by, and probably directed by Syria.

Activities Has carried out numerous cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel using unusual means, such as hot-air balloons and motorized hang gliders.

Strength Several hundred.

Location/Area of Operation Headquartered in Damascus, with bases in Lebanon and cells in Europe.

External Aid Receives logistic and military support from Syria, its chief sponsor; financial support from Libya; safehaven in Syria. Receives support also from Iran.

Popular Front for the Liberation of PalestineûSpecial Command (PFLP-SC)

Description Marxist-Leninist group formed by Abu Salim in 1979 after breaking away from the now-defunct PFLPûSpecial Operations Group.

Activities Has claimed responsibility for several notorious international terrorist attacks in Western Europe, including the bombing of a restaurant frequented by US servicemen in Torrejon, Spain, in April 1985. Eighteen Spanish civilians were killed in the attack.

Strength 50.

Location/Area of Operation Operates out of southern Lebanon, in various areas of the Middle East, and in Western Europe.

External Aid Probably receives financial and military support from Syria, Libya, and Iraq.

Popular Struggle Front (PSF)

Description Radical Palestinian terrorist group once closely involved in the Syrian- dominated Palestinian National Salvation Front. Led by Dr. Samir Ghosheh. Rejoined the PLO in September 1991. Group is internally divided over the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993.

Activities Terrorist attacks against Israeli, moderate Arab, and PLO targets.

Strength Fewer than 300.

Location/Area of Operation Mainly Syria and Lebanon and elsewhere in the Middle East.

External Aid Receives support from Syria and may now receive aid from the PLO.

Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA)a.k.a.: The Provos

Description A radical terrorist group formed in 1969 as the clandestine armed wing of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement dedicated to removing British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Has a Marxist orientation. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council.

Activities Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and robberies. Targets senior British Government officials, British military and police in Northern Ireland, and Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary groups. PIRA's operations on mainland Britain have included bombing campaigns against train and subway stations and shopping areas. Observed cease- fire through all of 1995.

Strength Several hundred, plus several thousand sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, and Western Europe.

External Aid Has received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable training and arms from Libya and, at one time, the PLO. Also is suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in the United States. Similarities in operations suggest links to ETA.

Red Army Faction (RAF)

Description The small and disciplined RAF succeeded the Baader-Meinhof Gang, which originated in the student protest movement in the 1960s. Ideology is an obscure mix of Marxism and Maoism; committed to armed struggle. Organized into hardcore cadres that carry out terrorist attacks and a network of supporters who provide logistic and propaganda support. The group has survived despite numerous arrests of top leaders over the years.

Activities Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and robberies. With decline of world Communism, has had trouble recruiting replacements for jailed members. Now concentrating on domestic targets, particularly officials involved in German or European unification and German security and justice officials. RAF has targeted US and NATO facilities in the past, including during the Gulf war.

Strength 10 to 20, plus several hundred supporters.

Location/Area of Operations Germany.

External Aid Self-sustaining, but during Baader-Meinhof period received support from Middle Eastern terrorists. East Germany gave logistic support, sanctuary, and training during the 1980s.

Red Brigades (BR)

Description Formed in 1969, the Marxist-Leninist BR seeks to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the Western Alliance. In 1984 split into two factions: the Communist Combatant Party (BR-PCC) and the Union of Combatant Communists (BR-UCC).

Activities Original group concentrated on assassination and kidnapping of Italian Government and private-sector targets; it murdered former Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978. Extreme leftist sympathizers have carried out several small-scale terrorist attacks to protest the presence and foreign policies of both the United States and NATO; it kidnapped US Army Brig. Gen. James Dozier in 1981 and claimed responsibility for murdering Leamon Hunt, US chief of the Sinai Multinational Force and Observer Group, in 1984. With limited resources and followers to carry out major terrorist acts, the group is mostly out of business.

Strength Probably fewer than 50, plus an unknown number of supporters.

Location/Area of Operation Based and operates in Italy. Some members probably living clandestinely in other European countries.

External Aid Currently unknown; original group apparently was self-sustaining but probably received weapons from other West European terrorist groups and from the PLO.

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)

Description Established in 1966 as military wing of Colombian Communist Party. Goal is to overthrow government and ruling class. Organized along military lines; includes at least one urban front.

Activities Armed attacks against Colombian political and military targets. Many members have become criminals, carrying out kidnappings for profit and bank robberies. Foreign citizens often are targets of FARC kidnappings. Group traffics in drugs and has well-documented ties to narcotraffickers.

Strength Approximately 4,500 to 5,500 armed combatants and an unknown number of supporters, mostly in rural areas.

Location/Area of Operation Colombia.

External Aid None.

Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November)

Description A radical leftist group established in 1975 and named for the November 1973 student uprising in Greece protesting the military regime. The group is anti-US, anti-Turkish, anti-NATO; committed to violent overthrow of the regime, ouster of US bases, removal of Turkish military presence from Cyprus, and severing of Greece's ties to NATO and the European Union (EU). Organization is obscure, possibly affiliated with other Greek terrorist groups.

Activities Initial attacks were assassinations of senior US officials and Greek public figures. Added bombings in 1980s. Since 1990, has expanded targets to include EU facilities and foreign firms investing in Greece and has added improvised rocket attacks to its methods.

Strength Unknown, but presumed to be small.

Location/Area of Operation Greece, primarily in Athens metropolitan area.

External Aid May receive support from other Greek terrorist group cadres.

Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)a.k.a.: Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left), Dev Sol

Description Originally formed in 1978 as Devrimci Sol, or Dev Sol, it was a splinter faction of the Turkish People's Liberation Party/Front. Renamed in 1994, it still espouses a Marxist ideology, is intensely xenophobic and virulently anti-US and anti-NATO. It seeks to unify the proletariat to stage a national revolution. The group finances its activities chiefly through armed robberies and extortion.

Activities Since the late 1980s, it has concentrated attacks against current and retired Turkish security and military officials. Began a new campaign against foreign interests in 1990. Protesting the Gulf war, it assassinated two US military contractors and wounded a US Air Force officer. Launched rockets at US Consulate in Istanbul in April and July 1992. Recent terrorist activities have been less ambitious as the group works to recover from internal factionalism and police raids that netted several operatives and large weapons caches.

Strength Several hundred members, several dozen armed militants.

Location/Area of Operation Carries out attacks in Turkey, primarily in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and Adana. Conducts fundraising operations in Western Europe.

External Aid Possible training support from radical Palestinians.ELN (see National Liberation Army).

Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path, SL)

Description Larger of Peru's two insurgencies, SL is among the world's most ruthless guerrilla organizations. Formed in the late 1960s by then university professor Abimael Guzman. Stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with peasant revolutionary regime. Also wants to rid Peru of foreign influences. Guzman's capture in September 1992 was a major blow, as have been arrests of other SL leaders in 1995, defections, and President Fujimori's amnesty program for repentant terrorists.

Activities Engages in particularly brutal forms of terrorism, including the indiscriminate use of bombs. Almost every institution in Peru has been a target of SL violence. Has bombed diplomatic missions of several countries in Peru. Carries out bombing campaigns and selective assassinations. Involved in cocaine trade.

Strength Approximately 1,500 to 2,500 armed militants; larger number of supporters, mostly in rural areas.

Location/Area of Operation Originally rural based, but has increasingly focused its terrorist attacks in the capital.

External Aid None.

17 November (see Revolutionary Organization 17 November)

Sikh Terrorism

Description Sikh terrorism is sponsored by expatriate and Indian Sikh groups who want to carve out an independent Sikh state called Khalistan (Land of the Pure) from Indian territory. Active groups include Babbar Khalsa, Azad Khalistan Babbar Khalsa Force, Khalistan Liberation Front, and Khalistan Commando Force. Many of these groups operate under umbrella organizations, the most significant of which is the Second Panthic Committee.

Activities Sikh attacks in India are mounted against Indian officials and facilities, other Sikhs, and Hindus; they include assassinations, bombings, and kidnappings. These attacks have dropped markedly since mid-1992, as Indian security forces have killed or captured a host of senior Sikh militant leaders. Total civilian deaths in Punjab have declined more than 95 percent since more than 3,300 civilians died in 1991. The drop results largely from Indian Army, paramilitary, and police successes against extremist groups.

Strength Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation Northern India, Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America.

External Aid Sikh militant cells are active internationally and extremists gather funds from overseas Sikh communities. Sikh expatriates have formed a variety of international organizations that lobby for the Sikh cause overseas. Most prominent are the World Sikh Organization and the International Sikh Youth Federation.

Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)

Description Traditional Marxist-Leninist revolutionary movement formed in 1983. Currently struggling to remain viable. Has suffered from defections and government counterterrorist successes in addition to infighting and loss of leftist support. Objective remains to rid Peru of imperialism and establish Marxist regime.

Activities Bombings, kidnappings, ambushes, assassinations. Previously responsible for large number of anti-US attacks; recent activity has dropped off dramatically. Most members have been jailed.

Strength Unknown; greatly diminished in recent years.

Location/Area of Operation Peru; provided assistance in Bolivia to Bolivian ELN.

External Aid None.

Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army (EGTK)

Description Indigenous, anti-Western Bolivian subversive organization.

Activities Frequently attacks small, unprotected targets, such as power pylons, oil pipelines, and government offices. Has targeted Mormon churches with firebombings and attacked USAID motorpool in 1993.

Strength Fewer than 100.

Location/Area of Operation Bolivia, primarily the Chapare region, near the Peru border, and the Altiplano.

External Aid None.


[End of Document]

Blue Bar

Patterns of Global Terrorism Contents